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Homework answers / question archive / Assignment-4 (15%) Semester : Course Title : Course Code : Instructor(s) : Spring Year : 2021 Electrical and Computer Engineering Sophomore Seminar EECE200 Version : 1 Dr

Assignment-4 (15%) Semester : Course Title : Course Code : Instructor(s) : Spring Year : 2021 Electrical and Computer Engineering Sophomore Seminar EECE200 Version : 1 Dr


Assignment-4 (15%) Semester : Course Title : Course Code : Instructor(s) : Spring Year : 2021 Electrical and Computer Engineering Sophomore Seminar EECE200 Version : 1 Dr. Oussama Accouche (Includes names of all instructors teaching this course) No. of Pages 7 : (includes cover page) (Student Must Verify) To be completed by the students Student Name Student ID Section: O1 Major: College: Engineering Grading Scheme Question Earned Points Max. Points Question 1 40 3 2 25 Total Earned Points Total Available Points 100 Earned Points Max. Points 35 Instructor Signature Assessment Regulations: • Plagiarism: In case of plagiarism, you will receive an email to resubmit your work, with the following rule: o Resubmission within 24h from email notification: 40% deduction o Resubmission within 48h from email notification: 60% deduction. o • Failing to resubmit within two days after notification means that the assessment will be awarded 0. Late Submission: After the submission deadline, students have a maximum 2-days grace period for late submissions with the following penalty (excluding Fridays): o first day, within 24h from the deadline, 40% deduction o Second day, within 48h from the deadline, 60% deduction. o Failing to submit within two days after notification means that the assessment will be awarded 0. • Wrong Submission: Students have the full responsibility of: o submitting the required documents within the deadline o verifying that the correct files are submitted o Verifying that the submitted files are not corrupted. Resubmission of student’s work falls under late submission policy. 2 Question 1 [40 points] You are too lazy to turn on the light each time you enter your house. You want a mechanism to turn on the lights automatically whenever someone enters the house. a) Follow the 8-step engineering design process to design a solution for the above presented problem. [30 points] ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3 ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ b) List down all different methods (at least 5) which you can use to communicate your solution. [10 points] ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4 Question 2 [40 points] a) Consider the IEEE code of ethics provided and identify the ethical issues related to your solution. Write down the related clauses only. [10 points] ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ b) Analyze the economic and social impacts of your designed solution. Give at least one positive and one negative impacts for each case. [15 points] ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5 Question 3: [20 points] a) Please click on the following link and take the quiz. Answer the question in the quiz to find out your learning styles: Look at the results and provide your scores below: Auditory:--------------------- Visual:---------------------- Tactile: ----------------------- You are an …………… learner. Also provide at least 5 things that suit your learning style and can help you learn better. Below is the snapshot of my results for example. ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 6 b) Suppose you were sick and could not attend the lectures for two weeks. Which learning strategies will you use to compensate for deficit in learning? [15 points] ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 7 Engineering Design Process and Impacts of Engineering Solution EE & CE 200 Spring 2021 Outline Engineering Design Process (EDP) - What is engineering design - 8 Steps in engineering design Impact of engineering solutions - Environmental, societal, economical, and global impacts Engineering Design Process (EDP)? Engineers follow the steps of the engineering design process to guide them as they solve problems. Step 1: Define the Problem I was driving and suddenly my engine started to smoke and my car stopped. I have to fix the problem. So what was the problem? Step 2: Do Background Research What kind of research you are going to do? Research on the importance of coolant in the car and engine temperatures For most cars, the normal operating engine temperature is in a range of 195 to 220 degrees Fahrenheit. Antifreeze (coolant) is a bright yellow or green liquid that mixes with the water in cars, trucks and other vehicles to keep the radiators from freezing or overheating. Step 3: Specify Requirements • What requirements you are going to specify? • New coolant cap needed the specific requirements for the car. 1. Secure. 2. Heat resistance. 3. Easily removable. 4. Cheap and easy to make. Step 4: Brainstorm, Evaluate & Choose Solution • What ideas you could suggest? You have to come up with a ideas which varied in design, material and complexity. ??? A design that is 3D printed. Source: Step 5: Develop and Prototype Solution Time for work! Autodesk Inventor to design the model which was fairly similar to the original cap. Step 6: Test Solution • What kind of testing results you would perform? You have to test your design. Does it work? Yes – great, go to the last step. No – it needs Improvements! Step 7: Does Your Solution Meet the Requirements? • While testing you should look for any instantiates in your prototype. • There is no point in keeping a final product that works less than 100%. • If your solution did not meet the specified requirements now is the time to see what you can improve. That means starting over at the brainstorming step, which you build a different or improved model afterwards. The presented prototype met all of the settled requirements and fit well, so no need for any improvements. Go to the last step. Step 8: Communicate results • What are the ways/methods how you could communicate results? Source: Environmental, Economic, and Societal Impacts of Engineering Solutions • Different segments of society have different goals and values • Good intentions can produce unexpected and unwanted results • Only six percent of the public are scientifically literate • Actions have unforeseen scientific, political, and social consequences Environmental Impacts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Air quality Biodiversity Climate change Conservation Consumerism Deforestation Desertification Ecotourism Endangered species Environmental degradation Environmental health Environmental impact assessment Food safety Genetically modified organisms Global environmental issues Global warming Grassroots solutions Habitat loss Intergenerational equity • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Intensive farming Invasive species Land degradation Land use Nuclear energy Ocean acidification Over-exploitation of natural resources Overfishing Ozone depletion Pollution Population growth Soil conservation Sustainability Toxic chemicals Waste Water pollution Water scarcity Whaling Societal Impacts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anti social behavior Poverty Drug abuse Racial discrimination Economic Deprivation Political Corruption Unemployment stress The shortage of schools The lack of infrastructure Bullying Obesity High crime rate Transportation Homelessness Hunger Gender inequality • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Digital eye strain Musculoskeletal problems Sleep problems Emotional problems Access Increase in age Online education Online health Improved communication Improved transpiration Access to information Better governance Professional development Communicative autonomy Entrepreneurship Autonomy of the body Sociopolitical participation Personal, individual autonomy Economical Impacts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Monopoly Inequality/poverty Volatile prices Recession Inflation Health cost Unemployment Increased productivity Better goods and services Infrastructure Balance of payments Budget deficit Tax collection Business difficulties Agricultural dependence Low income Manufacturing capabilities • • • • • • Foreign exchange reserves Real-state Fuel consumption Renewable resources Imports/exports Tourism Global Impacts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Poverty Diseases Desertification Malnutrition Regional conflict Ageing population Demographic transition sustainable agriculture Food security nuclear weapons, nuclear waste Child poverty, Child labor Child abuse, Child mortality Global education Social transformation Economic development Weapons of mass destruction World hunger Human migration, displacement • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Water Scarcity Climate change Artificial general intelligence Biotechnology risk Ecological collapse Molecular nanotechnology Nuclear holocaust Overpopulation Global pandemic Inclusive growth Future of work/unemployment Climate change Gender equality Global trade and investment Long-term investment/Investment strategy Future healthcare Thank you! 17 EECE 200: Learning Strategies, Learning Skills, and Professional Societies EE & CE 200 Spring 2021 - Learning and learning process - Components and methods of learning - Know about your learning styles - Gain knowledge of learning strategies - Learn 6 effective learning strategies Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Learning is the process of acquiring new, or modifying existing, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Learning involves change. Change may good or bad from an organizational point of view. People can learn unfavorable behaviors to hold prejudices or to restrict their output. The changed must be ingrained. Temporary changes may be only reflexive and may not represent learning. Therefore the requirement that learning must be relatively permanent in nature. Some form of experience is necessary for learning. Experience may be acquired directly through observation or practice, or it may be acquired indirectly, as through reading. Learning involves concentration and participation. It usually is quicker and long-lasting when the learner participates actively. As a result of participation, people learn more quickly and retain that learning longer. Learning does not occur in a specific place like in a classroom. It is informal and it can be acquired anywhere, at any time. 6. There is no specific time for learning. A person can learn different things in his total lifetime. 7. Learning is concerned with behavior. A change in an individual’s thought processes or attitudes, if not accompanied by a change in behavior, would not be learning. 8. Learners benefited more from constructing deep explanations of the material than memorizing the facts. If there is no explanation in learning than the learning will be difficult for learners. 9. There are multiple ways to learn things. But the learner should know which one is the best way of learning and select this one. 10. It is related to frequent feedback which learners should get from instructors and peers throughout the learning process. Without it, even well-learned abilities will go away. 1. Lectures and seminars. This is a more formal setting often used in universities with a lecturer and students. The setting inhibits interaction. 2. Discussion groups. Highly interactive setting aimed at sharing viewpoints. 3. Debate. Highly interactive setting aimed at convincing others of one’s viewpoints. 4. Experimental exercise: Experimental exercises are usually short, structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing. 5. Case study and projects. These actively involve the participant and activate them to come up with solutions and answers. 6. Experiential activities. These involve active participation and are often used in team building 7. Role Play. A role is acted out or performed, for example as a technique to train customer interaction. 8. Simulation/Games. An increasingly popular and highly interactive way of experimental learning. With the rise of virtual and augmented reality, this can be made very realistic. 