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Homework answers / question archive / Walsingham Academy - SCIENCE 101 CHAPTER 12: RELIGION, ROMANTICISM, AND REFORM, 1800-1860 TRUE/FALSE 1)Many American Christians assumed that the United States had a God-mandated mission to provide the world with a shining example of republican virtue

Walsingham Academy - SCIENCE 101 CHAPTER 12: RELIGION, ROMANTICISM, AND REFORM, 1800-1860 TRUE/FALSE 1)Many American Christians assumed that the United States had a God-mandated mission to provide the world with a shining example of republican virtue

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Walsingham Academy - SCIENCE 101



1)Many American Christians assumed that the United States had a God-mandated mission to provide the world with a shining example of republican virtue.




  1. Mormon leader Joseph Smith was an advocate of monogamous marriage.




  1. Margaret Fuller edited the Dial, a transcendentalist journal.




  1. The secular utopian community Brook Farm hosted both male and female visiting lecturers.




  1. Horace Mann was a notable promoter of public schools.




  1. The word “teetotaler” originated with a temperance society’s use of the letter “T” to signify total abstinence.




  1. A major change in attitudes toward prisons during the 1830s was the idea that prisoners could not be rehabilitated.




  1. The “cult of domesticity” banned women from joining any professions.





  1. A Treatise on Domestic Economy argued that men and women should share equally in completing the work of the household’s domestic sphere.




  1. The women’s rights movement secured the vote for women in several states before 1860.




  1. The successful example of antebellum utopian communities converted many Americans to socialism.




  1. The American Colonization Society established the African nation of Liberia as a new home for free American blacks.




  1. William Lloyd Garrison published a militant anti-slavery newspaper called The Liberator.




  1. Frederick Douglass was a black abolitionist.




  1. John C. Calhoun argued that blacks were too “shiftless” to work unless enslaved.




  1. The intellectual defenses of slavery in the South admitted that the institution offered no benefits to blacks.







  1. Deists:
    1. believed in an all-powerful God
    2. argued for the literal truth of the Bible
    3. included Founding Fathers such as Jefferson and Franklin
    4. were basically atheists
    5. felt the United States should have an official religion



  1. Unitarianism stressed:
    1. reason and conscience                           d. ritualistic practices
    2. creeds and confessions                           e.   belief in prophecy and miracles
    3. belief in the Holy Trinity



  1. Universalists believed that:
    1. the universe is continually expanding
    2. rich people are blessed by God
    3. God predestined only a few for salvation
    4. everyone could be saved
    5. Americans are God’s chosen people



  1. Why were working-class people attracted to Universalism?
    1. It encouraged sinning.
    2. It advocated for slavery and white superiority.
    3. It claimed that people’s fates had already been determined by God.
    4. It stressed the possibility of salvation of all people.
    5. It claimed that eternal punishment for sinners was not all that bad.



  1. One significant factor that inspired the Second Great Awakening was:
    1. the growing distrust of religion among African Americans
    2. rising fears of secularism among many well-educated Americans
    3. the decline of Baptists in the South
    4. Joseph Smith’s Book of Mormon
    5. John Quincy Adams’s opposition to the “gag rule”




  1. Which Protestant denomination stressed the equality of all before God and had no authority higher than the congregation?
    1. Baptist                                                     d. Presbyterian
    2. Lutheran                                                  e.   Mormon
    3. Methodist



  1. A minister on horseback who traveled the frontier to preach was called a(n):
    1. Unitarian                                                 d. teacher
    2. Deist                                                        e.   circuit rider
    3. outlaw



  1. African Americans found the Methodist and Baptist churches especially attractive because of their:
    1. belief in salvation for all                         d. emphasis upon Bible studies
    2. condemnation of slavery                        e.   rapid growth in the South
    3. emotional church services



  1. Which of the following was associated with the Second Great Awakening?
    1. the popularity of camp meetings
    2. the belief that only a small minority could attain salvation
    3. the growing appeal of Catholicism
    4. declining literacy rates
    5. popular new translations of the Bible



  1. Why might women be drawn to camp meetings?
    1. They provided an outlet for women to exhibit their preaching skills.
    2. They provided women with opportunities to participate as equals in public rituals.
    3. They were not open to male participation.
    4. They allowed women to edit the Bible to reflect their own ideals.
    5. They provided the only avenue of higher education available to women.



  1. The burned-over district was:
    1. the southern frontier                              d. the Appalachian region
    2. the coastal areas of the Carolinas          e.   the Mississippi Valley
    3. western New York



  1. Which of the following is NOT true of Charles Finney?
    1. He generated 100,000 conversions.
    2. He was active in New York’s burned-over district.
    3. He emphasized both good faith and good works.
    4. He rejected the doctrine of predestination.
    5. He was an active Universalist preacher.



