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Homework answers / question archive / Chapter 9Motivation 1) The motivational forces that come from a person are called "pull" or external forces

Chapter 9Motivation 1) The motivational forces that come from a person are called "pull" or external forces


Chapter 9Motivation

1) The motivational forces that come from a person are called "pull" or external forces.





2) The category of motivational forces that relates to both internal and external forces focuses on the characteristics of a person's job or task.


3) Need hierarchy and acquired needs content theories focus on the identification of external factors of motivation, while the two-factor content theory focuses on identifying internal factors of motivation.


4) Within the context of Maslow's need hierarchy, a program that allows employees to "make a difference" in their communities may satisfy their physiological needs.


5) The essence of Maslow's need hierarchy is that individuals take a "top down" approach to satisfying their needs.


6) Unlike Maslow's need hierarchy theory, Alderfer's ERG theory asserts that different levels of needs may be active at the same time.


7) David McClelland's theory of acquired needs focuses on the inborn needs for power, achievement, and affiliation and how those needs become activated over time.


8) Frederick Herzberg asserts that hygiene factors and motivators are equivalent.


9) The job characteristics model developed by two organizational scientists, J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, emphasizes core job characteristics, such as skill, variety, and task significance.


10) Task significance is the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work.


11) The task significance theory predicts the methods that dissatisfied employees will use to remedy their feelings that others are "doing better" than they are.


12) Vroom's expectancy theory focuses on the thought processes people use when they consider alternatives, particularly alternative courses of action.


13) Vroom's expectancy theory states that the three key variables, effort, performance, and outcome, interact in an additive manner to determine the amount of effort people will choose to expend on a particular task.


14) Self-efficacy is the tendency for one to take more credit for success than failure.


15) Vicarious learning involves gaining knowledge by observing how others successfully perform a task and then modeling one's own behavior in a similar manner.


16) It is unlikely that a manager can positively influence the self-efficacy of subordinates.


17) Goal-setting is a simple panacea for motivating increased performance suitable for all occasions and in all types of situations.


18) Positive reinforcements used to motivate people in organizational settings are said to be equitable if they have some capacity to affect future performance.


19) Both positive reinforcements and extinctions maintain or increase particular types of behavior and performance.


20) Managers can use the principle of extinction to their advantage by deliberately not reinforcing employee behavior that they consider undesirable.


21) A potential hazard of the unintended use of extinction is that it can leave the interpretation of important situations in the hands of employees rather than under the control of the manager.


22) In countries and cultures with strong collectivist tendencies, the individual is likely to be influenced by the "in-group"; that is, the group to which he or she belongs.


23) Subordinates can influence the motivation of their superiors through their ability to punish behavior by subtly withholding rewards.


24) A key issue related to work centrality is the subordination of personal goals to the goals of a group.


25) ________ is the set of forces that energize, direct, and sustain behavior.


26) Which of the following is a "push" force of motivation?


27) Which of the following is an external motivational force?


28) Which of the following motivational forces relates to both internal and external forces?


29) Characteristics of the individual is considered an ________.


30) Characteristics of a work situation is considered an ________.


31) Characteristics of a person's job is considered an ________.


32) ________ focus on the needs a person is trying to satisfy and the features of the work environment that seem to satisfy those needs.


33) Which of the following is a content theory of motivation?


34) To begin motivating an apathetic associate, a manager informally questions her about her satisfaction with her job's ability to provide safety, social interaction, self-respect, and opportunities for growth. What theory of motivation is this manager most likely trying to apply in working with the associate?


35) Which of the following is a process theory of motivation?


36) Which of the following categories is included in the Maslow's hierarchy of needs?


37) A well-known bank providing health insurance and retirement benefits to all its employees is concerned about the ________ needs of its employees.


38) According to Maslow's need hierarchy, which of the following needs relate to the need for self-respect and respect from other people?


39) In Maslow's need hierarchy, the ________ need relates to an individual's need to be personally fulfilled and to develop one's unique talents to their highest possible levels.


40) According to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs includes the need for the basic essentials of life, such as water, food, and shelter?


