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Homework answers / question archive / Question 1)Stimulants _____ nervous system activity, whereas depressants _____ it

Question 1)Stimulants _____ nervous system activity, whereas depressants _____ it


Question 1)Stimulants _____ nervous system activity, whereas depressants _____ it.

reduce; enhance

enhance; increase

increase; decrease

reduce; decrease

Question 2

Joe takes an herbal supplement for pain in his knees. A few days after starting the supplement, his pain seems to decrease and he tells people that this supplement is wonderful at controlling knee pain. What else could explain Joe's diminished pain?

the placebo effect

the replication effect

the experimenter effect

the observer effect

Question 3

Steve used to love dogs but was badly bitten by a stray dog once. Now he is extremely fearful when he sees any dog nearing him. This is an example of

a conditioned emotional response.

an anxiety disorder.

an operant.

systematic desensitization.

Question 4

In Ainsworth's study, a baby who seemed disinterested in the mother's comings and goings, turning away from her when she returned, was labeled

securely attached.




Question 5

________ refers to the genetic transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to children and _________ refers to the sum of all external conditions that affect a person.

Nature; nurture

Polygenic characteristics; readiness

Teratogen; enrichment

Biology; ecology

Question 6

Empirical evidence is collected by _____.

making inferences

gathering qualitative and quantitative data through direct observation

interviewing experts in the field

conducting controlled laboratory experiments

Question 7

At what age do infants become able to recognize themselves in a mirror?


18 months

age 2.

age 4.

Question 8

The stage during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated is labeled as Piaget's _____ stage of cognitive development.



concrete operational

formal operations

Question 9

The correct order for the three stages of memory is _____.

short-term memory, long-term memory, retrieval

working memory, sensory register memory, long-term memory

sensory register memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

short term memory, sensory register memory, long-term memory

Question 10

Which of the following is true of NREM sleep?

It may help the body recover from bodily fatigue.

Breathing becomes irregular.

NREM sleep is marked by rapid EEG patterns.

Dreams are more vivid and emotional during NREM.

Question 11

When a toddler uses simple two-word sentences to communicate, it is referred to as _________.

single-word speech

telegraphic speech

double-word speech

preoperational speech

Question 12

Operant conditioning operates on the principle that behaviors occur more often when they are _____.





Question 13

People who believe that a new diet is safe and effective because a doctor wrote the book are forgetting that

few "truths" transcend the need for testing.

evidence varies in quality.

authority does not automatically make an idea true.

critical thinking requires an open mind.

Question 14

According to Carol Ryff, all of the following are associated with well-being during adulthood except


environmental mastery.

a purpose in life.

a critical review of one's life.

Question 15

The process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior is known as _____.




intelligence formation

Question 16

What did functionalism contribute to modern psychology?

It became the basis of behaviorism.

It promoted educational psychology.

It influenced the development of psychoanalysis.

It argued that only humans should be the subjects of study.

Question 17

A child who develops to be dependent and immature most likely had parents who followed which types of parenting style?





Question 18

In Lawrence Kohlberg's research on moral development, reasoning that is based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted authority, rules, and values is labeled the ______ level.





Question 19

The bulk of people's dreams occur during _____.

REM sleep

NREM sleep

stage 4, deep sleep

stage 2, light sleep

Question 20

When a tone is sounded, a baby's right cheek is touched, and the baby reflexively turns its head to the direction of the touch. After several pairings, the baby turns its head to the right as soon as it hears the tone. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is the



head turning.

eye movement.

Question 21

In a scientific experiment, a _________ is any condition that can change and that might affect the outcome of the experiment.





Question 22

The life expectancy of the average cigarette smoker is reduced by

1 - 5 years.

5 - 10 years.

10 - 15 years.

15 - 20 years.

Question 23

Children who are rebellious and aggressive are often the products of which of the following styles of discipline?

power assertion

withdrawal of love

management techniques


Question 24

Psychologists who study human thinking and information processing abilities are referred to as _____.

clinical psychologists

educational psychologists

cognitive psychologists

developmental psychologists

Question 25

How many stages is the life cycle are presented in Erikson's psychosocial theory of development?