  1. Joseph Smith:
    1. started the Unitarian church in Utah
    2. was a great revivalist preacher from New England
    3. founded the Mormon Church in western New York
    4. claimed to be God’s only prophet
    5. was a “circuit rider” preacher from the South



  1. All of the following are reasons Mormons generated hostility from non-Mormons EXCEPT:
    1. they denied the legitimacy of civil governments
    2. they refused to abide by local laws
    3. they did not recognize the legitimacy of the U.S. Constitution
    4. they denied they were Christians
    5. they practiced “plural marriage”



  1. Brigham Young:
    1. rejected Joseph Smith’s teachings on plural marriage
    2. completely revised the Book of Mormon
    3. declared war on Joseph Smith’s killers
    4. led the Mormons to Utah
    5. founded a Mormon university



  1. The rise of Romanticism indicated:
    1. recognition of the limits of science and reason
    2. a belief that Americans were too religious
    3. a desire for art and literature that was uniquely American
    4. a longing for love and passion in daily life
    5. a growing belief that man should dominate nature



  1. Which statement best describes the Transcendental Club, which had its first meeting in the 1830s?
    1. a tightly knit group of pro-slavery advocates who insisted that slavery should transcend sectional divisions
    2. a loosely knit group of diverse, intellectually curious individualists who met to discuss

philosophy, religion, and literature

    1. a radical group of religious scholars who believed in reincarnation and possession
    2. a conservative group of political leaders who promoted territorial expansion so that the United States would transcend its current boundaries
    3. a meeting hall outside of Boston where political leaders met to discuss how they might

transcend their differences



  1. Who was considered the leader of transcendentalism?
    1. John Quincy Adams                                 d. William Ellery Channing
    2. Joseph Smith                                           e.   Ralph Waldo Emerson
    3. William Garrison



  1. Horace Mann advocated for a public school system for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
    1. to ensure that everyone had a basic level of knowledge and skills
    2. to reinforce values such as hard work and clean living
    3. to prepare the next generation to become good citizens
    4. to give women opportunities for rewarding work outside the home
    5. to give school-age children a year-round learning opportunity



  1. Why did the working poor often favor expanding the number of public schools?
    1. The quality of education was better than the private schools operated in most cities.
    2. Workers chose to go back to school rather than labor in factories.
    3. Workers hoped to become public school teachers rather than laborers.
    4. Workers wanted free schools to give their children an equal chance to pursue the American dream.


    1. Building public schools promised to expand the number of construction jobs and therefore improve employment prospects.



  1. The southern state that by 1860 had done the most to advance public education was:
    1. Virginia                                                   d. Georgia
    2. Texas                                                       e.   North Carolina
    3. Alabama



  1. For all their differences, the variety of reform movements that arose in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century had what in common?
    1. a commitment to abolitionism
    2. an absence of female membership and involvement
    3. a prohibition against black participation
    4. an impulse to perfect people and society
    5. the rejection of the idea that America had a divine mission



  1. The American Temperance Union lost many moderate members in 1836 when it:
    1. allowed women to join
    2. called for abstinence from all alcoholic beverages
    3. allowed members to drink beer and wine
    4. began to push immigration reform as the only sure way to rid America of Demon Rum
    5. became too involved in politics



  1. Regarding the penitentiary established in 1816 at Auburn, New York, all the following statements are true EXCEPT:
    1. discipline was severe
    2. prisoners were not allowed to talk to one another
    3. it was an institution that primarily emphasized punishment
    4. its system and methods were widely copied across the nation
    5. prisoners performed labor and produced goods that could be sold for a profit



  1. Prison reformers of the early 1800s saw a major objective of the penitentiary as:
    1. religious conversion                                d. providing prisoners an education


    1. rehabilitation                                          e.   patriotic indoctrination
    2. corporal punishment



  1. Dorothea Lynde Dix directed her reform efforts at:
    1. insane asylums                                        d. slavery
    2. public education                                     e.   temperance
    3. women’s rights



  1. The woman who wrote the profoundly influential A Treatise on Domestic Economy was:
    1. Catharine Beecher                                  d. Lucy Stone
    2. Harriet Hunt                                            e.   Emily Dickinson
    3. Lucretia Mott



  1. The “cult of domesticity” was the idea that:
    1. women deserved education
    2. professions should be open to women
    3. romantic love was the basis of successful marriage
    4. large families were beneficial
    5. a woman’s place is in the home



  1. The Seneca Falls Convention:
    1. celebrated the cult of domesticity
    2. demanded equal rights for women
    3. showed the mass appeal of temperance
    4. reflected female dominance of the abolitionist movement
    5. brought immediate improvements in women’s lives



