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Homework answers / question archive / Question1)Which of the following barriers to communication occurs at the organizational level?         language         ethnocentrism         frame of reference         hierarchical barriers   Question 2 Selective perception involves the tendency to oversimplify and generalize about groups of people

Question1)Which of the following barriers to communication occurs at the organizational level?         language         ethnocentrism         frame of reference         hierarchical barriers   Question 2 Selective perception involves the tendency to oversimplify and generalize about groups of people

Management

Question1)Which of the following barriers to communication occurs at the organizational level?

 

 

 

 

language

 

 

 

 

ethnocentrism

 

 

 

 

frame of reference

 

 

 

 

hierarchical barriers

 

Question 2

Selective perception involves the tendency to oversimplify and generalize about groups of people.

 

 True

 

 

 False

 

 

Question 3

In terms of negotiation, ________ refers to a person's or group's stance regarding the party's wants.

 

 

 

 

desire

 

 

 

 

position

 

 

 

 

interest

 

 

 

 

concern

 

Question 4

________ refers to the interference with the transmission or decoding of a message.

 

 

 

 

Negative feedback

 

 

 

 

Medium

 

 

 

 

Positive feedback

 

 

 

 

Noise

 

Question 5

________ refers to messages sent from higher organizational levels to lower levels.

 

 

 

 

Upward communication

 

 

 

 

Parallel communication

 

 

 

 

Downward communication

 

 

 

 

Lateral communication

 

Question 6

A monthly interdepartmental meeting goes badly because the managers cannot agree on an agenda. Sales managers argue that new advertising strategies should be a top priority because sales have dropped; operations managers argue that equipment acquisition should take precedence because a key system is down. The failure of this meeting can be most clearly attributed to ________.

 

 

 

 

cultural barriers

 

 

 

 

organizational barriers

 

 

 

 

interpersonal barriers

 

 

 

 

emotional barriers

 

Question 7

When the economy weakens, most companies consider adding new services or products.

 

 True

 

 

 False

 

 

Question 8

For more than 200 years, Encyclopedia Britannica was believed to be the most authoritative encyclopedia in the world. However, sales began to plummet when Microsoft started bundling Encarta with its software products. Britannica offered digital versions of its encyclopedia, but priced them high to encourage consumers to purchase its nicely bound volumes. The plan failed. Sales have continued to spiral downward after Wikipedia, a free online encyclopedia, gained popularity. Which of the following statements sums up this scenario most clearly?

 

 

 

 

Technology has positively influenced the publishing industry.

 

 

 

 

Products with strong brand-name recognition can withstand external threats.

 

 

 

 

Information posted on the Internet is more reliable than hardcopy information.

 

 

 

 

Managers being slow to respond to technological changes can result in loss of business.

 

Question 9

A firm that is good at organizational learning is said to be ________.

 

 

 

 

emphasizing planned efforts focusing on people and their interrelationships in organizations

 

 

 

 

using information technology to play a central role in the change effort

 

 

 

 

redesigning a firm's processes to achieve dramatic improvements

 

 

 

 

skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to accommodate changes.

 

Question 10

Which of the following is the most people-oriented change focus used within an organization?

 

 

 

 

adding, subtracting, or interchanging people

 

 

 

 

attempting to change how staff members relate to each other

 

 

 

 

getting the manager to provide new information

 

 

 

 

directly enhancing knowledge, skills and abilities

 

Question 11

A company is suffering sales setbacks because a competitor has launched an identical product in the market. The company decides to improve its product design by adding additional features that would differentiate its offerings from those of the competitors. In this example, the focus of change is ________.

 

 

 

 

systems

 

 

 

 

technology

 

 

 

 

staff

 

 

 

 

structure

 

Question 12

Which of the following best defines "transformational changes"?

 

 

 

 

changes in shared values and strategy

 

 

 

 

long-term changes in technology and staff

 

 

 

 

dynamic changes in systems and structure

 

 

 

 

particularly complex and comprehensive changes

 

Question 13

Achievable budget standards are regarded as desirable because ________.

 

 

 

 

they focus only on long-term actions at the expense of short-term objectives

 

 

 

 

they are not too challenging for the company

 

 

 

 

they reduce the motivation to manipulate data

 

 

 

 

they reduce uncertainty and keep employee morale under check

 

Question 14

Which type of control has the broadest organizational scope?

 

 

 

 

diagnostic

 

 

 

 

operational

 

 

 

 

strategic

 

 

 

 

tactical

 

Question 15

________ represents a firm's ability to meet long-term financial obligations.

 

 

 

 

Leverage (total debt/total assets)

 

 

 

 

Liquidity (current assets/current liabilities)

 

 

 

 

Inventory turnover (annual sales/inventory)

 

 

 

 

Return on equity (net profit before taxes/total assets invested

 

Question 16

Which of the following is a type of control approach used under bureaucracy control?

