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Homework answers / question archive / Wake Tech PSY 150 Chapter 10 Health and Well-Being Test Bank Psychology in Your Life MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)Health psychologists investigate the absence of disease

Wake Tech PSY 150 Chapter 10 Health and Well-Being Test Bank Psychology in Your Life MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)Health psychologists investigate the absence of disease


Wake Tech

PSY 150

Chapter 10 Health and Well-Being

Test Bank Psychology in Your Life


1)Health psychologists investigate

    1. the absence of disease.
    2. personal reports of health.
    3. theories instead of experimental research.
    4. promoting health and well-being.



  1. Research suggests that the average adult smoker, compared with the nonsmoker,
    1. is likely to live about a decade less.
    2. underestimates the number of people who smoke.
    3. did not try cigarettes until college.
    4. overestimates the number of health problems he has.



  1. According to the textbook, being encouraged by peers and enhancing one’s self-image are reasons why people
    1. eat too much.
    2. engage in emotional coping.
    3. start smoking.
    4. develop a Type A personality.



  1. Which of the following conditions is an effect of chronic smoking?
    1. liver failure
    2. immune disorders
    3. heart disease
    4. brain tumors


  1. Evidence suggests that some individuals are more prone to become regular smokers than are others. One factor involves
    1. a greater tendency to have acetylcholine pathways in the brain.
    2. a cascade of HPA activation.
    3. parents and peers who smoke.
    4. the absence of antidrug programs in school.



  1. Approximately how many teenagers who start smoking will continue smoking into adulthood?
    1. 10 percent
    2. 30 percent
    3. 50 percent
    4. 80 percent



  1. Sarah is trying to be the healthiest person she can possibly be and feel satisfied with life.

Sarah is focusing on her

    1. health psychology.
    2. well-being.
    3. health empowerment.
    4. self-control.



  1. Jamie has an older brother who smokes. Jamie is


    1. less likely to start smoking than other kids.
    2. more likely to start smoking than other kids.
    3. no more and no less likely to start smoking than other kids.
    4. more likely to be a problem drinker, whether or not he smokes.



  1. Health psychologists investigate how genetics, behaviors, and social support impact health. This approach of focusing on multiple areas to understand health and well-being is central to the          model.
    1. medical
    2. biopsychosocial
    3. healthy habits
    4. interactive model



  1. Compared with the medical model of health, the biopsychosocial model approach to health and well-being
    1. includes more variables.
    2. ignores human biology.
    3. is rarely used in practice.
    4. does not focus on illness.



  1. Dr. Arzun is using the biopsychosocial model as a frame of reference for understanding heart disease. Based on this, she will most likely recommend that a client with heart disease uses

                            to treat the illness.

    1. medication
    2. exercise
    3. medication and surgery
    4. medication and exercise



  1. Dr. Haverford suggests to her client that her mood problems stem from problems with the neurotransmitter serotonin. Dr. Haverford mentions nothing about social or behavioral factors that may be related to mood. To understand her client’s problems, Dr. Haverford seems to be using the
    1. interdisciplinary model.
    2. behaviorist model.
    3. biopsychosocial model.
    4. medical model.


  1. Aline is sitting in a physician’s office and has just been told that a nurse will be coming in to measure her BMI. Aline is not familiar with the term “BMI” and starts to panic. How should her mother reassure her about BMI tests?
    1. “Do not worry; all they need is a urine test.”
    2. “BMI needles are very small and do not hurt at all.”
    3. “Do not be afraid, they just need to listen to your lungs.”


    1. “Relax, they are just going to measure your height and weight.”


  1. A BMI should be calculated before you can accurately conclude that a person is
    1. depressed.
    2. obese.
    3. a smoker.
    4. malnourished.



  1. After finishing six pieces of toast with butter, Sally prepares a batch of brownies while eating large bowls of ice cream, yogurt, and cottage cheese. She then eats a half a bag of cookies, a full pizza, and three baked potatoes, even though she does not feel hungry. After eating, she feels guilty, ashamed, and sad but does not vomit or make any other efforts to eliminate the calories she consumed. Sally appears to meet criteria for
    1. anorexia nervosa.
    2. bulimia nervosa.
    3. binge-eating disorder.
    4. restrictive dieting.



