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1) A) Discuss what is meant by "reliability is a necessary but not a sufficient condition of validity


1) A) Discuss what is meant by "reliability is a necessary but not a sufficient condition of validity." B) How can reliability among observers be demonstrated?

2) A) Construct a short rating scale to be used for the evaluation of the teaching performance of a probationary teacher. B) To what extent is the administration of personal and social adjustment inventories an invasion of a student's privacy?

3) The researcher's unconscious bias. Although objectivity is the ideal of research, few individuals achieve it completely. There is great temptation to omit evidence unfavorable to the hypothesis and to overemphasize favorable data. Effective researchers are aware of their feelings and the likely areas of their bias and constantly endeavor to maintain the objectivity that is essential.

4) Faulty logic. This rather inclusive category embraces a number of errors in the thought processes of the researcher. Invalid assumptions, inappropriate analogies, inversion of cause and effect, confusion of a simple relationship with causation, failure to recognize that group phenomena may not be used indiscriminately to predict individual occurrences or behavior, failure to realize that the whole may be greater than the sum of its parts, belief that frequency of appearance is always a measure of importance, and many other errors are limitations to accurate interpretation.

5) Careless orincompetent data entry. When one is confronted with a mass of data, it is easy to make simple mechanical errors. Placing a tally in the wrong cell or incorrectly totaling a set of scores can easily invalidate carefully gathered data. Errors sometimes may be attributed to clerical helpers with limited ability and little interest in the research project.

6) Failure to recognize limitations. The very nature of research implies certain restrictions or limitations about the group or the situation described-its size, its representativeness, and its distinctive composition. Failure to recognize these limitations may lead to the formulation of generalizations that are not warranted by the data collected.

7) Confusing statements withfacts. A common fault is the acceptance of statements as facts. What individuals report may be a sincere expression of what they believe to be the facts in a case, but these statements are not necessarily true. Few people observe skillfully, and many forget quickly. It is the researcher's responsibility to verify all statements as completely as possible before they are accepted as facts.

8) Laws orrules thathave been enacted orpromulgated bya legislative orquasi-legislative body. Teacher certification regulations, school-building standards, or health and safety regulations provide appropriate criteria for comparison.

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