Question 26

Which of the following would be studied by a researcher in the field of positive psychology?

factors that reduce violence and aggression

the role of conformity in riots

the factors that may enhance an individual's creativity

the factors that reduce job burnout among employees

Question 27

Karen and her husband are very prejudiced, Their daughter Nikki, although only a small child, also reacts very negatively to people who are different from her. Her emotional response is most likely due to


vicarious classical conditioning.

stimulus generalization.

stimulus discrimination.

Question 28

Information is transferred from sensory memory to _____ by means of _____.

short-term memory; rehearsal

long-term memory; selective attention

short term memory; selective attention

long-term memory, rehearsal

Question 29

Which of the following refers to memories for skills such as tying shoes?





Question 30

Forgetting because we never really formed the memory in the first place is termed

encoding failure.

memory-trace decay.



Question 31

Taking a multiple choice test is based on what kind of memory retrieval?





Question 32

If parents ignore a child's temper tantrums and the tantrums subsequently cease, _____ has occurred.

stimulus generalization

stimulus discrimination

operant extinction


Question 33

When looking at ethnic differences in parenting, the following cultures tend to be group oriented, and they emphasize interdependence among individuals.





Question 34

If you hear that an airplane crashes into the Empire State Building, and you immediately think of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, you are reacting to what type of memory?

a repressed memory

a suppressed memory

a flashbulb memory

a pseudo-memory

Question 35

In classical conditioning, _____ are important, while in operant conditioning, _____ are primary for learning.

antecedents; consequences

consequences; antecedents

responses; reflexes

responses; antecedents

Question 36

Freud's psychodynamic theory of dreaming emphasizes _____.

dreams as sensations, motor commands, and memories that are synthesized by the cortex of the brain

dreams as internal psychic abilities that provide insight into the future

dreams as internal conflicts and unconscious forces that are based on wish fulfillment

dreams as a form of hypnosis

Question 37

If neither the subjects nor the experimenter know which subjects get the true independent variable and which gets the placebo, the study is called a _____ experiment.





Question 38

If most of your textbook pages are highlighted with a yellow highlighter, you have probably violated which of the following methods for improving memory?





Question 39

Which of the following is stressed in the professional code of ethics?

Personal morality

High levels of competition

Respect for people's right to privacy

Research protocols with humans only

Question 40

The procedure by which each subject in a study has an equal chance of being assigned to the experimental and control group is called

random sampling.

random assignment.

an extraneous variable.

meta analysis.

Question 41

In which of Kubler-Ross's stages would someone who feels exhausted and has a sense of futility be?





Question 42

Carol Gilligan pointed out that existing studies on moral development are biased because

different races were not studied.

children were disregarded.

a woman's concern with relationships can look like a weakness rather than a strength.

only males participated in the studies.

Question 43

Psychology's history as a science began _____.

in Austria, when Sigmund Freud published his studies on psychoanalysis in 1895

in America, when William James published his studies on psychoanalysis in 1890

in Germany, when Wilhelm Wundt set up the first psychological laboratory in 1879

in Russia, when Ivan Pavlov published his research on conditioning in 1906

Question 44

Denny was born weighing only five pounds, with a small head, thin upper lip, and oddly shaped eyes. He is also mentally retarded. Denny's mother most likely used which of the following during her pregnancy?





Question 45

In which stage of sleep would a person be most difficult to wake?

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

Stage 4

Question 46

After being awake for more than 60 hours, a person may develop hallucinations and delusional thinking in a state called

microsleep syndrome.

sleep deprivation.

sleep deprivation psychosis.

abnormal awareness

Question 47

David punishes his puppy (by placing the dog in a "time-out" box for several minutes) for soiling the rug when he comes home from work. Which rule of punishment has David broken?

It needs to be immediate.

It is long-lasting.

It needs to be consistent.

It works best if it is severe.

Question 48

Psychology is defined as the scientific study of _____.

human behavior

the mind

behavior and mental processes

mental processes

Question 49

A hereditary problem in which the victim has irresistible "sleep attacks" in the day is called

REM behavior disorder.


sleep apnea.

excessive daytime sleepiness.

Question 50

In life-span developmental theories, adolescents struggle with conflicts involving _____.

the need to form a consistent identity

the ability to trust the primary caregivers in their lives

the development of intimate relationships

the ability to look back at life with a sense of integrity


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