  1. If people did not possess dopamine neurons, addiction to nicotine would be
    1. less likely.
    2. more likely.
    3. unaffected.
    4. strong at first and weak later.



  1. If cigarettes contained no nicotine, the brain’s dopamine neurons would be
    1. overstimulated by smoking.
    2. less affected by smoking.
    3. inhibited by smoking.
    4. easily activated at first but inactive after the first cigarette.



  1. LaShawna has no siblings, and her parents do not smoke. Jayda has an older brother and mother who smoke. Who would be more likely to start smoking, and why?
    1. LaShawna, because her dopamine neurons are more sensitive to nicotine.
    2. LaShawna, because smoking would be a novel and exciting experience.
    3. Jayda, because her family members act as role models for smoking.
    4. Both girls are equally likely to start smoking.



  1. Thoughts and behaviors affect the environment. The environment affects human biology. In turn, biology affects behavior. This description fits the
    1. medical model.
    2. social model.
    3. behaviorist model.


    1. biopsychosocial model.


  1. Which of the following are major risk factors for heart disease?
    1. smoking, medication, and genetics
    2. smoking, prior surgeries, and genetics
    3. prior surgeries, medication, and genetics
    4. lack of exercise, smoking, and obesity



  1. Which of the following is true about being very overweight? Being overweight is
    1. primarily linked to personality.
    2. a major health problem in contemporary society.
    3. primarily a result of overeating.
    4. primarily a result of genetic factors.


  1. Research in different cultural contexts reveals that obesity is
    1. stigmatized in some of them and respected in others.
    2. universally rejected and devalued.
    3. associated with lower economic status, particularly in developing countries.
    4. positively associated with social status in most cultures.



  1. Which of the following statements is true about dieting behavior?
    1. Dieting is largely successful in dealing with weight problems if it can be maintained for long periods of time.
    2. Dieting is typically counterproductive for long-term weight loss.
    3. Dieting often works for males but is less effective for females.
    4. Dieting is on the decline in developed countries.


  1. If people in other countries become more like Americans in their eating and exercise habits, one day those countries’ obesity rates will be close to                                                    percent.
    1. 10
    2. 30
    3. 50
    4. 70



  1. For which of the following groups would an eating disorder, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, be most typical?
    1. teenage African American girls
    2. race and class are not important risk factors for these conditions
    3. teenage Asian women
    4. college-age white women



  1. The body mass index (BMI) of an adopted child will show                                       to the BMI of the adoptive parents and                              to the BMI of the biological parents.
    1. similarity; similarity
    2. similarity; dissimilarity
    3. dissimilarity; similarity
    4. dissimilarity; dissimilarity



  1. Dieting as a method of controlling weight has proved ineffective in part because
    1. weight gain occurs more rapidly after each episode of dieting is terminated.
    2. the diet causes metabolism to increase such that the body becomes highly efficient in using the calories that are available.
    3. the body lacks a set point for regulating weight.
    4. most people have a set point that is set too high.



  1. A study described in your textbook showed that when normal people are malnourished for a prolonged period of time, they
    1. gain 100 or more pounds when they go back to normal eating.
    2. permanently stay thin and find it hard to gain back the weight they lost.
    3. become obsessed with food, much like people with eating disorders.
    4. report more positive emotions because of the positive social feedback they receive.



  1. Claude Bouchard conducted research on the effects of overfeeding on weight gain and found that identical twins have similar weights regardless of whether they are raised together or apart. This study provides evidence for the idea that
    1. environment plays an important role in weight gain.
    2. being an identical twin is stressful and therefore likely to cause weight gain.
    3. weight gain is inevitable for most people if they overeat.
    4. genes play an important role in weight gain.




  1. Dora is a moderately obese woman with a full figure. However, Dora is NOT confronted with social stigma about being overweight. On the contrary, she is often complemented on how attractive she is. Dora
    1. is probably a hardy person.
    2. will experience a lack of congruent self-concept.
    3. will nevertheless experience some negative psychological symptoms that are caused by her weight.
    4. probably lives in a developing country.