9. Job shadowing. Working with another employee who has a different experience to learn from them. This is a good way to learn and exchange ideas. 10.Outdoor management development (OMD). A form of experiential activities. 11.Coaching. Coaching focuses on hands-on skill development. The coach is often allocated and is the driving force. The coachee follows and learns. 12.Mentoring. Mentoring is more strategic. The mentor is chosen by the mentee and the process is also driven by the mentee. Mentoring goes beyond skills. 13.Demonstrations: A demonstration is a visual display of how to do something or how something works. To be effective, a demonstration should, at a minimum, be accompanied by a lecture and preferably by a discussion. 14.Reading, television and video instructions: Another approach to training and development is the planned reading of relevant and current management literature. This is essentially self-development. 15.Business simulation: Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can be considered a simulation. • Today we are focusing on Learning Strategies…. But there is a direct relationship between styles and strategies… learner's "natural, habitual, and preferred way(s) of absorbing, processing, and retaining new information and skills" (Reid, 1995, p. viii) • Use your phone to visit the following website and answer the following questions: OR Dr. Muhammad Nadeem These are different methods how people tend to learn new matters. 1. Visual (spatial): the usage of pictures and images. 2. Aural (auditory – musical): the usage of sound and music 3. Verbal (linguistic): the usage of words in speech and writing 4. Physical (kinesthetic): the usage of the body, hands and sense of touch 5. Logical (mathematical): the usage of logic, reasoning and systems 6. Social (interpersonal): the learning method in groups and other people 7. Solitary (intrapersonal): the learning method of being alone and use self-studies 8. Natural (experience): the usage of past experiences to continue develop upon the capabilities Duration: ¼ to ½ second 1. 2. 3. Duration: 0 to 18 second Duration: unlimited Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If attended to this information enters the short term memory. Information from the short-term memory is transferred to the long-term memory only if that information is rehearsed (i.e. repeated). If maintenance rehearsal (repetition) does not occur, then information is forgotten, and lost from short term memory through the processes of displacement or decay. It is an individual's way of organizing and using a particular set of skills in order to learn content or accomplish other tasks more effectively and efficiently For enhancing learning For performing specified tasks For solving specific problems For compensating for a deficit in learning For making learning easier, faster, more enjoyable Dr. Muhammad Nadeem • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Highlighting Listening to media Peer tutors Study groups Color coding Self talk Visual imagery Graphic organizers Draw pictures Physical gestures Flashcards Mnemonic devices Note taking Paired items Seek help from your instructor • Instructors are hired to teach, not to lecture • Lecturing is just one form of teaching–and not always the most effective • Ask questions • How is this theory applied in the real world? • Could you provide an example of when this formula might be used? • Could you sketch what that (solution, device, etc.) might look like? • How is this equation applied in practice? • Where did that formula come from? • I still don't understand when that formula is used? Dr. Muhammad Nadeem There are many learning strategies but these strategies have been identified by cognitive psychologists as having the most evidence to back their effectiveness at improving learning. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Spaced Practice Retrieval Practice Elaboration Interleaving Concrete Examples Dual Coding • Start planning early for exams, and set aside a little bit of time every day. Five hours spread out over two weeks is better than the same five hours all at once. • Review information from each class, but not immediately after class. • After you review information from the most recent class, make sure to go back and study important older information to keep it fresh. Dr. Muhammad Nadeem • Put away your class materials, and write or sketch everything you know. Be as thorough as possible. Then, check your class materials for accuracy and important points you missed. • Take as many practice tests as you can get your hands on. If you don’t have ready-made tests, try making your own and trading with a friend who has done same. • You can also make flashcards. Just make sure you practice recalling the information on them, and go beyond definitions by thinking of links between ideas. Dr. Muhammad Nadeem • Ask yourself questions while you are studying about how things work and why, and then find the answers in your class materials and discuss them with your classmates. • As you elaborate, make connections between different ideas to explain how they work together. Take two ideas and think of ways they are similar and different. • Describe how the ideas you are studying apply to your own experiences or memories. As you go through your day, make connections to the ideas you are learning in class. Dr. Muhammad Nadeem • Switch between ideas during a study session. Don’t study one idea for too long. • Go back over the ideas again in different orders to strengthen your understanding. • Make links between different ideas as you switch between them. • While it’s good to switch between ideas, don’t switch too often, or spend too little time on any one idea; you need to make sure you understand them. Interleaving will feel harder than studying the same thing for a long time. But don’t worry - this is actually helpful to your learning! • Collect examples your teacher has used, and look in your class materials for as many examples as you can find. • Make the link between the idea you are studying and each example, so that you understand how the example applies to the idea. • Share examples with friends, and explain them to each other for added benefits. • You may find examples on the internet that are not used appropriately. Make sure your examples are correct - check with your teacher. • Ultimately, creating your own relevant examples will be the most helpful for learning. Dr. Muhammad Nadeem • Look at your class materials and find visuals. Look over the visuals and compare to the words. • Look at visuals, and explain in your own words what they mean • Take information that you are trying to learn, and draw visuals to go along with it. • Try to come up with different ways to represent the information visually, for example an infographic, a timeline, a cartoon strip, or a diagram of parts that work together. Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Become a problem solver Discover your learning style Read your textbook with purpose... but read it Form a study group Seek help from your instructor Focus on understanding and not memorizing Grades always don't mean everything Make yourself a Specialist Make studying a regular habit Dr. Muhammad Nadeem • Networking with one's fellow scientists and engineers is extremely important for personal and professional development. • Professional societies sponsor conferences, publish journals, and serve as reviewers or editors. • They set professional and educational standards and provide job and career services for their members. • When you a professional society, you: Join a community of technology and engineering professionals united by a common desire to continuously learn, interact, collaborate, and innovate. • Get the resources and opportunities you need to keep on top of changes in technology. Dr. Muhammad Nadeem • IEEE (Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers): World’s largest professional association for the advancement of technology. • IET (Institution of Engineering and Technology): To inspire, inform and influence the global engineering community, supporting technology innovation to meet the needs of society.” • (SPIE) International Society for Optics and Photonics: International society advancing an interdisciplinary approach to the science and application of light” • ACM (Association for Computing Machinery): Educational and scientific computing society; focused on advancing computing as a science and a profession. • AES (Audio Engineering Society)“only professional society devoted exclusively to audio technology” • EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute): Nonprofit organization focused on addressing challenges in electricity • Kuwait Engineering Society Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Thank you! 26 Code of Ethics for Engineers Preamble Engineering is an important and learned profession. As members of this profession, engineers are expected to exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity. Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by engineers require honesty, impartiality, fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the protection of the public health, safety, and welfare. Engineers must perform under a standard of professional behavior that requires adherence to the highest principles of ethical conduct. I. Fundamental Canons Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall: 1. Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. 2. Perform services only in areas of their competence. 3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. 4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. 5. Avoid deceptive acts. 6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness of the profession. II. Rules of Practice 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. a. If engineers’ judgment is overruled under circumstances that endanger life or property, they shall notify their employer or client and such other authority as may be appropriate. b. Engineers shall approve only those engineering documents that are in conformity with applicable standards. c. Engineers shall not reveal facts, data, or information without the prior consent of the client or employer except as authorized or required by law or this Code. d. Engineers shall not permit the use of their name or associate in business ventures with any person or firm that they believe is engaged in fraudulent or dishonest enterprise. e. Engineers shall not aid or abet the unlawful practice of engineering by a person or firm. f. Engineers having knowledge of any alleged violation of this Code shall report thereon to appropriate professional bodies and, when relevant, also to public authorities, and cooperate with the proper authorities in furnishing such information or assistance as may be required. 2. Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence. a. Engineers shall undertake assignments only when qualified by education or experience in the specific technical fields involved. b. Engineers shall not affix their signatures to any plans or documents dealing with subject matter in which they lack competence, nor to any plan or document not prepared under their direction and control. c. Engineers may accept assignments and assume responsibility for coordination of an entire project and sign and seal the engineering documents for the entire project, provided that each technical segment is signed and sealed only by the qualified engineers who prepared the segment. 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an objective and truthful manner. a. Engineers shall be objective and truthful in professional reports, statements, or testimony. They shall include all relevant and pertinent information in such reports, statements, or testimony, which should bear the date indicating when it was current. b. Engineers may express publicly technical opinions that are founded upon knowledge of the facts and competence in the subject matter. c. Engineers shall issue no statements, criticisms, or arguments on technical matters that are inspired or paid for by interested parties, unless they have prefaced their comments by explicitly identifying the interested parties on whose behalf they are speaking, and by revealing the existence of any interest the engineers may have in the matters. 