  1. Members of the Shaker community:
    1. believed that Jesus Christ had returned to Earth in the 1820s
    2. practiced free love and polygamy
    3. were not permitted to leave after their “initiation”
    4. practiced celibacy and owned everything in common
    5. increased their numbers by having large families





  1. Mother Ann Lee was:
    1. a “free love” advocate
    2. an early feminist
    3. the organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention
    4. the founder of the Shakers
    5. the leader of the New Harmony community



  1. Why was John Humphrey Noyes, founder of the Oneida Community, arrested and ultimately forced to flee New York?
    1. He advocated complete sexual freedom.
    2. He argued for the establishment of total socialism.
    3. He preached interracial marriage.
    4. He practiced complete sexual abstinence.
    5. He offered euthanasia for the elderly.



  1. All of the following are true of Brook Farm EXCEPT:
    1. it was established by transcendentalists
    2. it was an effort in cooperative living
    3. it was long lasting
    4. it was located near Boston
    5. it was a secular utopian community



  1. Most of the utopian communities of the early nineteenth century:
    1. received funding from the government
    2. saw their ideas quickly become accepted by the public
    3. were established inside major cities
    4. quickly became failures
    5. were led by religious extremists



  1. All of the following statements about the American Colonization Society are true EXCEPT:
    1. free black leaders supported it
    2. it was founded in the late 1810s
    3. it was backed by many prominent politicians


    1. it proposed to send blacks back to Africa
    2. it did not reduce the total number of slaves



  1. Why did the American Colonization Society acquire the land in West Africa that eventually became the country of Liberia?
    1. The Society saw it as a source of new slaves for the American South.
    2. The Society saw it as a location to build a white nation on the African continent.
    3. The Society saw it as a place to transport free blacks and freed slaves.
    4. The Society saw it as a land they could rule over like a kingdom.
    5. The Society saw it as a valuable source of coal and diamonds.



  1. William Lloyd Garrison:
    1. demanded immediate emancipation of slaves
    2. organized an anti-slavery political party
    3. used calm, moderate language to oppose slavery
    4. caused the Nat Turner revolt
    5. believed slaveholders should be paid to free their slaves



  1. Why did the American Anti-Slavery Society split into competing factions?
    1. Some prominent members demanded the pursuit of societal reforms beyond abolition, including women’s rights.
    2. Some prominent members argued that capitalism should be dismantled.
    3. Some prominent members suggested that the North make peace with slavery.
    4. Some prominent members advocated the practice of “free love” at meetings.
    5. Some prominent members owned slaves themselves.



  1. Frederick Douglass:
    1. was the founder of the Underground Railroad
    2. became a notable black preacher
    3. wrote a famous account of his life as a slave
    4. was captured in the North and returned to slavery
    5. helped abolish slavery in the British West Indies



  1. The Liberty party advocated:
    1. socialism                                                 d. free trade
    2. anarchy                                                   e.   free love
    3. abolitionism



  1. All of the following are true about Sojourner Truth, EXCEPT that she:
    1. had been born a slave
    2. spoke for women’s rights and abolition
    3. changed her name (from Isabella) after a mystical conversation with God
    4. killed her master to escape from slavery
    5. was born in New York in the late 1790s



  1. The killing of Elijah Lovejoy showed:
    1. the violent tactics of abolitionists
    2. the danger of encouraging slave rebellion
    3. the end of a free press
    4. the growing support for black equality
    5. that support of slavery extended into the North



  1. Southerners used all of the following to justify slavery EXCEPT:
    1. claims of black racial inferiority
    2. biblical support of slavery
    3. danger to themselves and others if freed
    4. Thomas Jefferson’s words in the Declaration of Independence
    5. the superior life Africans enjoyed in the southern states



  1. By the 1830s, John C. Calhoun was arguing that:
    1. blacks deserved equality                        d. plantations were no longer profitable
    2. the Bible opposed slavery                       e.   slavery was a “great good”
    3. slavery should be phased out





45 Match each description with the item below.

    1. set up Seneca Falls Convention
    2. founder of the anti-slavery newspaper The Liberator
    3. pro-slavery senator from South Carolina
    4. founded Mormonism
    5. founder of the Oneida Community
    6. revivalist who initiated the “circuit rider” system
    7. promoted statewide school systems
    8. advocated for the reform of insane asylums
    9. escaped slave who became a leading anti-slavery advocate
  1. Frederick Douglass
  2. John Humphrey Noyes
  3. Francis Asbury
  4. John Calhoun
  5. Horace Mann
  6. Joseph Smith
  7. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
  8. William Lloyd Garrison
  9. Dorothea Lynde Dix



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