  1. Your sister has been quite thin ever since the eighth grade, but expresses a great fear of becoming fat and is always looking for ways to lose more weight. Based on this, she is most likely experiencing


    1. a high body mass index.
    2. the absence of a set point for weight control.
    3. anorexia nervosa.
    4. bulimia nervosa.



  1. One difference between anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa involves
    1. the degree of psychological disturbance present.
    2. whether periods of dieting occur.
    3. the amount of food that is typically consumed.
    4. the race and class of the people who engage in each.



  1. People who are overweight sometimes experience terrible social stigma. In what area of the world would social stigma about being overweight be less severe or even absent?
    1. some countries in Western Europe
    2. some countries in Africa
    3. the United States
    4. any country where food is abundant



  1. John comes from a family in which everyone is overweight, even though people in the family appear to eat only moderate amounts of food. These circumstances are consistent with research showing that
    1. food habits are primarily influenced by family attitudes.
    2. the environment is more important than our genes in determining eating behavior.
    3. genes play an important role in who becomes overweight.
    4. food habits are determined by what foods are presented to us.



  1. Evidence that humans have a set point for weight is reflected in the fact that
    1. when prisoners were fed large amounts of food, they gained less weight than they should have and returned to their normal weight when they resumed a regular diet.
    2. when people diet frequently, they wind up gaining more weight than those who do not.
    3. studies of semistarvation have shown that long-term reduction in food intake causes people to lose interest in food and eating.
    4. as less food is consumed, the body’s ability to use the energy contained in the food is reduced.


  1. Kristine is experiencing some depression and memory problems. To reduce both of these,

Kristin’s doctor is most likely to recommend

    1. meditation.
    2. getting exercise.
    3. using her social support network.
    4. increasing her self-esteem.



  1. Exercise increases the productivity and growth of
    1. reproductive hormones.
    2. gland tissue.
    3. hair follicles.
    4. neurons.



  1. Milo is training for an international chess competition and thinks that if he “increases his brain volume” he will do better in the competition. Which of the following actions should Milo take to increase his brain volume?
    1. reduce the number of hours he watches television
    2. go on a vegetarian diet
    3. pray
    4. exercise



  1. A stressor is any event or stimulus that
    1. threatens an organism and elicits a coping response.
    2. cannot be coped with.
    3. cannot be coped with in the short term.
    4. by definition has negative consequences for the organism.



  1. You experience a large disruption that threatens a central part of your life and is very difficult to deal with. Most likely, soon you will experience body changes, thoughts, and actions associated with the psychological process of
    1. a major life stressor.
    2. a daily hassle.
    3. stress responses.
    4. stress.



  1. Anna felt that she could not succeed at her final exam, and thinking about the final exam made her feel physically ill. For Anna, the final exam is most likely a(n):
    1. major life stressor.
    2. daily hassle.
    3. immune response.
    4. stressor.



  1. June feels that she has too many projects due at work and too many people demanding her time. She knows she cannot keep up with all of the demands. Because of this, June is most likely experiencing
    1. stress.
    2. daily hassles.
    3. the exhaustion stage.


    1. poor coping.


  1. Events that are particularly stressful for humans are those that are
    1. boring and predictable.
    2. catastrophic and uncontrollable.
    3. repetitive.
    4. a result of our own actions.



  1. Recently, Arianna and Raymond had their first child. They are experiencing difficulty dealing with the lack of sleep and demands of the new baby. The kind of stress Arianna and Raymond are experiencing is called
    1. general adaptation syndrome.
    2. a daily hassle.
    3. mediating factors.
    4. major life stressor.



  1. Assume that a negative event has occurred in your life. Which of the following conditions would make this event the most stressful?
    1. It occurred just after a positive event.
    2. It was just like an event you had experienced a year earlier.
    3. It was unexpected.
    4. You are female, not male.



  1. When people are going into military combat, adjusting to a new marriage, or thinking about an upcoming important exam they are experiencing
    1. well-being.
    2. the tend-and-befriend response.
    3. daily hassles.
    4. major life stressor.



