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Homework answers / question archive / You must include an examination of how relevant social constructions such as sexism, racism, classism, homophobia and privilege/oppression impact this social issue

You must include an examination of how relevant social constructions such as sexism, racism, classism, homophobia and privilege/oppression impact this social issue


You must include an examination of how relevant social constructions such as sexism, racism, classism, homophobia and privilege/oppression impact this social issue.

Choose ONE research topic from the list below:

  1. Immigration issues
  2. Gun violence at schools
  3. Reproductive health rights
  4. Racism and sexism in the media
  5. Children and families living in poverty
  6. Police brutality and racism
  7. Rape and sexual violence

Research multiple sides of your social problem. I will also expect you to use at least five terms from the list I provide and give a couple recommendations/solutions for addressing this problem.

You must use intersectional analysis in your paper. Please include various social constructions that perpetuate inequality such as sexism, racism, classism and heterosexism.

The conclusion of your paper should include at least two well-researched solutions. Examine organizations that challenge this problem. Your references must be sociological and academic.

5 typed pages, double-spaced, 12-pt font with cover page and ASA style reference page (including 5 academic references).

Research from 3 or more experts on the topic. Must directly cite & apply 5 terms

All extra documents will be provided later.

Part II- Maintaining Inequalities (Media) MEDIA: Media framing: how the message shapes the message or the story to convey one particular aspect of the event or person. Reproduces bias and does not give a full picture of what is happening, who is involved and the multiple sides of that story Ideologies provide a frame of reference for understanding the world. Media is a cultural transmitter. “Media is both the messenger and the message.” (Source “Miss Representation”). For example objectification of women’s bodies, especially young women of color. (Music videos, Hollywood films, and advertising all types of products) Jean Kilbourne (Ted Talks 15 minutes): Racist Ideologies- operate by reproducing racism and legitimizing social inequalities by justifying racial and ethnically constructed differences. It is used to do three things: 1) Organize specific social attitudes into an evaluative framework for perceiving otherness 2) Provide a basis for “coordinated action and solidarity among whites” 3) Define racial and ethnic identity of the dominant group Cadillac Commercial example with Ford’s response (Example of the myth of meritocracy and the reproduction of solidarity among whites): Marginalization: is to make a group of people invisible to mainstream culture. To silence the voices and focus on a dominant story that devalues or ignores them. Examples include Native American People and First Nation People, Asians and Asian Americans, transfolks, working poor people, differently-abled people, queer people and people of various “lesser-known” faiths. Recommended viewing: “The Social Dilemma” (Netflix) Part II- Maintaining Inequalities (VIOLENCE AND SOCIAL CONTROL) Terms: Patriarchy (father-rule): a society in which men and supposedly “masculine” values and traits are viewed as superior. In our culture violence has been constructed as natural aspect of maleness and masculinity and is used as a form of dominance and power. Heteronormativity: part of heterosexism. A set of beliefs and practices that make heterosexuality seem like the normal and natural sexual orientation. Many of these systems of oppression overlap like race, sex, gender, sexuality, class, age, ability and so forth. Reading 45: “The Triad of Men’s Violence” (Kaufman) -Distinction of “male” violence versus “men’s” violence. Sex v. gender, nature v. nurture, essentialist v. constructionist. Men are socialized to be violent (i.e. “boys will be boys” and “little head is thinking for the big head”); men are not naturally violent AND constructing the idea that “male violence” is natural means it can be used to excuse violence. As a man, I would be offended by people assuming I can’t control myself or I am some aggressive animal and not a human with agency. -What is the triad? (Men’s violence against women, other men and themselves) DRAW TRIANGLE AND WRITE CULTURE OF VIOLENCE IN THE MIDDLE Jackson Katz’ “Violence Against Women” (language construction and violence) ue?language=en Part I- Constructing Differences (RACE) Race as a social construct Dispelling Racial Myths (Vox; 3 minutes): Evidence of social construction of raceIT CHANGES OVER TIME: U.S. Census: -First U.S. Census was in 1790 and the racial categories were: Free Whites, Slaves and Other -1820 Census- the “free- colored” category was added -1830 Census- the category of “White persons foreign and not naturalized” (because of Nativist Movement) -1850 Census- Slaves and “Free inhabitants” are not marked if White, “B” for Black and “M” for Mulatto -1870 Census- “C” for Chinese (which included all Asians) and “I” for all American Indians -1890 Census- the term “race” is added into the census questions. The categories available are; White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese and Indian -1920 Census- Hindu, Korean and Filipino categories added -1930 Census- Enumerators were instructed to no longer use the "Mulatto" classification. A person with both white and black ancestry was to be recorded as "Negro," no matter the fraction of that lineage (the "one-drop rule"). A person of mixed Black and American Indian ancestry was also “Negro” unless he was considered to be "predominantly" American Indian and accepted as such within the community. White and American Indian ancestry was to be recorded as an Indian, unless his American Indian ancestry was small, and he was accepted as White within the community. In all situations