 

 

 

 

emphasis on detecting deviance

 

 

 

 

stress on group consensus on goals

 

 

 

 

mutual assistance in meeting standards

 

 

 

 

control comes from individuals or groups

 

Question 17

The guiding principle for focusing control is that it should be closely linked to the strategic goals and, particularly, the planning process of the organization.

 

 True

 

 

 False

 

 

Question 18

Which of the following is a reason for involving in decision making the people who are going to be affected by its results?

 

 

 

 

The decision-making process will not be partial or biased toward anyone.

 

 

 

 

They will be more committed to meeting standards that they themselves have created.

 

 

 

 

The degree of difficulty will neither be too difficult nor too ambitious.

 

 

 

 

They will be more accepting of losses and failures if they are involved from the start.

 

Question 19

The ________ focuses on the decision maker as a satisficer.

 

 

 

 

retrospective decision model

 

 

 

 

implicit favorite model

 

 

 

 

rational model

 

 

 

 

bounded rationality model

 

Question 20

Escalation of commitment can lead to positive consequences for organizations.

 

 True

 

 

 False

 

 

Question 21

Which of the following occurs when managers "throw good money after bad"?

 

 

 

 

satisficing

 

 

 

 

rational ignorance

 

 

 

 

escalating commitment

 

 

 

 

superrationality

 

Question 22

Which of the following occurs when agreement among members becomes so dominant that it overrides a realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action?

 

 

 

 

escalation of commitment

 

 

 

 

cognitive dissonance

 

 

 

 

groupthink

 

 

 

 

perceptive distortion

 

Question 23

In a group decision-making process, appointing a devil's advocate will prevent groupthink.

 

 True

 

 

 False

 

 

Question 24

________ is the tendency for decision makers to accept the first alternative that meets their minimally acceptable requirements rather than push further for an alternative that produces the best results.

 

 

 

 

Altruism

 

 

 

 

Satisficing

 

 

 

 

Groupthink

 

 

 

 

Rational ignorance

 

Question 25

Which of the following is a defining characteristic of an organization that affects communication?

 

 

 

 

Organizations are composed of only groups, rather than individuals.

 

 

 

 

Organizations have continuity through time.

 

 

 

 

Organizations have only integrated functions.

 

 

 

 

Organizations are oriented towards performance, rather than goals.

 

Question 26

Arbery Fudge Company, Inc. engages in the production and marketing of fudge candy in the United States. The company believes in continuous improvement and constantly evaluates the effectiveness of the control strategies that the managers use. Which of the following situations would necessitate the use strategic control for evaluation?

 

 

 

 

The organization wants to implement a system for formalizing reporting at various levels in an organization.

 

 

 

 

The organization has to perform a task in a relatively limited time frame to help one of its key distributors make use of an important opportunity.

 

 

 

 

The competition in the confectionery market has increased significantly in the recent past and management is planning to revamp its competitive approaches.

 

 

 

 

The organization has current liabilities greater than the current assets. The managers are analyzing the situation to make a decision on whether or not to increase liquidity.

 

Question 27

It is Christmas and Lora and her parents are shopping. Lora's attention is caught by a pair of Levi's jeans, which she immediately likes. Although there are several other brands available inthe shelf and Levi's is comparatively expensive, Lora insists that Levi's jeans are better in quality and design. She manages to convince her parents that her choice is the best and buys the pair. This is an example of ________.

 

 

 

 

perceptive distortion

 

 

 

 

selective perception

 

 

 

 

cognitive complexity

 

 

 

 

uncertainty absorption

 

Question 28

______ systems are used to reflect changes in the internal or external environments of the firm

 

 

 

 

strategic

 

 

 

 

quality

 

 

 

 

control

 

 

 

 

implementation

 

Question 29

At Showtime, the HR department plays an important role in ______ and ________

 

 

 

 

leading; managing

 

 

 

 

change; development

 

 

 

 

training; planning

 

 

 

 

leading; training

 

Question 30

Which one of the following is NOT a part of the evaluation and control of performance?

 

 

 

 

Establish objectives and strategies.

 

 

 

 

Determine what to measure.

 

 

 

 

Establish standards for performance.

 

 

 

 

Measure actual performance.

 

 

 

 

Take corrective actions.

 

Question 31

At Meridian Inc., employees are given general goals and basic budgets rather than policy manuals. Furthermore, it is expected that they will be strongly dedicated to the goals of the organization. Which control approach does Meridian Inc. use?

 

 

 

 

bureaucratic

 

 

 

 

commitment

 

 

 

 

operational

 

 

 

 

self-reliant

 

Question 32

Focusing on a party's interests, not on their _________ , is a negation approach which can increase the likelihood of a successful negotiation

 

 

 

 

proposition

 

 

 

 

position

 

 

 

 

attitude

 

 

 

 

behavior

 

Question 33

Which of the following is a drawback of the clan approach of organizational control?

 

 

 

 

Control is imposed on the members of the organization.

 

 

 

 

Emphasis on detecting deviance is troubling for employees.

 

 

 

 

Considerable time and managerial effort goes behind the control.

