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Homework answers / question archive / For this week's discussion assignment, you will begin your development of Chapter 3 and 4 of your research proposal

For this week's discussion assignment, you will begin your development of Chapter 3 and 4 of your research proposal


For this week's discussion assignment, you will begin your development of Chapter 3 and 4 of your research proposal. In Chapter 3, you must discuss the Anticipated Findings of your study--the outcome you expect to get from the study. In Chapter 4 you must discuss the Implications and Recommendations of the proposed study. Refer to the handout in the Week 1 Learning Module to begin with these two chapters. Refer to the questions that should be addressed within these chapters and make sure you weave responses to each question into your papers.

At a minimum, you must respond to these questions within this paper:

Anticipated Findings:

  • What you think the results of your study would be if it is carried out?

Implications and Recommendations:

  • What are the practical sides of the results?
  • How will the anticipated findings facilitate decision making in the future?

I expect each of these two chapters to be from 300-500 words or 2-3 double-spaced pages in length, formatted in accordance with APA requirements. For grading considerations, refer to the grading rubric in your syllabus.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1 Research Proposal Student’s name Institution RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2 Research Proposal Research Question: How does bullying affect academic achievements in school? The purpose of this proposal is to undertake a school-based survey, with the overhanging aim of evaluating the well-being of students who are currently attending the school. Specifically, the survey is intended to identify whether harassment and bullying are related to the student's achievement and the school in general. The problem statement expresses a relationship between two variables. That are the students and their performance. Students are affected by various factors, including bullying, which can be between themselves or their teachers, affecting their academic performance. The rate of bullying in school will be examined and then compared to the students' results to find whether they are related. The project will be open to all students in the school from the first year between the ages of 10years to 12years, up to the upper fourth years between the ages of 15 years to 17years. The target population of the school is 1000 pupils. All the students will be allowed to participate so that the intended information will be acquired. Besides, teachers will be invited to participate, and they will be required to produce the students' results to be compared with the bullying report that will be recorded. The significance of the problem is to identify the extent of bullying of students in the school. When bullying is found to be higher, the investigator will come up with recommendations to curb bullying to ensure high performances are achieved by the students and the school in general. RESEARCH PROPOSAL 3 References Avila, L. B. (2018). Total quality management (TQM) practices of school administrators in relation to school performance among teacher education institutions in the province of quezon. KnE Social Sciences, 879-890. McNabb, D. E. (2017). Research methods in public administration and nonprofit management. Routledge. 1 Subjects of the Study Student School PA 6601 Professor 22 April 2021 2 Subjects of the Study This experimental research investigates the bullying effects on students’ academic performance. As stated in the research proposal, my research involves all the five hundred students whose ages range between 10-12 and 15-17 years, and therefore, there will be no sampling used. Therefore, the researcher will collect data from all the five hundred students, and the following is the procedure used. Data collection procedure While the study proposes using all the five hundred students for data collection, I will ensure that they get categorized into groups. A confidential structured survey will be given to all of the students to obtain data on who has been bullied at school and those who have never experienced bullying. Then, after the data is collected a second survey/interview will be given to determine the effects it had on their school performance. The last group will pose as the control group. Why this data collection method was appropriate for the study First, the study required a considerably larger sample to enable results generalization. Therefore, all students in the age group will participate. The participation of all students in the age group will help give a better indication of how often bullying happens and once that is determinded we can then determine how it effects the academic performance. It is also appropriate because data collection will allow for the collection of quantified data, permitting statistical analysis and eventual conclusion about bullying’s impact on academic performance. Potential problems Since the research involves a significant number of subjects, deciding on their different categories may prove difficult. Here is why. Even though the subjects used are students between 3 the ages of 10-12 and 15-17, their characteristics, gender, attitudes, and other demographic data differ. Time frame is also an issue. Since they are juniors, coming up with the appropriate time frame that will not effect those primarily undergoing bullying is hard. The limited-time chosen is to ensure no extreme consequences on their other aspects like personalities. The last potential problem I see is the students not being truthful, which is why I made the surveys/interviews confidential to make the students feel more comfortable. What might help with data collection and the study’s duration The study will take place for approximately one week to determine how the students who are bullied have fared academically compared to those that were not bullied. Since data collection will be technical, doing it alone will be tiring and prone to mistakes. Therefore, the research will need other research assistants to collect data. The data collections should be standard, however teachers assistants will be trained on how to conduct the surveys and to correlate the difference between the students who were bullied and if it affected their success in school. 4 Conclusion This research’s subjects will comprise all the 500 students of the targeted age group. Of this group, the researcher will ensure that they get subdivided into three groups determined by surveys/interviews: the first will be the students that have been bullied in school. The second category will undergo excellent treatment, and the last group will be the control group. All groups will be given surveys and a paper interview to fill out, it will be confidential as well so that no student feels uncomfortable with given honest feedback and communication during the surveys. References McNabb, D. E. (2018). Research methods for public administration and nonprofit management. Routledge. HYPOTHESIS 1 Hypothesis Student’s Name Institution Affiliation HYPOTHESIS 2 Research questions What is the impact of bullying on the academic performance of students? How does the Hypothesis H0 Bullying has no impact on the academic performance of students. H1 Bullying negatively affects the academic performance of students. Independent and dependent variables The independent variable is bullying, while the dependent variable is academic performance. The research has a single hypothesis. The null hypothesis of the study has a corresponding alternative hypothesis. The hypothesis is directional since it tries to test whether bullying has a negative impact on the students' academic performance (Veazie, 2015). The