in which a person had White and some other racial ancestry, he was to be reported as that other race. Persons who had minority interracial ancestry were to be reported as the race of their father. For the first and only time, "Mexican" was listed as a race. Enumerators were instructed that all persons born in Mexico, or whose parents were born in Mexico, should be listed as Mexicans, and not under any other racial category. -1940 Census- Mexican people are now counted as White -1960 Census- Hawaiian, Aleut and Eskimo categories were added -1970 Census- added the question, “Where was this person born?” “Where was the mother born? The father?” -2000 and 2010- Race and ethnicity asked. Races are White, Black, Pacific Islander, Asian, Native American or Native Alaskan, and the categories of Hispanic or Latino are NOT counted as races. What the 2010 U.S. Census looked like: VARIES BY CULTURE: Brazilian categories of race: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF RACE: Omi and Winant (Article One) call the social construction of race- “racial formation.” Racial formation takes place because racial ideas, categories and privileges are part of a sociohistorical process. “Racial formation is the process by which social, economic and political forces determine the content and the importance of racial categories.” (pg. 22) (Read the top of pg. 21 “Race as a Social Concept.”) “Racial meanings have varied tremendously over time and between different societies.” (change over time and vary culture to culture) We learn categories of difference. Thus we are not born with these categories and differences and reality is socially constructed for us in three stages (socialization process PART I): 1) Externalization- through interacting with others we learn about social institutions, values, and beliefs about people and places outside of ourselves. “Products” Example: You are a girl and your mom won’t let you go play in the dirt with the boys. Lesson –boys can be dirty and girls must be clean. You are watching sports and over and over the commentators say about black players “Look at him, he is a natural. Or he is a beast on the football field.” African Americans are naturally good at sports and have more physical strength than other races. 2) Objectivation- the social products become separate from those who created them and take on a reality of their own. They become a taken for granted part of reality. You start noticing patterns… same theme. 3) Internalization- these culturally created ideas become social “facts” and are a part of how you see the world and interact with others. Also, you accept your status and your roles and perform your role with ease. Example: Externalization- in high school a friend of yours gets in a car accident with an older Asian woman. He tells all your friends the story and says that Asians really can’t drive. Your other friend says and women can’t drive either, plus she was really old. I’m not surprised she hit you! Objectivation- In college your friends bring home a comedy to watch. There is a scene in the movie with a young Asian American woman driving down the street and hitting all the cars along the street. You and friends think this is hilarious. A year later your friend comments that he thinks all Asians in the U.S. don’t know English well enough to read the street signs. You think this kind of makes sense. You start noticing all “bad” drivers in your town are Asian. Internalization- You are now married with a 21 year old son. Your son brings home a Thai American woman that he is dating for dinner and after they leave you say to your spouse… “I can’t believe our son is into those people. I mean that girl barely spoke a word the entire night. I wonder if she even speaks English.” Seven Sociological Definitions of Racism: Part III- Experiencing Inequalities In Everyday Life Terms: Matrix of domination: (Hill Collins- third wave feminism- multicultural approach) the individual and everyday experiences of overlapping and intertwined privileges and oppressions. Statuses give us privilege when deemed superior and oppression when deemed inferior (draw on the board a series of circles including: gender, sexuality, nationality, race, religion, class, education) Create matrix and discuss: s&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi4pKqDuNLsAhXNpJ4KHXwsD28Q_AUoAXoEC AsQAw&biw=1440&bih=686#imgrc=JZVe9xY6QVktAM Part IV- Resistance and Social Change Civil Rights framework vs. Social Justice framework Civil Rights framework for social change is about majority rule with the will of the majority becoming the will of all with some people losing rights (example Prop 8, a slight majority took away the rights for gay couples and lesbian couples to marry) Social Justice framework for social change is a more micro approach that focuses on individual rights. There are three parts: 1) People have options. Access to a variety of resources in work, healthcare, housing, education, and freedom from discrimination. 2) People are aware of their options. We need to know about the opportunities and how to successfully achieve our goals in education, career, housing, health and family security. 3) People have the power to act on their options. Access to power is equal and not dictated by race, gender, class, nationality or sexuality. Components for creating positive social change: -Awareness of inequality and unequal power including access to power -Changing how we view ourselves (counteracting internalized oppression) -Empathy (recognize that we have internalized oppressive attitudes about others) -Do not be the oppressed that becomes the oppressor -Critical thinking skills (being able to imagine alternatives) -What two things do we need to do to “get at that ‘piece of the oppressor, which is planted deep within all of us’”? “Toward a New Vision” (Hill Collins) Women, Social Media and the Revolution: Radical Climate Change Movement or Rational Protest? Films that inspire activism: The Power of Empathy (Anita Nowak):

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