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Homework answers / question archive / 1) Normal visual sensation in the absence of complete visual perception is best illustrated by  A) prosopagnosia

1) Normal visual sensation in the absence of complete visual perception is best illustrated by  A) prosopagnosia

Psychology

1) Normal visual sensation in the absence of complete visual perception is best illustrated by

 A) prosopagnosia.

 B) priming.

 C) the difference threshold.

 D) sensory adaptation.

 

 

 2. The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the sensory receptors and the nervous system is called

 A) priming.

 B) sensory adaptation.

 C) top-down processing.

 D) sensation.

 

 

 3. Jake's excellent peripheral vision enabled him to detect a brief flash of light far to his left, even though he couldn't recognize what he had seen. His experience best illustrates

 A) top-down processing.

 B) prosopagnosia.

 C) sensation.

 D) priming.

 

 

 4. Perception is the process by which

 A) stimulus energies are detected.

 B) stimulus energies are transformed into neural activity.

 C) sensory input is organized and interpreted.

 D) nerve cells respond to specific features of a stimulus.

 

 

 5. Recognizing an odor as the familiar smell of apple blossoms is an example of

 A) perception.

 B) prosopagnosia.

 C) sensory adaptation.

 D) subliminal stimulation.

 

 

 6. Sensation is to ________ as perception is to ________.

 A) encoding; detection

 B) detection; interpretation

 C) interpretation; organization

 D) organization; accommodation

 

 

 7. Hearing a sequence of sounds of different pitches is to ________ as recognizing the sound sequence as a familiar melody is to ________.

 A) absolute threshold; difference threshold

 B) sensory adaptation; signal detection

 C) signal detection; sensory adaptation

 D) sensation; perception

 

 

 8. Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the

 A) hypothalamus.

 B) sensory receptors.

 C) cerebral cortex.

 D) absolute threshold.

 

 

 9. Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes is called

 A) prosopagnosia.

 B) signal detection.

 C) top-down processing.

 D) transduction.

 

 

 10. Berdine has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to identify even her mother's face. Berdine most clearly suffers a deficiency in

 A) priming.

 B) perceptual set.

 C) bottom-up processing.

 D) sensory adaptation.

 

 

 11. Patients who have negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure may experience increased postoperative pain. This best illustrates the importance of

 A) subliminal stimulation.

 B) sensory adaptation.

 C) difference thresholds.

 D) top-down processing.

 

 

 12. Three steps that are basic to all sensory systems include the ________ of information to the brain.

 A) adaptation, context, and set

 B) receiving, transforming, and delivering

 C) priming, grouping, and masking

 D) signal detection, transduction, and sensory adaptation

 

 

 13. Which of the following represents the very first of three steps basic to all sensory systems?

 A) forming perceptual sets

 B) delivering neural information to the brain

 C) receiving sensory stimulation

 D) transforming stimulus energies into neural impulses

 

 

 14. The process by which our sensory systems transform stimulus energies into neural impulses is called

 A) priming.

 B) sensory adaptation.

 C) transduction.

 D) signal detection.

 

 

 15. The conversion of a fresh coffee aroma into neural impulses by sensory receptor cells best illustrates

 A) top-down processing.

 B) transduction.

 C) sensory adaptation.

 D) priming.

 

 

 16. Pain receptors trigger neural impulses in response to a sprain or a burn. This illustrates

 A) priming.

 B) transduction.

 C) subliminal stimulation.

 D) sensory adaptation.

 

 

 17. The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is called

 A) transduction.

 B) signal detection.

 C) psychophysics.

 D) Weber's law.

 

 

 18. A psychophysicist would be most directly concerned with

 A) our psychological reactions to physical stress.

 B) the effects of heredity on the endocrine system.

 C) the effect of neurotransmitters on depression.

 D) the relationship between the wavelength of light and the experience of color.

 

 

 19. The minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the

 A) masking stimulus.

 B) just noticeable difference.

 C) perceptual set.

 D) absolute threshold.

 

 

 20. Which early scientist and philosopher was the first to refer to our awareness of very faint stimuli as an indication of our absolute thresholds?

 A) Anthony Greenwald

 B) Gustav Fechner

 C) Dennis Proffitt

 D) Ernst Weber

 

 

 21. During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr. Antall could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr. Antall's

 A) perceptual set.

 B) absolute threshold.

 C) prosopagnosia.

 D) difference threshold.

 

 

 22. If a partially deaf person's hearing ability ________, his or her absolute threshold for sound ________.

 A) improves; remains unchanged

 B) worsens; decreases

 C) worsens; remains unchanged

 D) improves; decreases

 

 

 23. Which theory predicts when we will first notice a faint stimulus presented amid competing background stimulation?

 A) place theory

 B) frequency theory

 C) signal-detection theory

 D) opponent-process theory

 

 

 24. Which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute thresholds?

 A) signal detection theory

 B) frequency theory

 C) opponent-process theory

 D) place theory

 

 

 25. Which theory would suggest that watching a horror movie late at night could lower your absolute threshold for sound as you subsequently tried to fall asleep?

 A) place theory

 B) opponent-process theory

 C) frequency theory

 D) signal detection theory

 

 

 26. Lonely, anxious people at speed-dating events respond with a ________ threshold, and thus tend to be ________ in reaching out to potential dates.

 A) low; unselective

 B) high; unselective

 C) low; overly selective

 D) high; overly selective

 

 

 27. Priming refers to the activation of certain

 A) blind spots.

 B) difference thresholds.

 C) nerve cells.

 D) associations.