  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a daily hassle?
    1. a long line at the grocery store
    2. the birth of a new baby
    3. a traffic jam
    4. forgetting to take out the trash


  1. General adaptation syndrome (GAS) proposes three levels of stress resistance. Which of the following lists the correct order of stages?
    1. alarm–exhaustion–resistance
    2. exhaustion–alarm–resistance
    3. resistance–exhaustion–alarm
    4. alarm–resistance–exhaustion




  1. According to general adaptation syndrome (GAS), what occurs at the first, or most immediate, level of stress response? The body
    1. uses all defenses to fight the stress.
    2. becomes exhausted.
    3. prepares itself through an emergency response.
    4. shuts down most organs.



  1. Farhan has had to deal with a lot of stress. His parents both have chronic diseases, he and his wife argue constantly, and his new job demands a lot of his time. According to research on the effects of stress, Farhan will most likely
    1. get divorced in the next year.
    2. develop a Type A personality.
    3. develop a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia.
    4. show a decreased immune response to infectious diseases.



  1. Melinda just got a new job as a receptionist, and she does not expect it to be very stressful. However, she is nervous about learning how to perform well in the job when she first starts working. The stress Melinda is facing is                                                                                                and may result in                                immune function.
    1. long term; worse
    2. long term; better
    3. short term; worse
    4. short term; better



  1. People who live in Orlando, Florida recently experienced flooding of their homes and hail damage during a particularly bad storm. People in Miami did not experience this storm. Which group of people will have better immune functioning, and why?
    1. People in Miami will have better immune functioning because they used better coping.
    2. People in Miami will have better immune functioning because they did not experience stressors.
    3. People in Orlando will have better immune functioning because they are working to overcome a daily life hassle.
    4. People in both towns will experience similar immune functioning because immune functioning is largely due to genetics, not environmental events.


  1. During final exams, Danielle’s body always seems to enable her to succeed at her fullest. She seems to have a lot of energy, gets by on little sleep, and never gets sick. However, she always seems to get a cold a week or so after her finals have ended. According to general adaptation syndrome (GAS), at what stage does Danielle operate during final exams?
    1. alarm
    2. resistance
    3. exhaustion


    1. major stressor



  1. Psychologists have emphasized that people experience the fight-or-flight response more than the tend-and-befriend response because
    1. the former has greater adaptive value.
    2. the research has largely been done with males.
    3. research supports the former but not the latter.
    4. avoidance responses are more important to survival than approach responses are.


  1. When men and women are placed under similar levels of stress,
    1. both appear equally motivated to seek out social support.
    2. women are more likely than men to seek out social support.
    3. men are more likely to seek social support than women are.
    4. women are more likely to seek out social support but men are more likely to actually receive it.



  1. Research on the fight-or-flight response has been criticized by Taylor and others for
    1. focusing primarily on the stress responses of males.
    2. neglecting the possibility that stress can also inhibit or prevent behavioral responses.
    3. focusing on humans and neglecting other animal species.
    4. placing too much emphasis on the role of hormones in mediating stress responses.



  1. The fight-or-flight response helps people cope with
    1. danger.
    2. overeating.
    3. exhaustion.
    4. overstimulation.



  1. Under stress, females are likely to show the                                , whereas males are more likely to show the                                        .
    1. tend-and-befriend response; alarm stage
    2. general adaptation syndrome; alarm stage
    3. tend-and-befriend response; fight-or-flight response
    4. general adaptation syndrome; fight-or-flight response



  1. Which of the following would describe the tend-and-befriend response of a person experiencing great stress from his job?
    1. Luigi is worn out and is not sure if he can continue at his job.
    2. Bruce constantly complains to his family about his mean boss.
    3. Joseph strikes his boss in the face after she threated to fire him.
    4. Manny tries to form strong relationships with the new workers.




  1. The leading cause of death in the United States is
    1. cancer.
    2. suicide.
    3. AIDS.
    4. heart disease.



  1. A general conclusion stemming from the research on health and stress is that
    1. short-term stress is more dangerous to your health than chronic stress.
    2. until recently, psychologists have overemphasized the effects of stress on health.
    3. the source of stress is more important to health outcomes than the level of stress.
    4. chronic stress has adverse effects on health.