41) A plant manager in a small factory wants to raise workforce morale. Upon inquiry, she finds out that the working conditions at the plant are safe, clean, and pleasant and that recent expansion of the workforce has assured employees of job security. Which of the following actions should the manager take to ensure that the "belongingness" needs in Maslow's hierarchy are satisfied?


42) The three basic categories of needs identified by Alderfer in his ERG theory are ________.


43) McClelland, in his acquired needs theory, considered ________ needs to be extremely important.


44) McClelland's acquired needs theory asserts that managers who work with high-need achievers typically should ________.


45) ________ is a motivation theory that focuses on the presumed different effects of intrinsic job factors and extrinsic situational factors.


46) According to Frederick Herzberg, ________ are elements associated with conditions surrounding the job and are not directly related to the doing of a job.


47) A manager wishes to improve the job performance of a group of clerical workers. Based on Herzberg's theory, ________ would be an appropriate motivator.


48) While they agree that satisfaction is a factor in motivation, scholars note that there is little evidence that increasing employee satisfaction actually increases motivation. This has led them to criticize the ________ as being overly simplistic.


49) ________ focuses on core job attributes, critical psychological states, and expected outcomes.


50) ________ involves increasing the complexity of a job to provide a greater sense of responsibility, accomplishment, and achievement.


51) Whereas ________ focus on which variables affect motivation, ________ focus on how the variables affect motivation.


52) ________ is a motivation theory proposing that individuals will compare their circumstances to those of others and that such comparisons may motivate certain kinds of behavior.


53) Angela is an HR manager at Hard Rock Cafe. She is responsible for recruiting employees and training  them, organizing work space for new employees, overseeing employee relations counseling and exit interviews, developing and implementing HR policies and procedures, and reviewing annual performance. This is an example of ________ according to the job characteristics model.


54) According to the job characteristics model, ________ is defined as the degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people.


55) According to the job characteristics model, ________ is defined as the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job provides the individual with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.


56) According to the job characteristics model, ________ is the degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out.


57) Harry, a finance manager of an IT company, devises a new child education benefit plan to partly sponsor the primary education of their employees' children. Within the context of the job characteristics model, this is an example of ________.


58) Within the context of the job characteristics model, a company's intranet linking all the R&D scientists, allowing them to post their ideas and propose solutions at any hour of the day, whether at the office, at home, or on the road, is an example of ________.


59) Within the context of the job characteristics model, the event manager, handling all the plans for the annual executive retreat and attending the retreat and receiving information on its success from the participants, is an example of ________.


60) Hackman and Oldham proposed that ________ is the degree to which a job requires the completion of a "whole" and identifiable piece of work.


61) Within the context of the job characteristics model, ________ is involved when a machine designer knows that her schematics are correct as very few are rejected by the machine shop.


62) ________ asserts that individuals are likely to compare the ratios of inputs to outcomes they receive against the ratios of other people, such as colleagues or acquaintances.


63) According to equity theory, if the ratio of an employee's outcomes to his/her inputs is equal to the ratio of another employee's outcomes to inputs then the employee is motivated to ________.


64) The basic components of ________ are effort, performance, and outcomes.


65) A software engineer believes that if she can complete her current project on time she will get her much awaited promotion to the ranks of a team leader. However, she doubts her capability of completing the project on time. Within the context of expectancy theory, what level of motivation would the engineer have and why?


66) Expectancy theory asserts that ________ or performance-to-outcome is the probability that a particular level of performance will lead to particular outcomes or consequences.


67) According to expectancy theory, valence, outcome, and performance interact in a multiplicative way to determine ________.


68) ________ is a process theory that, in part, describes how to increase an individual's sense of self-efficacy, thus increasing motivation.


69) ________ is the extent to which a person believes he or she can accomplish a given task in a specific situation.


70) Self-efficacy is roughly the equivalent of ________ expectancy in the expectancy theory.


71) From an expectancy theory perspective, a manager who wanted to boost motivation levels would be least likely to ________.


72) Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory defines ________ as succeeding on a similar prior task and attributing that success to one's own capabilities rather than to luck or circumstances.


73) Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory defines ________ as gaining knowledge by observing how others perform a task and then modeling one's own behavior in a similar manner.


74) Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory defines verbal persuasion as ________.


75) Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory defines physiological and psychological arousal as ________.


76) ________ is a theory that emphasizes the role of conscious aim and intentions in directing human actions.


77) A call center manager hopes to improve the performance of her staff by decreasing the average time spent on a call. First, she sets up a performance board where the average length of a call for the previous week is posted and compared to the average call length for the preceding four weeks. Then, she encourages the staff to reduce the average. According to goal-setting theory, how could she improve this scheme?


78) Goal-setting research suggests that people will exert higher levels of effort when goals are ________.


79) ________ is a desirable consequence that, by occurring or being supplied following a behavior, increases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated in the future.


80) Shortly after Christmas, a catalog company is besieged by complaints of poor service, so a task force designs an incentive plan to motivate associates to fill orders more quickly and more accurately. For the proposed incentive plan to be successful, which of the following positive reinforcement strategies should be used?


81) Walter works in the cutting department of a shoe manufacturing company. The workers in the department are required to cut out the skin of leather into pieces of various shapes using metal strip knives. This operation requires a high level of skill so as to avoid wastage of leather. Walter's working standards have reduced since the last 2 months. His supervisor approaches him to discuss his substandard performance. To avoid this confrontation again, Walter tries to achieve the required standards. Which of the following is most similar to the given scenario?


82) Which of the following will increase the probability that people will repeat a behavior?


83) A sales representative is informed by his supervisor that if he exceeds his sales for the last quarter by 20 percent then some of his more difficult clients will be transferred to another sales representative. The supervisor strongly believes that the transfer will help him achieve past sales targets in the subsequent years. This is an example of ________.


84) Jessica, a team leader at Hifenac Corp., has portrayed her managerial skills by successfully motivating each of her team members to perform exceedingly well. The exceptional performance of her team prompts the management to increase her team size and assign her new projects. Soon, however, management observes that this additional responsibility adversely affects Jessica's performance and the productivity of the new team is not as impressive. Which of the following is most similar to the scenario discussed above?


85) A production supervisor receives a bonus for each day a project is completed ahead of schedule. This is an example of ________.



86) When a manager uses ________ to lessen the likelihood of a behavior being repeated, he or she avoids providing any positive consequences as a result of that behavior.


87) A shift manager at a fast-food restaurant is using ________ when she fines a habitually tardy crew member the equivalent of one hour's pay each day he is late for work.


88) The manager of a steel manufacturing company is using ________ when he stops raising output quotas each time workers exceed them.


89) David stops making unsolicited suggestions when his team leader no longer mentions them in group meetings. David's behavior is most likely due to ________.


90) Which of the following is a step in a program that systematically applies the principles of reinforcement theory to motivate employees?


91) The direction of a group's influence on the motivation of an individual in that group will likely depend on ________ of the group.


92) From a manager's perspective, in-group influence ________ when the in-group's norms oppose organizational norms.


93) Scholarly research has defined ________ as the degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual at a point in time.


94) What are "push" forces of motivation? What are "pull" forces?


95) Identify the three basic categories of variables that determine motivation in the work setting.


96) Explain Maslow's need hierarchy.


97) Discuss Alderfer's ERG theory.


98) Within the context of the two-factor theory, what are "motivators" and "hygiene factors"?


99) List the three components emphasized in Hackman and Oldham's job characteristics model.



100) What is equity theory?


101) How can managers use expectancy theory to influence the motivation of employees?

Answer:  Managers can potentially influence the motivation of employees in the following ways: identifying rewards that are valued; strengthening employees' beliefs that their efforts will lead to valued rewards; helping employees understand where they should direct their efforts; rewarding employees immediately after they reach targeted levels of performance; and providing rewards that are consistent with realistic expectations.




102) What is the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement?


103) List the steps involved in the programs instituted by organizations to apply the principles of reinforcement theory.



110) Refer to the scenario above. If workers on both lines receive a bonus upon reaching a specified level of productivity, what reinforcement approach is being utilized?




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