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Homework answers / question archive / Chapter 8 Business Cycles 1)One of the first organizations to investigate the business cycle was   the Federal Reserve System

Chapter 8 Business Cycles 1)One of the first organizations to investigate the business cycle was   the Federal Reserve System

Business

Chapter 8

Business Cycles

1)One of the first organizations to investigate the business cycle was

 

    1. the Federal Reserve System.

 

    1. the National Bureau of Economic Research.

 

    1. the Council of Economic Advisors.

 

    1. the Brookings Institution.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The trough of a business cycle occurs when _____ hits its lowest point.

 

    1. inflation

 

    1. the money supply

 

    1. aggregate economic activity

 

    1. the unemployment rate

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The low point in the business cycle is referred to as the

 

    1. expansion.

 

    1. boom.

 

    1. trough.

 

    1. peak.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When aggregate economic activity is increasing, the economy is said to be in

 

    1. an expansion.

 

    1. a contraction.

 

    1. a peak.

 

    1. a turning point.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When aggregate economic activity is declining, the economy is said to be in

 

    1. a contraction.

 

    1. an expansion.

 

    1. a trough.

 

    1. a turning point.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Peaks and troughs of the business cycle are known collectively as

 

    1. volatility.

 

    1. turning points.

 

    1. equilibrium points.

 

    1. real business cycle events.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Who officially determines whether the economy is in a recession or expansion?

 

    1. The President of the United States

 

    1. The U.S. Congress

 

    1. The Federal Reserve Board of Governors

 

    1. The National Bureau of Economic Research

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Research on the effects of recessions on the real level of GDP shows that

 

    1. recessions cause only temporary reductions in real GDP, which are offset by growth during the expansion phase.

 

    1. recessions cause large, permanent reductions in the real level of GDP.

 

    1. recessions cause both temporary and permanent declines in real GDP, but most of the decline is temporary.

 

    1. recessions cause both temporary and permanent declines in real GDP, but most of the decline is permanent.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The tendency of many different economic variables to have regular and predictable patterns across industries over the business cycle is called

 

    1. persistence.

 

    1. comovement.

 

    1. periodicity.

 

    1. recurrence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The tendency for declines in economic activity to be followed by further declines, and for growth in economic activity to be followed by more growth is called

 

    1. persistence.

 

    1. comovement.

 

    1. periodicity.

 

    1. recurrence.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The longest contraction in American history occurred

 

    1. during the 1870s.

 

    1. in the years right before World War I began.

 

    1. during the 1930s.

 

    1. during the 1970s.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The long boom occurred in the

 

    1. 1920s and 1930s.

 

    1. 1940s and 1950s.

 

    1. 1960s and 1970s.

 

    1. 1980s and 1990s.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. By 1937, when a new recession began in the midst of the Great Depression,

 

    1. GDP had almost recovered to its 1929 level, but unemployment was still above the 1929 level.

 

    1. unemployment had almost fallen back to its 1929 level, but GDP had yet to recover to its 1929 level.

 

    1. neither GDP nor unemployment had returned to near their 1929 levels.

 

    1. both GDP and unemployment had returned to near their 1929 levels.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The worst recessions after World War II occurred

 

    1. during 1945–1946 and 1973–1975.

 

    1. during 1957–1958 and 1973–1975.

 

    1. during 1973–1975 and 1981–1982.

 

    1. during 1945–1946 and 1981–1982.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The longest economic expansion in the United States occurred during the

 

    1. 1940s.

 

    1. 1960s.

 

    1. 1980s.

 

    1. 1990s.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Christina Romer’s criticism of the belief that business cycles had moderated since World War II depended on the fact that

 

    1. estimates of the timing of business cycles since World War II had been inaccurate.

 

    1. misuse of historical data had caused economists to understate the size of cyclical fluctuations in the post–World War II era.

 

    1. economists had ignored the roles of the government and international trade in mitigating economic fluctuations prior to World War II.

 

    1. economists had left out important components of GDP, such as wholesale and retail distribution, transportation, and services, in their pre–World War II estimates.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The NBER’s Business Cycle Dating Committee picks recession dates by looking at many variables, the four most important of which are industrial production, manufacturing and trade sales, nonfarm employment, and real personal income. These variables are known as

 

    1. leading indicators.

 

    1. coincident indicators.

 

    1. lagging indicators.

 

    1. recession indicators.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The recession of 2001 began in _____ and ended in _____.

 

    1. March; November

 

    1. February; December

 

    1. April; October

 

    1. February; October

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. According to research by Stock and Watson, the recent decline in volatility in many macroeconomic variables was a

 

    1. sudden drop that occurred around 1984.