  1. Harold has been unemployed for many years and is constantly struggling to pay his bills. The stress Harold is experiencing is an example of
    1. a major life stressor.
    2. a daily hassle.
    3. chronic stress.
    4. acute stress.



  1. Smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and                                     strongly predict heart disease.
    1. Type A behavior
    2. Type B behavior
    3. emotion-focused coping
    4. problem-focused coping



  1. The Type B behavior pattern describes a person who is
    1. competitive and time-pressed.
    2. easygoing and accommodating.
    3. cynical and pessimistic.
    4. at high risk for cardiovascular disease.



  1. Recent research on predictors of heart disease suggests that people who are                                   are particularly vulnerable to cardiac problems.
    1. angry or depressed
    2. time-pressed and shy
    3. low in self-esteem
    4. low in cortisol production



  1. In a well-known study of California men, being hostile and impatient was found to be related to              , which shows that                                                                .
    1. heart disease; genes control the development of disease
    2. immune functioning; stress is a function of lifestyle
    3. heart disease; psychological factors are important in disease development
    4. hormonal dysfunction; gender will have an effect on disease development



  1. The more negative emotions someone experiences, the greater the chance of developing
    1. antibodies.
    2. cavities.
    3. heart disease.
    4. glandular cancer.


  1. Being hostile or depressed has been found to
    1. predict greater risk for heart disease.
    2. cause autoimmune disorders.
    3. stop the general adaptation syndrome from occurring.
    4. increase hormone production.


  1. Two ways that hostility can affect the body are through stress on the heart and
    1. increased pulmonary function.
    2. reduced pulmonary function.
    3. decreased inflammation.
    4. increased serotonin activity.


  1. Seeing someone who is red in the face and “ready to explode” with anger might indicate that the person
    1. has a Type A personality.
    2. has a Type B personality.
    3. has hardiness.
    4. is using emotion-focused coping.


  1. Your roommate is achievement oriented, impatient, aggressive, and time-pressed. Your roommate’s behavior fits the
    1. Type A behavior pattern.
    2. Type B behavior pattern.
    3. hardiness pattern.
    4. emotion-focused coping pattern.



  1. People who commonly feel hostile and impatient are at increased risk to develop
    1. major depressive disorder.
    2. heart disease.
    3. an immune disorder.
    4. an eating disorder.


                                           DIF:      Easy                    OBJ:     10.3b                  MSC: Understanding NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology


  1. Your roommate is hostile, very competitive, and pessimistic. On the basis of recent research, which of the following health problems is your roommate most likely to experience later in life?
    1. cardiovascular disease
    2. immune system failures
    3. chronic infections
    4. cancer



  1. Which of the following people is most likely to develop coronary heart disease at some point in his life?
    1. John, a counseling psychologist who is laid-back and enjoys his job
    2. Erik, a CEO of a Fortune 500 company who takes frequent vacations
    3. Louis, a competitive poker play who is aggressive, impatient, and competitive
    4. Jarrod, an elementary school teacher who readily accommodates his coworkers and is easygoing



  1. Jane owns a consulting firm and has three employees. Which person should Jane recommend for a job that demands good people skills?
    1. a person with a Type A behavior pattern because she will be highly extroverted
    2. a person with a Type B behavior pattern because she will be accommodating and relaxed
    3. an emotion-focused person because she will be highly motivated to help others
    4. a “mixed-personality type” person because she will be the most flexible



  1. Lazarus divides the cognitive appraisal process into two parts: primary and secondary.

Primary appraisals involve

    1. deciding whether an event is stressful or irrelevant to you.
    2. evaluating your response options.
    3. selecting a coping behavior.
    4. deciding whether a coping behavior was successful.


  1. In Lazarus’s two-part cognitive appraisal process, secondary appraisals involve
    1. interpreting the sensory input.
    2. deciding whether a situation is stressful or not.
    3. evaluating our response options and choosing coping behaviors.
    4. hiding our emotions.



