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Week 7 DQ#1 Peer reviews


Week 7 DQ#1 Peer reviews. Describe the potential risks of the following:

1. Over-the-counter drugs

2. Dietary supplement


Re:Topic 7 DQ 1 (Obj. 7.1 and 7.3)


Over the counter drugs and dietary supplements are popular and widely used today. People use over the counter medications to help treat things like the common flu, allergies, and pain. Over the counter medications are available at pretty much any store. With these medications the individual is responsible for following the instructions on the labels when it comes to dosage and time frame in taking medications. One still must be cautious when taking these medications, if not taken correctly or misused, it can cause dangerous effects. Some examples of over the counter medications include: aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and naproxen. Some potential risks of taking aspirin daily include “gastric bleeding, increased time for blood clotting, and Reye’s syndrome” (Levinthal, 2016, p. 272). Ibuprofen can cause kidney damage, or kidney failure.

Dietary supplements are anything from vitamins, herbs, plants, minerals. In a national survey in 2007, approximately 18 percent of American adults reported using “natural products” (dietary supplements other than vitamins and minerals) in the past year” (Levinthal, 2016, p. 276). Many people take these supplements to help with their moods, energy, or simply to help make them feel better. Government regulations for these medications are different from over the counter or prescription medications. These supplements are not required to be tested for effectiveness or safety. Some effects of taking dietary supplement can include: nausea, headache, upset stomach, diarrhea, dizziness, etc.





Levinthal, C. (2016). Drugs, behavior, and modern society (8 th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Publishing

My response:





Harry Cox 

2 posts

Re:Topic 7 DQ 1 (Obj. 7.1 and 7.3)

Hello Professor and Class Mates

Describe the potential risks and side effect and how over the counter drugs mimic other drugs of the following:

Over-the-counter drugs the potential risk of using these types of over the counter drugs   Four out of five U.S. adults often take OTC meds for such complaints, as well as problems like skin disorders and digestive trouble.  For instance, acetaminophen, (Tylenol) which is the most over the counter medication used can be deadly as well as lead to strokes, heart attacks, anddeath.  It is stated, “Acetaminophen overdoses are also responsible for more than 150 deaths each year in the U.S”. (Dr. Mercola, 2013, p. 1) Diphenhydramine, an antihistamine, is another commonly  over the counter medication found in  sleeping pills  which can produce dizziness and drowsiness  as well as craving like illicit drugs heroin, cocaine etc. PPI  Over the counterproton pump inhibitors known as (PPI) used commonly for   heartburn and acid reflux , “can cause potentially serious side effects, including pneumonia, bone loss, hip fractures, heart attack, and infection Clostridium difficile” and gastral bacteria as well as craving,  tolerance and dependency on the PPI  being taken drug. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ( NSAIDs), such asibuprofen, aspirin, naproxen is associated with  serious side effects such as cardiovascular problems, Gastral bleeding, hypertension, and kidney  problems,  as well as irregular or rapid heartbeat, which can increase the risk for stroke and heart attack

Dietary supplements can be classified as herbal and non- herbal with herbal being used more in society than noon herbal.  “Unlike OTC preparations, dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the FDA for safety and efficacy”  (Levinthal, 2016, p. 278)     Even though the scientific research is not finished on dietary supplements nine herbs, which have been researched Ephedra. Ginkgo, Ginseng, Hawthorn, Kava, St. John’s wort Saw palmetto, Turmeric and Valerian and all have been proven to put individuals  at risk  for having one or more of the following symptoms dis-orientation extreme euphoria, and hazardous irregular heart changes nausea, high blood pressure upset stomach, and liver damage.


Dr. Mercola, J. (2013). Breakfast Mistakes. Retrieved October 18, 2018, from ttps://

Levinthal, C. (2016). Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society (8th ed.). United States of America: Pearson Education,Inc. Retrieved October 18, 2018


My response:




April Courtney 

1 posts

Re:Topic 7 DQ 1 (Obj. 7.1 and 7.3)