 

    1. gradual decline throughout the 1980s.

 

    1. sudden drop that occurred around 1990.

 

    1. gradual decline throughout the 1990s.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Stock and Watson found that monetary policy was responsible for about _____ % of the reduction in output volatility that occurred in the mid-1980s.

 

    1. 0 to 10

 

    1. 10 to 20

 

    1. 20 to 30

 

    1. 30 to 40

 

 

 

 

 

  1. An economic variable that moves in the same direction as aggregate economic activity (up in expansions, down in contractions) is called

 

    1. procyclical.

 

    1. countercyclical.

 

    1. acyclical.

 

    1. a leading variable.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. An economic variable that moves in the opposite direction as aggregate economic activity (down in expansions, up in contractions) is called

 

    1. procyclical.

 

    1. countercyclical.

 

    1. acyclical.

 

    1. a leading variable.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. An economic variable that doesn’t move in a consistent pattern with aggregate economic activity is called

 

    1. procyclical.

 

    1. countercyclical.

 

    1. acyclical.

 

    1. a leading variable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A variable that tends to move in advance of aggregate economic activity is called

 

    1. a leading variable.

 

    1. a coincident variable.

 

    1. a lagging variable.

 

    1. an acyclical variable.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A variable that tends to move at the same time as aggregate economic activity is called

 

    1. a leading variable.

 

    1. a coincident variable.

 

    1. a lagging variable.

 

    1. an acyclical variable.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A variable that tends to move later than aggregate economic activity is called

 

    1. a leading variable.

 

    1. a coincident variable.

 

    1. a lagging variable.

 

    1. an acyclical variable.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Diebold and Rudebusch showed that the composite index of leading indicators did not improve forecasts of industrial production because

 

    1. the index is not produced in a timely manner.

 

    1. the government manipulates the index so it never predicts a recession.

 

    1. the index is not designed for forecasting.

 

    1. data on the components of the index are revised.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following macroeconomic variables is procyclical and coincident with the business cycle?

 

    1. Residential investment

 

    1. Nominal interest rates

 

    1. Industrial production

 

    1. Unemployment

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following macroeconomic variables is procyclical and leads the business cycle?

 

    1. Business fixed investment

 

    1. Residential investment

 

    1. Nominal interest rates

 

    1. Unemployment

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following macroeconomic variables is acyclical?

 

    1. Real interest rates

 

    1. Unemployment

 

    1. Money supply

 

    1. Consumption

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following macroeconomic variables is procyclical and lags the business cycle?

 

    1. Business fixed investment

 

    1. Employment

 

    1. Stock prices

 

    1. Nominal interest rates

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following macroeconomic variables would you include in an index of leading economic indicators?

 

    1. Employment

 

    1. Inflation

 

    1. Real interest rates

 

    1. Residential investment

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following macroeconomic variables would you exclude from an index of leading economic indicators?

 

    1. Money supply

 

    1. Industrial production

 

    1. Inventory investment

 

    1. Residential investment

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Industries that are extremely sensitive to the business cycle are the

 

    1. durable goods and service sectors.

 

    1. nondurable goods and service sectors.

 

    1. capital goods and nondurable goods sectors.

 

    1. capital goods and durable goods sectors.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. You want to invest in a firm whose profits show large fluctuations throughout the business cycle. Which of the following would you invest in?

 

    1. A corporation that depends heavily on business fixed investment

 

    1. A corporation that depends heavily on consumer services

 

    1. A corporation that depends heavily on consumer nondurables

 

    1. A corporation that depends heavily on government purchases

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?

 

    1. Employment and unemployment are both coincident with the business cycle.

 

    1. Employment and unemployment are both procyclical.

 

    1. Employment is procyclical and unemployment is coincident with the business cycle.

 

    1. Employment is procyclical and unemployment is countercyclical.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true?

 

    1. Both nominal and real interest rates are procyclical and leading.

 

    1. Both nominal and real interest rates are procyclical and lagging.

 

    1. Nominal interest rates are procyclical and real interest rates are countercyclical.

 

    1. Nominal interest rates are procyclical and real interest rates are acyclical.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Using the seasonal business cycle as your guide, during which quarter would you be most likely to expect an increase in your corporation’s sales?

 

    1. The first quarter of the year (January–March)

 

    1. The second quarter of the year (April–June)

 

    1. The third quarter of the year (July–September)

 

    1. The fourth quarter of the year (October–December)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following macroeconomic variables is the most seasonally procyclical?