4. Engineers shall act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees. a. Engineers shall disclose all known or potential conflicts of interest that could influence or appear to influence their judgment or the quality of their services. b. Engineers shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one party for services on the same project, or for services pertaining to the same project, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all interested parties. c. Engineers shall not solicit or accept financial or other valuable consideration, directly or indirectly, from outside agents in connection with the work for which they are responsible. d. Engineers in public service as members, advisors, or employees of a governmental or quasi-governmental body or department shall not participate in decisions with respect to services solicited or provided by them or their organizations in private or public engineering practice. e. Engineers shall not solicit or accept a contract from a governmental body on which a principal or officer of their organization serves as a member. 5. Engineers shall avoid deceptive acts. a. Engineers shall not falsify their qualifications or permit misrepresentation of their or their associates’ qualifications. They shall not misrepresent or exaggerate their responsibility in or for the subject matter of prior assignments. Brochures or other presentations incident to the solicitation of employment shall not misrepresent pertinent facts concerning employers, employees, associates, joint venturers, or past accomplishments. b. Engineers shall not offer, give, solicit, or receive, either directly or indirectly, any contribution to influence the award of a contract by public authority, or which may be reasonably construed by the public as having the effect or intent of influencing the awarding of a contract. They shall not offer any gift or other valuable consideration in order to secure work. They shall not pay a commission, percentage, or brokerage fee in order to secure work, except to a bona fide employee or bona fide established commercial or marketing agencies retained by them. III. Professional Obligations 1. Engineers shall be guided in all their relations by the highest standards of honesty and integrity. a. Engineers shall acknowledge their errors and shall not distort or alter the facts. b. Engineers shall advise their clients or employers when they believe a project will not be successful. c. Engineers shall not accept outside employment to the detriment of their regular work or interest. Before accepting any outside engineering employment, they will notify their employers. d. Engineers shall not attempt to attract an engineer from another employer by false or misleading pretenses. e. Engineers shall not promote their own interest at the expense of the dignity and integrity of the profession. f. Engineers shall treat all persons with dignity, respect, fairness, and without discrimination. 2. Engineers shall at all times strive to serve the public interest. a. Engineers are encouraged to participate in civic affairs; career guidance for youths; and work for the advancement of the safety, health, and well-being of their community. b. Engineers shall not complete, sign, or seal plans and/or specifications that are not in conformity with applicable engineering standards. If the client or employer insists on such unprofessional conduct, they shall notify the proper authorities and withdraw from further service on the project. c. Engineers are encouraged to extend public knowledge and appreciation of engineering and its achievements. d. Engineers are encouraged to adhere to the principles of sustainable development1 in order to protect the environment for future generations. e. Engineers shall continue their professional development throughout their careers and should keep current in their specialty fields by engaging in professional practice, participating in continuing education courses, reading in the technical literature, and attending professional meetings and seminar. 1420 KING STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314-2794 • 888-285-NSPE (6773) • LEGAL@NSPE.ORG • WWW.NSPE.ORG • PUBLICATION DATE AS REVISED JULY 2019 • PUBLICATION #1102 ©NATIONAL SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 3. Engineers shall avoid all conduct or practice that deceives the public. a. Engineers shall avoid the use of statements containing a material misrepresentation of fact or omitting a material fact. b. Consistent with the foregoing, engineers may advertise for recruitment of personnel. c. Consistent with the foregoing, engineers may prepare articles for the lay or technical press, but such articles shall not imply credit to the author for work performed by others. 4. Engineers shall not disclose, without consent, confidential information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former client or employer, or public body on which they serve. a. Engineers shall not, without the consent of all interested parties, promote or arrange for new employment or practice in connection with a specific project for which the engineer has gained particular and specialized knowledge. b. Engineers shall not, without the consent of all interested parties, participate in or represent an adversary interest in connection with a specific project or proceeding in which the engineer has gained particular specialized knowledge on behalf of a former client or employer. 5. Engineers shall not be influenced in their professional duties by conflicting interests. a. Engineers shall not accept financial or other considerations, including free engineering designs, from material or equipment suppliers for specifying their product. b. Engineers shall not accept commissions or allowances, directly or indirectly, from contractors or other parties dealing with clients or employers of the engineer in connection with work for which the engineer is responsible. 