  1. Emotional coping strategies
    1. generally work better over the short term than over the long term.
    2. are usually better than problem-focused strategies in various situations.


    1. work best in the face of a controllable stressor.
    2. are counterproductive in most situations.



  1. Which one of the following is NOT an example of emotion-focused coping?
    1. avoidance of stressor
    2. minimizing the problem
    3. distancing oneself from the outcome
    4. creating alternative solutions



  1. Problem-focused coping involves
    1. looking at the “bright side” of a situation.
    2. controlling emotional expressions.
    3. taking direct steps to confront a stressor.
    4. focusing on problems until they appear less stressful.



  1. According to research conducted on family focused interventions, the major difference between effective and ineffective family-focused treatments involves whether
    1. the client has adequate social skills.
    2. family members have enough information about the client’s illness.
    3. a medical practitioner or a family therapist conducts the intervention.
    4. family members promote the client’s autonomy.



  1. People are most likely to adopt a problem-focused coping strategy when they perceive the stressor as
    1. positive.
    2. negative.
    3. controllable.
    4. uncontrollable.


  1. A coping strategy that involves comparing oneself to those worse off is known as
    1. resilience.
    2. the silver lining effect.
    3. downward comparisons.
    4. hardiness.


  1. Brenda has used a primary appraisal, but not a secondary appraisal, in her analysis of an event. Because she has not used secondary appraisal, we can guess that the event was
    1. related to Brenda’s self-identity.
    2. followed by a physiological response.
    3. nonthreatening.
    4. highly emotional.



  1. Murid’s grandfather is dying of cancer. The coping strategy that will be most effective in reducing Murid’s stress around this event is
    1. problem focused.
    2. primary appraisals.
    3. a Type A behavior pattern.
    4. emotion focused.



  1. After reading your psychology textbook, your friend George decides that he uses primarily emotion-focused coping strategies when dealing with problems in his daily life. George’s conclusion implies that he
    1. decides on which strategy to use by weighing the emotional costs and benefits associated with a particular strategy.
    2. tries to avoid or minimize his problems—for example, by reading a book or listening to music.
    3. first tries to assess how he feels emotionally, and then develops a rational plan of action.
    4. takes immediate steps to solve the problem.


  1. Scott is having a difficult time with his classes. He tries to keep from becoming anxious about his grades by going to movies and parties with his friends. However, Scott is frequently irritated and gets sick often. Which of the following factors is probably contributing to Scott’s mood problems and illnesses?
    1. He is using a problem-focused coping strategy.
    2. He is using a positive reappraisal strategy.
    3. He is using a primary appraisal coping strategy.
    4. He is using an emotion-based coping strategy.



  1. Uncle Frank has a heart condition, which means he needs to be very careful about certain aspects of his life. Based on research on family focused interventions, which of these actions will be LEAST helpful in encouraging Uncle Frank to lead a healthier life?
    1. providing rewards for his positive health behaviors
    2. planning his daily schedule for him
    3. encouraging him to make his own health decisions
    4. modeling healthy behaviors, such as eating a well-balanced diet


  1. The major difference between emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping involves
    1. the intensity of the stressor.
    2. whether one attempts to reduce the emotions associated with the stressor or solve the problem directly.
    3. the ability to perceive the stressor.
    4. whether the stress is familiar or unfamiliar.



  1. Engaging in primary appraisal allows us to
    1. become less hostile.


    1. enact coping behaviors only for stimuli that are relevant.
    2. become emotionally aroused.
    3. have difficulty expressing our emotions.



  1. Amy has just been diagnosed with breast cancer. She reminds herself that breast cancer is highly treatable and that the doctors caught hers early. Thus, she feels much luckier than people whose breast cancer is caught during later stages of the disease. In this situation, Amy is using
    1. a Type A behavior pattern.
    2. a downward comparison.
    3. secondary appraisals.
    4. emotion-focused coping.



