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1. How do school administrators typically view the cause of students’ behavior problems and what impact does this have on interventions used in the schools?

2.  Effective interventions typically employ what kinds of strategies?

3. Briefly describe the basic assumptions/approaches of the four broad categories of behavioral interventions.(4 pts)



4. When compared to traditional psychotherapy models, how do behaviorally-based models measure up empirically?

5. Differentiate between “efficacy” and “effectiveness”

6. What implications does this (# 5) have for the translation of research into practice?
7. In considering intervention choices, Gresham cites a medical analogy by Walker (2004)….what is the meaning of this analogy?

Note: Gresham was the first person (in school psychology) to describe “RTI”,  long before it became popular – see Gresham (1991) in the References section of the article.

8. In the section “Matching Intensity of Intervention to Problem Severity”, Gresham essentially describes a generic RTI model…describe (don’t just list) each “level” in that model, and differentiate among the varying levels of behavioral intervention in each. (6 pts)

9. Gresham goes on to describe RTI more in dept in the section “Response to Intervention as a Basis for Selecting Interventions”. Using this section, describe how RTI works. (3 pts.)

10. What are the advantages of RTI? Briefly describe each. (6 pts)

11. One of these advantages (in # 10) is treatment validity. Describe the most salient characteristics of treatment validity. (2 pts)


Note: Gresham was also the first (in school psychology) to address the issue of “treatment integrity” - see Gresham (1989), of the reference section of the article.

12. To what does the term “treatment integrity” refer, and on what does TI focus? (2 pts)

13. Why is treatment integrity an issue in school settings?

14. The degree to which treatments/interventions are implemented as intended is determined by what factors? (3 pts)

15. Briefly describe the process/assumptions of the Heartland Model of RTI. (5 pts)

16. Differentiate between a functional behavior assessment and a functional behavior analysis. (2 pts)

17. What was point of the study of the JABA meta-analytic articles done by Gresham, McIntyre, et a. (2014)?

18. What did Gresham, McIntyre, et al. (2004) and Didden, Duker & Korzilius (1997)  find?


19. What did Didden, Duker and Korzilius(1997) find in their meta-analysis, and how do these findings compare to comprehensive reviews of the similar literature? (2 pts.)

20. As a result of this literature and its implications, what are the FBA recommendations made by Braden & Kratochwill(1997)? (3 pts)

21. What is the best predictor of behavioral consultation outcomes?


22. What are meant by “social validity” (Wolf, 1978) and “habilitative validity”(Hawkins, 1991)? How are they different, according to Hawkins? (3 pts)

23. Social validity has implications for teacher consultation. What are the issues here? (2 pts)

24. Gresham and Lopez (1996) make several recommendations for socially validating behavioral interventions in schools – summarize these. (5 pts.)


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