 

 

 28. In experiments, an image is quickly flashed and then replaced by a masking stimulus that inhibits conscious perception of the original image. In these experiments, the researchers are studying the effects of

 A) sensory adaptation.

 B) the just noticeable difference.

 C) priming.

 D) prosopagnosia.

 

 

 29. After a photo of a nude man or woman was flashed and immediately masked before being perceived, people's attention was unconsciously drawn to images in a way that reflected their

 A) perceptual set.

 B) absolute threshold.

 C) sexual orientation.

 D) difference threshold.

 

 

 30. Tyler formed a positive first impression of a new teacher because her facial expressions triggered memories of his favorite aunt. This best illustrates the impact of

 A) priming.

 B) prosopagnosia.

 C) sensory adaptation.

 D) Weber's law.

 

 

 31. People's response to subliminal priming indicates that

 A) they are capable of processing information without any conscious awareness of doing so.

 B) their unconscious minds are incapable of resisting subliminally presented suggestions.

 C) they are more sensitive to subliminal sounds than to subliminal sights.

 D) they experience a sense of discomfort whenever they are exposed to subliminal stimuli.

 

 

 32. A subliminal message is one that is presented

 A) below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.

 B) in a manner that is unconsciously persuasive.

 C) with very soft background music.

 D) repetitiously.

 

 

 33. Subliminally presented stimuli

 A) can sometimes be consciously perceived.

 B) effectively influence purchases of consumer goods.

 C) increase our absolute thresholds for visual images.

 D) are usually mentally processed as completely as any other stimuli.

 

 

 34. Which of the following strategies best illustrates the use of subliminal stimulation?

 A) A store plays a musical soundtrack in which a faint and imperceptible verbal warning against shoplifting is repeated frequently.

 B) The laughter of a studio audience is dubbed into the soundtrack of a televised situation comedy.

 C) A radio advertiser repeatedly smacks her lips before biting into a candy bar.

 D) An unseen television narrator repeatedly suggests that you are thirsty while a cold drink is visually displayed on the screen.

 

 

 35. Experiments evaluating the impact of subliminal self-help recordings for improving memory indicated that they

 A) interfere with people's capacity for sensory adaptation.

 B) did not help more than a placebo.

 C) improve people's capacity for transduction.

 D) have a positive long-lasting impact on people's health.

 

 

 36. The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time is called

 A) signal detection.

 B) the absolute threshold.

 C) perceptual set.

 D) the just noticeable difference.

 

 

 37. Jennifer can tune her guitar more effectively than Maria because Jennifer is better at detecting whether specific strings are playing too sharp or too flat. With respect to tone sensitivity, Maria apparently has a ________ threshold than does Jennifer.

 A) lower absolute

 B) higher absolute

 C) smaller difference

 D) larger difference

 

 

 38. The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as

 A) prosopagnosia.

 B) Weber's law.

 C) signal detection.

 D) sensory adaptation.

 

 

 39. Giulio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates

 A) bottom-up processing.

 B) perceptual set.

 C) sensory adaptation.

 D) Weber's law.

 

 

 40. Sensory adaptation refers to

 A) the process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural impulses.

 B) diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.

 C) the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information.

 D) the effect of our expectations on perception.

 

 

 41. After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates

 A) Weber's law.

 B) subliminal stimulation.

 C) sensory adaptation.

 D) prosopagnosia.

 

 

 42. The constant quivering movements of our eyes enable us to

 A) focus the light on the back of our eyes.

 B) adjust the amount of light entering our eyes.

 C) minimize sensory adaptation.

 D) do all of these things.

 

 

 43. After gazing at an angry face, you immediately turn to look at a morphed blend of an angry and a scared face. The face appears scared to you. This best illustrates the impact of

 A) Weber's law.

 B) sensory adaptation.

 C) subliminal sensation.

 D) prosopagnosia.

 

 

 44. A perceptual set refers to

 A) an unnoticed image that activates certain associated memories.

 B) an inability to recognize familiar faces or voices.

 C) a diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.

 D) a mental predisposition that influences what we perceive.

 

 

 45. After learning that her new college roommate had experienced several depressive episodes during her high school years, Erin incorrectly perceived her roommate's laughter as artificial and phony. This best illustrates the impact of

 A) difference thresholds.

 B) perceptual set.

 C) subliminal persuasion.

 D) prosopagnosia.

 

 

 46. When researchers added a few drops of vinegar to a brand-name beer, the beer tasters disliked it only if they had been told they were drinking vinegar-laced beer. This best illustrates the impact of

 A) sensory adaptation.

 B) prosopagnosia.

 C) perceptual set.

 D) subliminal stimulation.

 

 

 47. After hearing rumors about the outbreak of an infectious disease, Alyosha began to perceive his normal aches and pains as disease-related symptoms. His reaction best illustrates the impact of

 A) difference thresholds.

 B) sensory adaptation.

 C) subliminal stimulation.

 D) perceptual set.

 

 

 48. The tendency to perceive a moving light in the night sky as belonging to an airplane rather than a moving meteor best illustrates the impact of

 A) signal detection.

 B) sensory adaptation.

 C) perceptual set.

 D) bottom-up processing.

 

 

 49. A concept that helps us to interpret ambiguous sensations is called a

 A) sensory adaptation.

 B) schema.

 C) signal detector.

 D) masking stimulus.

 

 

 50. The influence of schemas on our interpretations of unfamiliar information best illustrates

 A) context effects.

 B) top-down processing.

 C) bottom-up processing.

 D) sensory adaptation.

 

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