 

    1. Expenditure on services

 

    1. The unemployment rate

 

    1. Expenditure on durable goods

 

    1. The real wage

 

 

Level of difficulty: 2

 

 

  1. Which of the following macroeconomic variables doesn’t vary much over the seasons?

 

    1. The nominal money stock

 

    1. The unemployment rate

 

    1. The real wage

 

    1. Average labor productivity

 

 

 

 

  1. What are the two main components of business cycle theories?

 

    1. A description of shocks and a model of how the economy responds to them

 

    1. A model of how people decide to spend and a description of the government’s role in the economy

 

    1. A model of how equilibrium is reached and a description of the government’s role in the economy

 

    1. A description of shocks and a description of the government’s role in the economy

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Economists use the term shocks to mean

 

    1. unexpected government actions that affect the economy.

 

    1. typically unpredictable forces that have major impacts on the economy.

 

    1. sudden rises in oil prices.

 

    1. the business cycle.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Wars, new inventions, harvest failures, and changes in government policy are examples of

 

    1. the business cycle.

 

    1. economic models.

 

    1. shocks.

 

    1. opportunity costs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The three main components of the aggregate demand-aggregate supply model include

 

    1. AD, SRAS, LM

 

    1. SRAS, LRAS, IS

 

    1. AD, IS, LM

 

    1. AD, SRAS, LRAS

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The AD, SRAS, and LRAS curves each show a relationship between which two economic variables?

 

    1. The aggregate price level and output

 

    1. The aggregate price level and the interest rate

 

    1. Output and unemployment

 

    1. Output and the interest rate

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When plotted with the aggregate price level on the vertical axis and output on the horizontal axis, which of the following curves slopes downward?

 

    1. SRAS

 

    1. AD

 

    1. LRAS

 

    1. None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When plotted with the aggregate price level on the vertical axis and output on the horizontal axis, which of the following curves is vertical?

 

    1. SRAS

 

    1. AD

 

    1. LRAS

 

    1. None of the above

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When plotted with the aggregate price level on the vertical axis and output on the horizontal axis, the long-run aggregate supply curve

 

    1. slopes upward.

 

    1. slopes downward.

 

    1. is vertical.

 

    1. is horizontal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A decrease in government spending on the park system would cause

 

    1. the aggregate demand curve to shift to the right.

 

    1. the aggregate demand curve to shift to the left.

 

    1. a movement down and to the right along the aggregate demand curve.

 

    1. a movement up and to the left along the aggregate demand curve.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A decline in the stock market, which makes consumers poorer, would cause

 

    1. the aggregate demand curve to shift to the right.

 

    1. the aggregate demand curve to shift to the left.

 

    1. a movement down and to the right along the aggregate demand curve.

 

    1. a movement up and to the left along the aggregate demand curve.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In the short run, an increase in export sales would cause output to _____ and the price level to

 

_____.

 

    1. rise; rise

 

    1. rise; stay constant

 

    1. fall; stay constant

 

    1. fall; rise

 

 

 

 

  1. In the long run, an increase in consumer spending would cause output to _____ and the price level to

 

_____.

 

    1. rise; rise

 

    1. rise; stay constant

 

    1. stay constant; stay constant

 

    1. stay constant; rise

 

 

 

 

  1. In the long run, an increase in government purchases of military equipment would cause output to

 

_____ and the aggregate price level to _____.

 

    1. stay constant; fall

 

    1. fall; fall

 

    1. fall; stay constant

 

    1. stay constant; rise

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. According to classical macroeconomists, prices adjust _____ to shocks, so the government should

_____.

 

    1. slowly; do little

 

    1. rapidly; do little

 

    1. rapidly; fight recessions

 

    1. slowly; fight recessions

 

 

 

 

 

  1. According to Keynesian macroeconomists, prices adjust _____ to shocks, so the government should

_____.

 

    1. slowly; do little

 

    1. rapidly; do little

 

    1. rapidly; fight recessions

 

    1. slowly; fight recessions

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In the long run, an increase in productivity would cause output to _____ and the aggregate price level to _____.

 

    1. fall; rise

 

    1. fall; fall

 

    1. rise; fall

 

    1. rise; rise

 

 

 

 

  1. In the long run, a reduction in labor supply would cause output to _____ and the aggregate price level to _____.

 

    1. fall; rise

 

    1. fall; fall

 

    1. rise; fall

 

    1. rise; rise

 

 

 

 

  1. The key difference between classical and Keynesian macroeconomists is their differing beliefs about

 

    1. the slope of the aggregate demand curve.

 

    1. the speed at which prices adjust.

 

    1. the natural rate of unemployment.

 

    1. the full-employment level of output.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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