hypothesis is testable at a 0.5% significance level. The testing of the hypothesis will help in providing evidence that concerns the plausibility of the hypothesis. HYPOTHESIS 3 References Veazie, P. J. (2015). Understanding statistical testing. SAGE Open, 5(1), 215824401456768. doi:10.1177/2158244014567685 Running head: QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Casey Bonner PA 6601 Troy University Dr. Terry Anderson 31Mar2021 1 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 2 QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Introduction Research is one of the essential practices in every academic discipline. For students to accomplish their academic studies and be awarded for their hard work, they must participate in a research project that is in line with their area of specialization. The topic of the research project depends on the student’s course or area of study. There are two main types of research design; quantitative and qualitative research designs. The type of research design someone employs depends on the nature and topic of study. Therefore, this paper captures the differences between quantitative and qualitative research designs and the research design that I will use for my study. The differences between quantitative and qualitative research Data collection One of the most notable differences between quantitative and qualitative research design is data collection. In quantitative research design, the methods of collecting data include observations, structured interviews, surveys, and document reviews. These methods are aimed at collecting data that can be recorded in numerical form. In contrast, qualitative research design employs techniques such as in-depth interviews, focus groups, and document reviews to collect raw data (Oflazoglu, 2017). Despite the difference, it is evident that document reviews apply for both quantitative and qualitative research design. Data analysis Another notable difference between quantitative and qualitative research design is in terms of data analysis. The quantitative research design involves the use of statistical tests in analyzing the data. These statistical tests can be performed using various software such as Excel and SPSS. The most common statistical tests used in data analysis include regression analysis, t- QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 3 test, Chi-Square test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, and ANOVA (White & McBurney, 2013). On the other hand, qualitative research design doesn’t employ any statistical test when it comes to data analysis. The data is analyzed by making observations and drawing conclusions depending on the observed trend or pattern. This implies that analyzing data for qualitative research design is less involving as compared to quantitative research design. Subjective and objective Qualitative research design is subjective in nature, whereas quantitative research design is objective. This implies that qualitative research describes a condition or problem based on the feelings, perceptions, and thoughts of the individuals affected. It targets to reveal or uncover trends in thoughts or opinions to evaluate and understand the problem better. Contrary to that, the quantitative research design is subjective since it provides the observations or interpretations of the researchers concerning a particular situation. In other words, quantitative research quantifies the opinions, thoughts, attitudes, etc., to generate measurable and meaningful data. Data presentation One of the most obvious differences between quantitative and qualitative research is the way data is presented. In quantitative research design, data is presented in the form of numbers, most in a table or spreadsheet. In this case, all the observations are recorded in numerical form such that it can easily be quantified during analysis before making well-informed conclusions. Despite the data being recorded in numbers, figures such as graphs can also be used to present quantitative data. In qualitative research design, data is not presented in numerical form but in text form. However, qualitative data can also be presented in other forms such as words, objects and pictures. This type of data requires just interpretation without employing techniques like sketching, plotting, calculations, etc. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 4 Validity and reliability The validity and reliability of quantitative research design bodily depend on the accuracy of the measurement instrument, device or method used. This is because validity of the research project that involves the use of values or numbers is determined by the accuracy of the data collected with minimal errors. Erroneous device or instrument can lead to the collection of inaccurate and misleading data that can tarnish the overall objective of the quantitative research project. In contrast, the validity and reliability of qualitative research rely on the skill and knowledge of the researcher (Oflazoglu, 2017). This involves making accurate observation of the problem under study, reviewing the literature, making good judgement, conclusion, and recommendations. Formulation of theory Quantitative and qualitative research designs differ in terms of theory formulation technique. Quantitative research uses a deductive process to test pre-specified constructs, hypotheses, and concepts to formulate a theory. This kind of reasoning begins with a general statement known as a hypothesis that must be tested to arrive at a valid conclusion. Thus, the starting point is a premise followed by the inference. This implies that the deductive process starts with generalization before moving to a specific decision. On the other hand, qualitative research design employs inductive reasoning to arrive at specific conclusions. The research process begins with specific ideas aimed at achieving broad outcomes. In this regard, it is evident that quantitative research is more general while qualitative research is quite specific. Research type Lastly, a quantitative research design is conclusive, whereas qualitative research is explanatory. The ultimate goal of quantitative research is to test the existing scientific concepts, QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 5 ideas, laws, hypotheses or principles to arrive at supportive conclusions. The conclusion reached either validates or disapproves the hypotheses or concepts. In contrast, qualitative research targets to find out and explain the theory behind something. For example, to find out why a particular incident happened and its contributing factors. Recommendation I will use both qualitative and quantitative research for my study. I think based on the research shown and the topic I have chosen that would be the best for my research topic. I don’t think why bullying in schools happens, can be shown on just graphs or numerical data but should be explained in detail as well. I believe that the topic I have chosen needs to be explained in a more detailed version, with explanations, theories and the possible reasons why/how it occurs. That is the reason I chose a combined research solution in this research proposal. Conclusion In summary, both quantitative and qualitative research designs are widely applicable in scientific research. The choice of the research design depends on the nature of the study. However, the research should choose the most suitable research design depending on the nature and goal of his or her study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have some merits and demerits. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH References Oflazoglu, S. (2017). Qualitative versus Quantitative Research. [S.l.]: IntechOpen. White, T., & McBurney, D. (2013). Research methods. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 

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