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Homework answers / question archive / Professor Hug Substance Abuse, Alcohol, and Crime Chapter 16 Drug Market is changing ? 1960s-1970s Dramatic increases in illicit drug use across the nation ? 40 years ago the national media and political debate began to focus on the increase ? 1980s the U

Professor Hug Substance Abuse, Alcohol, and Crime Chapter 16 Drug Market is changing ? 1960s-1970s Dramatic increases in illicit drug use across the nation ? 40 years ago the national media and political debate began to focus on the increase ? 1980s the U


Professor Hug Substance Abuse, Alcohol, and Crime Chapter 16 Drug Market is changing ? 1960s-1970s Dramatic increases in illicit drug use across the nation ? 40 years ago the national media and political debate began to focus on the increase ? 1980s the U.S. War against those that transport, sell, and use a wide variety of illegal substances ? Conservative policies adopted ? Many believe the war on drugs is still justified Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 2 Juvenile Drug Use ? 8.8% of adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 ? 21.5% of young adults between ages 18 and 25 ? Regarded as one of today’s most important social concerns ? Marijuana is the most common Contoso Ltd. Juvenile Drug Use ? Pathway to substance use • • • • Conduct problems Antisocial behavior Peer groups Parental monitoring Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 4 Juvenile Drug Use • Serious health problems • Deviant and antisocial behavior • High-risk behaviors • Poor academic performance Contoso Ltd. Add a footer Juvenile Drug Use • FBI data report that most of the arrests of juveniles are for possession of drugs. • Heroin or cocaine and their derivatives • Marijuana • Synthetic narcotics • Dangerous nonnarcotic drugs Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 6 • Who is selling to juveniles? • Other students hired by older dealers • Gang members • Males consume more frequently and in higher quantities. Juvenile Drug Use Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 7 Gender Differences in Juvenile Drug Use Most studies concentrated on Males Males are arrested 5 times more frequently for drug violations compared to juvenile females Males and females experience different trajectories and consequences Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 8 Consistent Findings on Illicit Drug Use • The use, sale, manufacture, distribution, and possession of illegal drugs • The pharmacological effects certain drugs have on a user's behavior in promoting criminal actions. Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 9 • More individuals are incarcerated or held in jails and prisons for drug offenses than for any other offense, and this has contributed to burgeoning jail and prison populations. • Jail and prison crowding • Changes in sentencing laws Consistent Findings on Illicit Drug Use Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 10 Consistent Findings on Illicit Drug Use • Arrestees frequently test positive for illicit drug use. • ADAM II Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 11 Consistent Findings on Illicit Drug Use • Arrestees and incarcerated offenders were often under the influence of illicit drugs when they committed their offenses. • Criminal groups have drug preferences. Add a footer Contoso Ltd. 12 Consistent Findings on Illicit Drug Use • Some offenders commit property crime to support their drug habit. • 17% of state prisoners and 18% of federal prisoners said they committed their current offenses to obtain money for drugs in 2004. Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 13 • Drug trafficking often engenders violent crime. • Violence accompanies drug distribution Consistent Findings on Illicit Drug Use Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 14 • The drug–crime relationship is very complex and difficult to identify, measure, and advance conclusions. • Pharmacological effects of the drug • Psychological characteristics of the individual using the drug Consistent Findings on Illicit Drug Use Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 15 Consistent Findings on Illicit Drug Use ? The tripartite conceptual model 1. 2. 3. Psychopharmacological driven crime Systemic crime Economically compulsive crime Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 16 • Psychoactive drugs • A chemical substance that influences a person's mood, perception, mode of thinking, and behavior • Controlled substance Major Categories of Drugs Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 17 • Hallucinogens or psychedelics • Lead to a change in the consciousness involving an alteration of reality • Stimulants • Stimulate the CNS functions • Opiate narcotics • Sedative and analgesic effects • Sedative-hypnotics or depressants • Depress CNS Functions Major Categories of Drugs Contoso Ltd. • Tolerance • The individual requires a larger dose of the drug to reach the same effects he or she has previously experienced. • The person has become psychologically and physiologically habituated to the drug Major Categories of Drugs Contoso Ltd. Major Categories of Drugs • Dependence • Physical or psychological, or both • Addiction Contoso Ltd. The Hallucinogens • Marijuana • Cannabis plant • THC • Synthetic marijuana • Produced to mimic the effects of cannabis • Synthetic cathinones • Commonly sold as bath salts • Salvia • Cn be used to produce hallucinogenic experiences Contoso Ltd. The Hallucinogens • Marijuana • No solid evidence to indicate that cannabis contributes to or encourages violent or property crime. • Diminished psychomotor performance • Increased risk-taking Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 22 The Hallucinogens • Phencyclidine • PCP • Central nervous system depressant, anesthetic, tranquilizer, or hallucinogen • Blocks receptors and prevents neuronal messages from getting through • Users tend to be polydrug users. Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 23 The Stimulants • Amphetamines • Amphetamine (Benzedrine) • Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) • Methamphetamine (Methedrine or Desoxyn) • Other Stimulants (Ritalin Adderall) Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 24 The Stimulants • Cocaine Declining since 2007 Increased alertness Improved concentration Mood elevation Cardiovascular and respiratory side effects Cocaine and alcohol Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 25 The Stimulants • Little evidence to conclude that amphetamines directly cause people to behave violently, but they do increase the likelihood that an already prone person will behave violently. • Systematic violence on a wide scale • Distribution and selling Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 26 The Stimulants • Crack cocaine • Persistent crack users are often polydrug users. • Crack use by itself does not appear to cause violent behavior in normally nonviolent people. • The production, distribution, and selling of powder and crack cocaine have been associated with violence. Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 27 The Stimulants • MDMA • Ecstasy or Molly • Use increased in the late 1990s. • Nightclubs and raves • Increased energy, euphoria, emotional warmth and empathy toward others, and distortions in sensory and time perception • Adverse effects Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 28 Natural narcotics Opium Heroin Narcotic Drugs Codeine Oxycodone Hydrocodone Tramadol Morphine Hydromorphone Add a footer Contoso Ltd. 29 Narcotic Drugs Add a footer Contoso Ltd. 30 Narcotic Drugs • Heroin • Central nervous system depressant • Mental clouding, sublime contentment • Relationship to money-producing crime • Fentanyl • Similar to heroin in its biological and psychological effects Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 31 Narcotic Drugs • OxyContin? and Vicodin? • Prescription pain medication • The most prevalent and widespread abuse of all the opioids and prescription drugs in the United States • An increase in the number of pharmacy robberies, thefts, fraudulent prescriptions, and healthcare fraud Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 32 The Club Drugs: Sedative Hypnotic Compounds • Ketamine • Anesthesia • Fast acting anti-depressant • GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) • Designer drug • Rohypnol • Date Rape Drug Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 33 Alcohol • The substance most widely used by teenagers. • Binge drinking • Responsible for more deaths and violence than all other drugs combined Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 34 Alcohol • Psychological effects • Low doses • Acts as a stimulant on the central nervous system. • Moderate and high quantities • Depresses the excitatory processes of the central nervous system, as well as its inhibitory processes. Contoso Ltd. 35 Alcohol • Alcohol and crime • Approximately onethird of all offenders who commit violent crime were drinking at the time of offense. • May facilitate aggressive tendencies Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 36 Little evidence that alcohol or drug use cause violence in adolescent offenders. Substance Abuse and Violence Aggressive and violent behavior in childhood generally precedes the initiation into drug and alcohol abuse, at least in boys. Orderly sequence of substance abuse Experimental substance use Contoso Ltd. Add a footer 37 Burglary, Home Invasions, Thefts, and White Collar Offenses Chapter 14 Property Crime, 2013 Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation (2014a) Treated as Property Crimes • Illegal acquisition of money and material goods, or illegal destruction of property for financial gain • With some exceptions, not heavily studied from a psychological perspective Four major property crimes • • • • Burglary Larceny Theft Motor Vehicle Theft Arson Burglary • The unlawful entry of a structure, with or without force, with intent to commit a felony or theft – Forcible entry – Unlawful entry without force – Attempted forcible entry Burglary • Characteristics of burglary – Most involve residential property – Summer months – Burglaries of residences occur during daytime, burglaries of nonresidential property occur at night. Burglary • Who commits burglary? – Committed by young, males • Older burglars turn to shoplifting – Juvenile burglary is associated with truancy. – Greatest probability of success with the least amount of risk Burglary • Cues and selected targets – Occupancy cues – Wealth cures – Layout cues – Security cues Burglary • Cognitive processes – Most are planned • Surveillability • Occupancy • Entry strategies – Sliding glass doors – Windowpanes – Bump keys Burglary • How far do burglars travel? – A large proportion commit the offense near their own residence. • Gender differences – Male burglars often steal cars – Two major female categories • Accomplices • Partners Burglary • Property taken – Jewelry, valuable household ornaments – Laptops and tablets – Tools – Items with resell value Burglary • Motives – Monetary gain • Supplement income – Repeat burglary – Near-repeat offending – Self-satisfaction – Expressive • The Feral • The riddlesmith • The dominator Burglary • Burglar typology – Vaughn et al. (2008) • • • • Young versatile Vagrant Drug-oriented Sexual predators Burglary • Burglar typology – Fox and Farrington (2012) • • • • Opportunistic Organized Disorganized Interpersonal Burglary • Psychological impact – Higher distress when private areas are invaded – Endangers the victims' sense of control. – Threatens ability to protect personal territory. – Burglar may intend to produce victim response. Burglary • Home invasions – Any crime committed by an individual unlawfully entering a residence while someone is home – Not a separate UCR category – Roughly 20% of household burglaries result in violent victimization. • Simple assault Larceny and Motor Vehicle Theft • Larceny – Does not involve unlawful entry – Pickpocketing – Purse snatching – Shoplifting Larceny and Motor Vehicle Theft • Motor vehicle theft – Obtaining keys for vehicles – Carjacking • Force or threat of force • Directed at the vehicle, not the person Fraud and Identity Theft • Identity theft – Occurs without victim awareness. – Fraud • Cannot occur without theft. – Theft • Not always followed by fraud Fraud and Identity Theft • Identity theft – Credit card theft – Checking or debit accounts – Cell phone accounts – Deceased individuals – Children • Foster care Shoplifting • A form of larceny-theft • Occurs across all sociodemographic levels. • Sophisticated techniques to outfox security measures • Underreported – Discretion of store personnel Shoplifting • Who shoplifts? – Juveniles • Lower moral development – Techniques of neutralization • Moral rationalizations – Boosters and snitches Shoplifting • Motives – Peer pressure – Economic considerations – Self-esteem – Most don't consider it morally wrong. – Shoplifting by proxy Shoplifting • Kleptomania – Behavioral disorder in DSM-5 – Rare – Relationship to depression White-Collar Crime • First used by Edwin H. Sutherland – A crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation • Occupational crime • Corporate crime Occupational Crime • Green's four categories – Organizational – Professional – State-authority – Individual Occupational Crime • Corporate crime – Individuals within the organization are making decisions that render the corporate behavior a crime. • People commit the crime; the corporation benefits. – Highly publicized economic crimes Occupational Crime • Prevalence – Difficult to measure – Often not reported to law enforcement and recorded in official data – Civil suits rather than criminal charges – National White Collar Crime Center Occupational Crime • Justifications and neutralizations – Cognitive restructuring supported by corporate norms – Behavior is justified and rationalized Occupational Crime • Individual occupational crime – The offender is guided primarily by his or her own personal justifications and reasoning. – Bernie Madoff – Political crimes Occupational Crime • Employee theft – Internet – Electronic payments – Younger, unmarried, male employees – Dissatisfaction with job – Group norms Chapter 15 Violent Economic Crime, Cybercrime, and Crimes of Intimidation Understanding Criminal Behavior Professor Hug Robbery • The taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear – Direct contact between the offender and the victim – The threat or use of force Robbery • The number of robberies reported to police and the robbery rate have declined in recent years. • Strong-arm robbery is more likely to result in injury to the victim. • Young male adults • Only about 4% of all arrests for economic crimes – 35% of the violent crimes Robbery • Bank robbery – Small percentage of all robberies – High probability of success early on – High clearance rates – Amateurs and professionals Amateurs and Professionals Amateurs • Spur of the moment without much planning • Fulfilling a need • Highly Predictable • Same day Professionals • Usually Armed • More than one perp • Try to disable or obscure surveillance cameras Robbery • Commercial robbery – Places where goods are bought and sold – Convenience stores were traditional targets. – Fast-food restaurants are becoming preferred targets. • Open late, staffed by teenagers, full of cash, and conveniently near a highway Robbery • Street robbery – The greatest proportion of robberies – Based on opportunity, not planning • Alert opportunism – Many characteristics of carjackers Robbery • Motives and cultural influences – Wright and Decker (1997) • Most don't plan robbery. • Immediate gratification • Drug sellers and wealthy drug users were targets. • Street culture Motives and Cultural Influences • Wright et al – Quick cash – Purchases – Creates excitement – Prompts anger – Achieves a measure of informal justice Robbery • Robbery by groups – Porter and Alison (2006) • • • • Dominance Submission Cooperation Hostility Cybercrime • Any illegal act that involves a computer system • Computer intrusion • Unauthorized access to computers – Hacking – Virus generation • Theft of communications Cybercrime • Psychological characteristics of cybercriminals – Significant computer technical skills – Techniques of neutralization – Crimes of intimidation – Does not involve violence CyberCrime • Can be done swiftly • Vast numbers of potential victims • Increased access to personal information due to internet • Law enforcement “digital divide” CyberCrime • Financially related Cybercrime – Hacking – Mischief Data – Malicious software Cybercrimes • Privacy Concerns and Cybercrime – U.S. Congress has attempted to pass laws – Federal agencies • Training agents to specializes in fighting cybercrime Cybercrimes • Psychological Characteristics of Cyber Criminals – Research is just beginning – Diverse group – Significant computer skills – Commit crimes for the thrills Stalking • Legal definitions vary widely from state to state. • California became the first state to enact antistalking legislation in 1990. – Response to domestic violence • In 2006, an estimated 3.4 million persons age 18 or older were victims of stalking Stalking • Categories – Simple obsession – Love obsession – Erotomania – Vengeance Stalking • Cyberstalking – Using the Internet or other forms of electronic communications to threaten or engage in unwanted advances toward another • Cyberharassment – Threatening or harassing email messages, instant messages, blog entries, or websites dedicated solely to tormenting an individual CyberCrimes • Cyberstalking – Form of cybercrime that will continue to grow – Crimes are to intimidate – Psychological toll on victims • Threatening messages • anonymity Stalking • Cyberbullying – Electronic forms of contact – Anonymity – Often short duration – Need to feel powerful and in control Stalking • Cyberbullying – As of January 2015, 49 states had enacted bullying prevention legislation, almost all including cyberbullying. – Megan Meier Cyberbullying Prevention Act of 2009 • First Amendment protection Hostage-Taking Offenses • Instrumental – Goal is material gain or freedom • Expressive – Goal is psychological – The offender wants to become significant and to take control over his or her own fate. Hostage-Taking Offenses • FBI categories 1. Terrorists 2. Prisoners 3. Criminals 4. Mentally disordered Guidelines for Hostage Negotiation • Stabilize and contain the situation. • Take your time when negotiating. • Allow the subject to speak: It is more important to be a good listener than a good talker. • Don't offer the subject anything. • Avoid directing frequent attention to the victims; do not call them hostages. • Be as honest as possible; avoid tricks. Guidelines for Hostage Negotiation • Never dismiss any request as trivial. • Never say "no." • Never set a deadline; try not to accept a deadline. • Do not make alternate suggestions. Guidelines for Hostage Negotiation • Do not introduce outsiders (non–law enforcement) into the negotiation process. • Do not allow any exchange of hostages; especially do not exchange a negotiator for a hostage. Hostage-Taking Offenses • The Stockholm syndrome – Attraction or identification with the abductor – Highly unlikely • Hostage taker and victim must be together for long period of time. • The hostage must be in direct social contact during the incident. • The hostage taker must treat the hostages kindly. Hostage-Taking Offenses • Rules for hostages to follow – Survivors • Hostage returns to live healthy, productive life after incident – Succumbers • Did not survive ordeal or suffer severe emotional trauma after incident Arson • Fires that law enforcement investigation determined to have been willfully or maliciously set • Firesetting • The UCR data do not include fires that are labeled suspicious or of unknown origin. – Large dark figure Arson • Incidence and prevalence – The U.S. Fire Administration – Many communities in the United States are currently experiencing a significant increase in serial arsonrelated fires. Arson • Incidence and prevalence – Young people, particularly males, account for a substantial percent of the total arrests. – Most fires set by youth go undetected, unreported, or unsolved. Arson • Developmental stages of firesetting – Gaynor (1996) • Fire interest • Fireplay • Firesetting Arson • Persistent and repetitive firesetting among adults – Precipitated by events that exacerbate feelings of low selfesteem, sadness, and depression – Many arsonists stay at the scene. – Set fires alone and in secret – Intellectual disability Arson • Female arsonists – Little data – Older, African American, unmarried, uneducated with history of alcohol and drug abuse – Motivation was revenge Arson • Behavioral typologies and trajectories – Expressive-person • Very outgoing • Enjoy helping others • Great idea generators – Expressive-object – Instrumental-person – Instrumental-object Arson • Psychological disorders – Pyromania • A disorder of impulse control • Small percentage of arsons – Constellation of maladaptive behaviors

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