  1. Sasha finds her job difficult and has had a hard time learning how to do some of the tasks that are required of her. She decides to put in some extra hours to learn how to complete the tasks, and she is confident that in doing so she will be able to perform the tasks well. According to research discussed in your textbook, what is a likely outcome?
    1. Sasha will become physically ill from all the extra hours she is putting in.
    2. Sasha will feel less stressed and happier.
    3. Sasha will become a friendlier person because she will learn to teach herself new things.
    4. Sasha will become increasingly negative and even depressed.



  1. Based on what you know about downward comparisons, which emotion is most likely to follow a downward comparison?
    1. relief
    2. hostility
    3. embarrassment
    4. depression


  1. The most central goal of the positive psychology movement is to
    1. promote positive change in society, such as by advocating for peace.
    2. convince people that they have much in life to be grateful for.
    3. study and understand psychological well-being.
    4. train people to become positive and more effective leaders.



  1. Which of the  following states is NOT characterized as one of the three components of happiness?
    1. being acknowledged by others as a successful person
    2. having meaning in life
    3. having positive emotions and pleasure
    4. being engaged in life



  1. Dr. Zakaria, a young faculty member at Soujourner University, is interested in how personal characteristics such as hopefulness, trustworthiness, and kindness affect self-perceived happiness. Dr. Zakaria is most likely a
    1. cognitive psychologist.
    2. positive psychologist.
    3. psychoanalyst.
    4. social psychologist.



  1. According to your textbook, a large study found what type of relationship between peoples’ attitudes and their health?
    1. People with positive attitudes are healthier than people with negative attitudes.
    2. People with positive attitudes are unhealthier than people with negative attitudes.
    3. People with positive attitudes are equally as healthy as people with negative attitudes.
    4. The results of the study were inconclusive.



  1. According to your textbook, people who live longer and have better health are likely to be characterized by
    1. an emotion-focused approach to coping.
    2. rumination.
    3. seeking out information.
    4. social support.



  1. Adam has been reading the research literature on positive psychology. He has decided to write a letter of thanks to his grandfather, whom he greatly admires. What should happen after Adam writes and delivers this letter?
    1. He will experience an increase in his level of happiness.
    2. He will start to engage in downward comparisons.
    3. He will experience an increase in testosterone.
    4. Activity will increase slightly in his amygdala.



  1. Fewer colds and flus, a better-functioning immune system, and reduced risk of serious diseases, such as heart disease, can be expected from which of the following?
    1. increasing the positive emotions one experiences
    2. decreasing the number of people in one’s social network
    3. being single versus married
    4. increasing one’s social and work responsibilities



  1. According to your textbook, which of the following statements is NOT a reason spirituality may contribute to overall well-being?
    1. Members of faith communities gain physical and social support.


    1. Faith gives people a sense of purpose and meaning in their lives.
    2. Many religions have strict rules that people feel compelled to follow.
    3. Many religions support healthy behaviors.



  1. If you want to increase your life span by a few years, which of the following pieces of advice is recommended?
    1. Pamper yourself.
    2. Increase your social support network.
    3. Spend more time interacting with nature.
    4. Spend more time on hobbies.



  1. Research on the relationship between marital status and well-being generally shows that
    1. being married has a positive effect on health and well-being.
    2. being married has a negative effect on health and well-being.
    3. being married has neither a positive nor a negative effect on health and well-being.
    4. being in a traditional marriage, but not a homosexual marriage, has a positive effect on health and well-being.


  1. Having a higher level of social support is
    1. negatively correlated with health problems.
    2. correlated with Type A personality.
    3. important to health for children but less so for adults.
    4. unrelated to gender.



  1. The relationship between religiousness and health can be described as
    1. generally negative.
    2. generally positive.
    3. basically random.
    4. difficult to understand.



  1. Safia is a moderately healthy person. She has a small network of acquaintances and friends. If Safia wants to get all the health benefits associated with social support, she should increase
    1. her support network, including people who provide encouragement.
    2. the number of new people she meets.
    3. the size of her network and her leadership capacity.
    4. her social integration and dominance expressions.


  1. Which of the following people would experience the most distress over a stressful situation?
    1. Pam, a woman in a happy marriage
    2. Donna, a single mom of three who works full time
    3. Alex, a man in a happy marriage with two children
    4. Gerard, a man in a domestic partnership




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