6. Engineers shall not attempt to obtain employment or advancement or professional engagements by untruthfully criticizing other engineers, or by other improper or questionable methods. a. Engineers shall not request, propose, or accept a commission on a contingent basis under circumstances in which their judgment may be compromised. b. Engineers in salaried positions shall accept part-time engineering work only to the extent consistent with policies of the employer and in accordance with ethical considerations. c. Engineers shall not, without consent, use equipment, supplies, laboratory, or office facilities of an employer to carry on outside private practice. 7. Engineers shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation, prospects, practice, or employment of other engineers. Engineers who believe others are guilty of unethical or illegal practice shall present such information to the proper authority for action. a. Engineers in private practice shall not review the work of another engineer for the same client, except with the knowledge of such engineer, or unless the connection of such engineer with the work has been terminated. b. Engineers in governmental, industrial, or educational employ are entitled to review and evaluate the work of other engineers when so required by their employment duties. c. Engineers in sales or industrial employ are entitled to make engineering comparisons of represented products with products of other suppliers. “By order of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, former Section 11(c) of the NSPE Code of Ethics prohibiting competitive bidding, and all policy statements, opinions, rulings or other guidelines interpreting its scope, have been rescinded as unlawfully interfering with the legal right of engineers, protected under the antitrust laws, to provide price information to prospective clients; accordingly, nothing contained in the NSPE Code of Ethics, policy statements, opinions, rulings or other guidelines prohibits the submission of price quotations or competitive bids for engineering services at any time or in any amount.” 8. Engineers shall accept personal responsibility for their professional activities, provided, however, that engineers may seek indemnification for services arising out of their practice for other than gross negligence, where the engineer’s interests cannot otherwise be protected. a. Engineers shall conform with state registration laws in the practice of engineering. b. Engineers shall not use association with a nonengineer, a corporation, or partnership as a “cloak” for unethical acts. Statement by NSPE Executive Committee 9. Engineers shall give credit for engineering work to those to whom credit is due, and will recognize the proprietary interests of others. a. Engineers shall, whenever possible, name the person or persons who may be individually responsible for designs, inventions, writings, or other accomplishments. b. Engineers using designs supplied by a client recognize that the designs remain the property of the client and may not be duplicated by the engineer for others without express permission. c. Engineers, before undertaking work for others in connection with which the engineer may make improvements, plans, designs, inventions, or other records that may justify copyrights or patents, should enter into a positive agreement regarding ownership. d. Engineers’ designs, data, records, and notes referring exclusively to an employer’s work are the employer’s property. The employer should indemnify the engineer for use of the information for any purpose other than the original purpose. Footnote 1 “Sustainable development” is the challenge of meeting human needs for natural resources, industrial products, energy, food, transportation, shelter, and effective waste management while conserving and protecting environmental quality and the natural resource base essential for future development. In order to correct misunderstandings which have been indicated in some instances since the issuance of the Supreme Court decision and the entry of the Final Judgment, it is noted that in its decision of April 25, 1978, the Supreme Court of the United States declared: “The Sherman Act does not require competitive bidding.” It is further noted that as made clear in the Supreme Court decision: 1. Engineers and firms may individually refuse to bid for engineering services. 2. Clients are not required to seek bids for engineering services. 3. Federal, state, and local laws governing procedures to procure engineering services are not affected, and remain in full force and effect. 4. State societies and local chapters are free to actively and aggressively seek legislation for professional selection and negotiation procedures by public agencies. 5. State registration board rules of professional conduct, including rules prohibiting competitive bidding for engineering services, are not affected and remain in full force and effect. State registration boards with authority to adopt rules of professional conduct may adopt rules governing procedures to obtain engineering services. 6. As noted by the Supreme Court, “nothing in the judgment prevents NSPE and its members from attempting to influence governmental action . . .” Note: In regard to the question of application of the Code to corporations vis-a-vis real persons, business form or type should not negate nor influence conformance of individuals to the Code. The Code deals with professional services, which services must be performed by real persons. Real persons in turn establish and implement policies within business structures. The Code is clearly written to apply to the Engineer, and it is incumbent on members of NSPE to endeavor to live up to its provisions. This applies to all pertinent sections of the Code. 1420 KING STREET, ALEXANDRIA, VIRGINIA 22314-2794 • 888-285-NSPE (6773) • LEGAL@NSPE.ORG • WWW.NSPE.ORG • PUBLICATION DATE AS REVISED JULY 2019 • PUBLICATION #1102 ©NATIONAL SOCIETY OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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