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Individual's beliefs about and confidence in his ability to perform a certain behavior or take action


  1. Individual's beliefs about and confidence in his ability to perform a certain behavior or take action. Self-efficacy influences what behaviors we choose to perform, the amount of effort we expend on performing those behaviors, how long we persist in performing a behavior, and how we feel about particular behaviors. Self-efficacy is developed through direct or vicarious experience, verbal or social persuasion, and physiological reactions/feedback. Perceived self-efficacy is a concept common to many theories of Health Behavior, but is most directly related to Social Cognitive Theory.
  2. Individual's beliefs about how serious a disease or its physical and social consequences are. "Perceived severity" is a key construct of the Health Belief Model.
  3. Individual's beliefs about how vulnerable, or at risk, he or she is to getting a particular disease or of being affected by a particular health outcome. "Perceived susceptibility" is a key construct of the Health Belief Model.
  4. Combination of perceived severity and perceived susceptibility. An individual's beliefs about his perceived susceptibility to a disease and the perceived severity of that disease combine to form his overall beliefs about the level of threat that disease poses for him.
  5. Implementing a program or program components on a smaller scale, in a setting similar to where the program will be fully implemented and with a population similar to the planned target population. Pilot testing allows program planners to identify and correct problems with the intervention strategies before they are fully implemented.
  6. Actions or endeavors individuals or groups engage in in order to alter public opinion in favor or in opposition to a certain policy."
  7. Community health methods that are used to help change behavior in groups of people." Population-based approaches use a defined community or population as their organizing principle for preventive action over individuals, and they focus on addressing population-level processes that influence health. Population-based approaches include policy development and advocacy, organizational change, community development and empowerment.
  8. Most well-known health program planning model. In PRECEDE-PROCEED a program planner begins by identifying the desired outcome of the program and working backwards to discover strategies for reaching that outcome. PRECEDE stands for p redisposing, r einforcing and e nabling c onstructs in e ducational/ecological d iagnosis and e valuation, and includes various stages of assessment and planning. PROCEED stands for p olicy, r egulatory, and o rganizational c onstructs in e ducational and e nvironmental d evelopment and deals mainly with program implementation and evaluation.
  9. Phase 1, social assessment and situational analysis, involves engaging the target population to identify general indicators of quality of life. Phase 2, epidemiological assessment, includes identifying specific health goals or problems that contribute to or interact with the social goals or problems identified in phase 1. Phase 3, behavioral and environmental assessment, involves identifying and prioritizing behavioral and environmental determinants of the specific health problems identified in phase 2. Phase 4, educational and ecological assessment, includes identifying and prioritizing predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors that are related to the behavioral and environmental determinants. " Predisposing factors include a person's or population's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values and perceptions that facilitate or hinder motivation for change." Reinforcing factors are "the rewards received and the feedback the learner receives from others following adoption of a behavior." " Enabling factors are those skills, resources or barriers that can help or hinder the desired behavioral changes as well as environmental changes." Phase 5, intervention alignment and administrative and policy assessment, involves "intervention matching, mapping, and patching" to determine which program components and activities are needed to target the factors identified in the previous stages and determining whether or not the program has the policy, organizational and administrative capacity to do them. In phase 6, implementation occurs. Phase 7 includes process evaluation, phase 8 includes impact evaluation, and phase 9 includes outcome evaluation.
  10. Characteristics or variables that predict or otherwise help to explain a particular behavioral, health or other outcome

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