 

 

 

 

Individual responsibility becomes a source of stress.

 

Question 34

Which of the following is a disadvantage of informal communication channels in an organization?

 

 

 

 

They carry only nonwork related information and are detrimental to organizational productivity.

 

 

 

 

Some of the messages passed through them are inaccurate and focus only on negative information.

 

 

 

 

Lateral communication is greatly hindered as messages are closely regulated by the organization.

 

 

 

 

Informal communication channels are incompatible with advances in Internet and other modern communication technologies.

 

Question 35

As discussed in our lecture and highlighted on our Chapter 15 Map, __________ are perhaps the most difficult to forecast for corporations in some industry sectors.

 

 

 

 

Economic conditions

 

 

 

 

Technology developments

 

 

 

 

Competitor actions

 

 

 

 

Societal & demographic shifts

 

Question 36

Our Chapter 14 lecture and Chapter Map suggested that ___________are perhaps the most challenging to sustain during strategy implementation.

 

 

 

 

Strategic controls

 

 

 

 

Budgetary controls

 

 

 

 

Economic conditions

 

 

 

 

Human resource controls

 

Question 37

A Key Chapter 11 TakeAway on communication discussed during the class lecture emphasized the importance of _______.

 

 

 

 

Noise impeding the message

 

 

 

 

Interpretation of the message

 

 

 

 

Active listening

 

 

 

 

The media

 

Question 38

Our Chapter 11 class lecture contained an example communication within a large organization involving __________ to demonstrate the importance of organizational culture and the context of intra-company communication.

 

 

 

 

Communication barriers

 

 

 

 

Inter-department communications

 

 

 

 

Channels of communications

 

 

 

 

Directions of communication

 

Question 39

A Key Chapter 12 TakeAway highlighted during class that describes the way we mostly use when selecting among alternatives is:

 

 

 

 

Programmed

 

 

 

 

Maximizing

 

 

 

 

Satisficing

 

 

 

 

Rationalizing

 

Question 40

The decision making model diagram used in our Chapter 12 lecture that we intuitively use can be also be described as a:

 

 

 

 

Rational model

 

 

 

 

Perceptual model

 

 

 

 

Problem-solution process

 

 

 

 

Bounded rationality model

 

Question 41

Our Chapter 15 class lecture emphasized the fundamental importance of __________ to the sustainability of successful corporate business performance.

 

 

 

 

Developing the capacity to forecast change

 

 

 

 

Responding to risk & uncertainty

 

 

 

 

Organizational development

 

 

 

 

Responding to the challenges of change

 

Question 42

The simply equation for _________ was presented in our Chapter 13 lecture and discussed as the key overall objective in operations management.

 

 

 

 

Cost control

 

 

 

 

Productivity

 

 

 

 

Economic order quantity

 

 

 

 

Capacity planning

 

Question 43

_________ forms the basis of many organizational control processes and was highlighted in our classroom lecture as a Key Chapter 13 TakeAway.

 

 

 

 

Operations management

 

 

 

 

Cost reduction

 

 

 

 

Supply chain management

 

 

 

 

Total quality management

 

Question 44

We concluded that a Key Chapter 14 TakeAway is the challenge of sustaining __________ during the implementation phase of strategic management in order to improve business performance.

 

 

 

 

Financial controls

 

 

 

 

Operational controls

 

 

 

 

Tactical controls

 

 

 

 

Inbound logistics controls

 

Question 45

What are stock outs?

 

 

 

 

carrying of excess inventories that increase holding costs and therefore total costs

 

 

 

 

not getting products and services to customers when they want them

 

 

 

 

guarantee of product quality and quantity together with timely delivery

 

 

 

 

It is a term that refers to goods that have never been purchased by a customer.

 

Question 46

Top executives at McCain Ericsson Bank have taken up business process reengineering to improve the standards of the organization. They are unsure if their current loan application process is an adequate measure of determining whether or not a loan should be given to an individual. Which of the following elements are they considering?

 

 

 

 

objective

 

 

 

 

design

 

 

 

 

capabilities

 

 

 

 

infrastructure

 

Question 47

Which of the following is as costly as having excess unused inventory?

 

 

 

 

not being able to reach products to customers when required

 

 

 

 

holding parts in a static industry

 

 

 

 

holding just enough inventory for adequate supply

 

 

 

 

not having enough storage space for inventory

 

Question 48

Pioneer Motors has a large production unit in Dakota that can produce 50 different car models depending on the demand. This organization has ________.

 

 

 

 

statistical process control

 

 

 

 

design capacity

 

 

 

 

work sampling

 

 

 

 

flexible manufacturing system

 

Question 49

The supply chain refers to the coordinated system of resources, information, activities, people, and organizations involved in moving a product or service from raw materials to components and into a finished product or service delivered to the end customer.

 

 True

 

 

 False

 

 

Question 50

Total quality management (TQM) requires the use of a separate team of experts to inspect products or services for defects or errors after completion.

 

 True

 

 

 False

 

 

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