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Homework answers / question archive / Chapter 5: Medical Technology 1)At a fundamental level, medical technology deals with     production of new equipment to provide more advanced health care

Chapter 5: Medical Technology 1)At a fundamental level, medical technology deals with     production of new equipment to provide more advanced health care

Health Science

Chapter 5: Medical Technology

1)At a fundamental level, medical technology deals with    

    1. production of new equipment to provide more advanced health care.         
    2. the application of scientific knowledge for improving health and creating efficiencies.      
    3. using discoveries made in basic sciences to deliver health care.        
    4. new drugs, devices, and biologics.


  1. What is the main advantage of interoperability within an electronic health records (EHR) system?
    1. Information can be transmitted over the Internet.     
    2. Information can be safeguarded.       
    3. Information can be coordinated with clinical practice guidelines.    
    4. Information can be shared between physicians, pharmacists, and hospitals.


  1. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requires   
    1. large health care organizations to switch to electronic health records.          
    2. protection of personal health information.     
    3. nondisclosure of personal health information.           
    4. nontransmittal of individual health information over the Internet.


  1. Telemedicine technology that allows a specialist located at a distance to directly interview and examine a patient is referred to as     
    1. telehealth        
    2. simultaneous  
    3. analogous       
    4. synchronous


  1. The asynchronous form of telemedicine uses _____ technology.     
    1. store-and-forward      
    2. access-when-needed  
    3. delayed-access
    4. forward-and-retrieve


  1. The expectations that Americans have about what medical technology can do to cure illness is based on       
    1. the technological imperative  
    2. cultural beliefs and values      
    3. a higher rate of technology diffusion in the US compared to other countries          
    4. medical specialization


  1. What is the main intent of the Stark laws?    
    1. Require that personal health information be kept confidential          
    2. Require demonstration of cost-efficiency of new technology          
    3. Prohibit self-referral by physicians to facilities in which they have an ownership interest   
    4. Disclosure of potential harm from a procedure or device


  1. Supply-side rationing.
    1. Curtailment in governing funding for medical research        
    2. Managed care 
    3. Curtailment in payments for new technology
    4. Central planning


  1. Certain allergy medications containing pseudoephedrine are available without prescription, but must be kept behind the pharmacy counter and sold only in limited quantities upon verification of a person's identity.          
    1. Food and Drugs Act, 1906    
    2. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938
    3. Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962   
    4. Patriot Act 2006


  1. The FDA was given the authority to review the effectiveness and safety of a new drug before it could be marketed.  
    1. Food and Drugs Act, 1906    
    2. Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992           
    3. Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962   
    4. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938


  1. This law was criticized for slowing down the introduction of new drugs.   
    1. Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992           
    2. Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962   
    3. Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, 1997    
    4. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938


  1. This law provided incentives for pharmaceutical firms to develop new drugs for health problems that affected a relatively small number of people.
    1. Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992           
    2. Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962   
    3. Orphan Drug Act, 1983         
    4. Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, 1997


  1. This made additional resources available to the FDA, and resulted in a shortened approval process for new drugs.     
    1. Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962   
    2. Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, 1997    
    3. Orphan Drug Act, 1983         
    4. Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992


  1. The most stringent requirements of premarket approval regarding safety and effectiveness apply to _____ devices
    1. Class I
    2. Class II           
    3. Class III         
    4. Class IV


  1. The Safe Medical Devices Act, 1990 requires           
    1. that injuries, illness, or death from any device be reported.  
    2. premarket approval of devices.          
    3. safety testing of devices before and after they have been marketed
    4. that all problems and potential problems be reported to the FDA.


  1. What was the purpose of certificate of need (CON) laws.   
    1. Monitor the diffusion of new technology.    
    2. Control the flow of federal funds for private projects          
    3. Control new health service programs 
    4. Control new construction and modernization projects


  1. Which department of the DHHS supports research on health care quality, cost, and access?          
    1. National Institutes of Health 
    2. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
    3. Institute of Medicine 
    4. American Health Quality Assocation


  1. What is the main function of the National Institutes of Health?      
    1. Conduct and support research on health care quality, cost, and access        
    2. Establish medical subspecialties in US medical schools        
    3. Provide specialized training for medical specialists   
    4. Conduct and support biomedical research


  1. Which of the following has the greatest impact on system-wide health care costs? 
    1. Purchase price of new technology     
    2. Utilization of technology once it becomes available 
    3. Increased hospitalizations due to overuse of technology      
    4. Training costs associated with new technology


  1. Evaluation of the appropriateness of medical technology.    
    1. Cost-effectiveness     
    2. Health technology assessment           
    3. Clinical trial    
    4. Efficacy


  1. In technology assessment, what role do clinical trials play?  
    1. They are used for experimentation with potentially useful drugs     
    2. They are used for establishing the rights of participants       
    3. They are used for determining cost-effectiveness     
    4. They are used for evaluating efficacy and safety


  1. What is the role of an institutional review board (IRB)?      
    1. Establish guidelines for the method of conducting research 
    2. Verify the results of clinical trials      
    3. Approve and monitor research that involves human subjects
    4. All of the above


  1. Without the information on _____, it is almost impossible to know a technology’s usefulness.      
    1. Quality
    2. Cost-efficiency          
    3. Cost-benefit   
    4. Efficacy


  1. Cost-efficiency evaluates marginal benefits in relation to     
    1. marginal safety           
    2. marginal costs
    3. flat of the curve         
    4. outcomes


  1. Generally, at the start of medical treatment  
    1. benefits exceed costs 
    2. cost-efficiency is minimum    
    3. costs exceed benefits 
    4. safety is not a major concern


  1. The point at which marginal benefits equal marginal costs.  
    1. Flat of the curve         
    2. Minimum cost-efficiency       
    3. Optimum point           
    4. Equal intensity


  1. At the flat of the curve,         
    1. marginal benefits are zero      
    2. marginal costs are the highest
    3. additional medical treatment is harmful        
    4. maximum cost-efficiency is achieved


  1. Health technology assessment in the US is conducted primarily by 
    1. various government agencies 
    2. the NIH          
    3. the FDA         
    4. the private sector


  1. What is the main application of quality-adjusted life years?
    1. They are used as a measure of health benefits           
    2. They are used to determine how long on an average a person is likely to live if a given technology is indicated for a health condition          
    3. They are used to evaluate the ethical dimension of technology        
    4. They are used as indicators of the economic worth of technology


  1. Benchmarking of HTA organizations should be linked with
    1. cost effectiveness of medical technology      
    2. coordination of HTA efforts across various organizations    
    3. standardization of HTA methods      
    4. evaluation of economic worth



True or False


  1. The term e-health applies only to the electronic delivery of health care by qualified health care professionals.


  1. The United States controls the diffusion of medical technology through central planning.


  1. American beliefs and values favor the development and use of new medical technology despite its cost.


  1. In the US, both patients and practitioners generally equate high-quality care with high-intensity care.


  1. Managed care has been found to limit useful technology, leading to negative health outcomes.


  1. The ACA of 2010 has provisions to allow the development of generic-like versions of biologics.


  1. All technological innovations used in the delivery of medical care increase costs.


  1. Thanks to technology, HIV/AIDS has become a chronic disease.


  1. The utilization of technology has a greater impact on total health care expenditures than the cost of acquiring technology.


  1. Technology has been credited with the overall reduction in the average length of inpatient hospital stays.


  1. The ACA of 2010 imposes an excise tax on the sale of certain medical devices.


  1. Decision making based on cost effectiveness about the use of medical technology is more prevalent in the US than in other industrialized countries.



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