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Create a 6 pages page paper that discusses treatment options of bipolar disorder


Create a 6 pages page paper that discusses treatment options of bipolar disorder. Johnson & Leahy report that in one survey an average of 8 years passed between the onset of symptoms and accurate diagnosis (p.4).

Bipolar disorder presents itself most commonly in late adolescence and early adulthood and is “recurrent, chronic, and the sixth leading cause of disability for people age 15 to 44” (Corcoran & Walsh, p.381). In order for a diagnosis of bipolar to be made, periods of mania and depression must be present. These episodes will vary in their magnitude which is why DSM-IV-TR has included several types and subtypes of this disorder. These will be discussed in an overview later in this paper. Common signs of mania include feelings of euphoria and inflated self-esteem which may lead the person to believe he or she is invincible. With this mindset, the person often engages in harmful behaviors such as excessive spending, risky sexual encounters, and reckless driving. A decreased need for sleep and racing thoughts give this person ample opportunity to do maximum damage in a minimum amount of time. Depressive episodes may include fatigue and apathy, low self-esteem, decreased interest in activities, or people that the patient would otherwise be enthusiastic about. Feelings of sadness, helplessness, and even guilt are likely to result in suicidal feelings or attempts (

Bipolar disorder is an Axis I diagnosis. Bipolar I requires a single lifetime manic episode where depression is not a major consideration. The mania may present as described above, but may also be any major mood change such as increased irritability or quickness to anger. In addition to a drastic mood change, at least three of the following symptoms must also be present for a minimum of 1 week or require hospitalization. These symptoms include “inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, pressured speech, a flight of ideas or racing thoughts, distractibility, increased&nbsp.goal-directed activity, and increased involvement in pleasurable activities with a high potential for negative consequences”.

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