Over-the-counter drugs are medications that people can buy without a prescription. These medications can include “pain, coughs and colds, diarrhea, constipation, acne and others” (NIDA, 2018, para. 1). Many people abuse OTC medicines and can become addicted to it. OTC drugs can have a negative impacts and cause “health problems including memory loss, kidney failure, heart problems and death” (Addiction Center, 2018). Dietary supplements are a common over the counter medicine that people take to lose weight. They are made up vitamins, minerals and herbs, they can cause harm when you take too much or can interact with your medications. Vitamin K decreases effectiveness of blood thinners, St. John’s Wort decreases certain drugs effectiveness, and some antioxidants decreased chemotherapy (NIH, 2018). Many dietary supplements are not FDA approved and don’t have a good quality. Taking too much of certain vitamins can cause health problems “too much vitamin A can cause headaches and liver damage, reduce bone strength, and cause birth defects. Excess iron causes nausea and vomiting and may damage the liver and other organs.” (NIH, 2018, para. 8).


Addiction Center. (2018). Over the counter (OTC) drug addiction, abuse and treatment. Retrieved from

NIDA. (2018). Over-the-counter medicines. Retrieved from

NIH. (2018). Dietary supplements: What you need to know. Retrieved from

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Week 7 DQ#2 Peer reviews. What are some of the reasons why people use performance-enhancing drugs?  Do you think that people can become dependent on performance-enhancing drugs?


Jeanette Limoli 

2 posts

Re:Topic 7 DQ 2 (Obj. 7.2)

Most serious athletes want the competitive drive to win, the competition can be fierce. Besides the satisfaction of personal accomplishment, athletes often pursue dreams of winning a medal for their country or securing a spot on a professional team. the use of performance-enhancing drugs has become increasingly common (Perrens, 2016).

Performance enhancing drugs (Doping) are substances which are consumed to improve activity performance in people

Reasons why people use performance enhancing drugs are :-

· To build up body mass *To Increase strength of muscle *To boost up effort

· To increase the delivery of oxygen to the tissue *To stimulate the body to order to enhance the performance *Athletes may turn to substances to cope with numerous stressors, including pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from a life of sport (Perrens, 2016)

Drug abuse in athletes is a significant problem that has many potential underlying causes. The drive to be the best in sport dates to ancient times, as does the use of performance-enhancing substances (Perrens, 2016). With the ever-mounting pressures faced by athletes, it is not surprising that drug abuse by athletes exists across essentially all sports and age groups.

According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, some steroid user may become addicted to the drugs (DeLessio, 2016), there been evidence linked to continued use, despite the negative effect whether its social or physical problems.

Individuals who abuse steroids can experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking steroids, such as mood swings, fatigue, restlessness, loss of appetite, insomnia, reduced sex drive, and steroid cravings. The most hazardous of the withdrawal symptoms is depression, because it sometimes leads to suicide attempts. If left untreated, some depressive symptoms associated with anabolic steroid withdrawal have been known to persist for a year or more after the abuser stops taking the drugs (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Retrieved from Diagnostic and Standard Manual of Mental Disorders n (DSM-):

DeLessio, J. (2016, Feb 18). Can an Athlete Get Addicted to Steroids? Retrieved from The Cut.

Perrens, C. (2016). Sports, Use of Performance Enhancing Drugs and Addiction. Retrieved from NCBI:

My response:





Lisa Sells 

2 posts

Re:Topic 7 DQ 2 (Obj. 7.2)

The competitive nature of sports can entice athletes and coaches to seek performance-enhancing drugs. Coaches feel the pressure to have a winning team from schools and universities and athletes are groomed from the time they are young to focus on ultimate performance and victory. Careers are on the line if athletes and coaches cannot meet the winning standards that sports organizations place on them. Society's view of sports and the large sum of money paid to athletes makes it difficult for individuals to rely solely on their own strength and athleticism. Athletes can also become obsessed with their bodies and strive for a perfect physic. This is especially true with weight lifters since the quality of their physic is what brings them victory. Some individuals suffer from muscle dysmorphia, which means that they have a distorted view of their bodies when they look in the mirror and only see imperfections and weakness (Levinthal, 2016). This type of obsession can cause an individual to become dependent on performance-enhancing drugs. The emotional and physical symptoms that occur when an athlete stops steroids can also motivate them to continue taking these drugs. In addition, many athletes are superstitious and may believe that they cannot perform well without the use of these drugs (Levinthal, 2016).


Levinthal, C. (2016).  Drugs, behavior, and modern society  (8 th  ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

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