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Homework answers / question archive / California State University, Long Beach ENGLISH 101 Chapter 16 Global Encounters What statement BEST describes trade relations between Europe and Asia in the mid-15th century? Trade continued at a brisk pace along traditional land and sea routes

California State University, Long Beach ENGLISH 101 Chapter 16 Global Encounters What statement BEST describes trade relations between Europe and Asia in the mid-15th century? Trade continued at a brisk pace along traditional land and sea routes


California State University, Long Beach


Chapter 16 Global Encounters

  1. What statement BEST describes trade relations between Europe and Asia in the mid-15th century?
    1. Trade continued at a brisk pace along traditional land and sea routes. B) Trade between Asia and Europe was now occurring mostly by sea, as ships regularly

rounded Africa. C) Muslim states encouraged trade between Europe and Asia by serving as the middlemen in trading. D) Trade between Asia and Europe had been disrupted by Muslim control over the eastern caravan routes. E) China dominated trade within the Indian Ocean.



  1. Technical developments that allowed the Iberian countries to open a new era of exploration included
    1. learning to tack against the wind. B) the astrolabe.

C) the lateen sail. D) portolan map.

E) all of the above.


  1. What gave the Portuguese their main advantage for exploration? A) maps and charts

B) compass and astrolabe C) ships and naval guns D) financial security

E) none of the above


  1. The dominant religious motivation for Iberian naval power included A) conversion of the populations of the Balkans to Catholicism.

B) defeating the Protestants of northern Europe. C) crusades to convert or destroy Muslims. D) defeating Ethiopia.

E) taking their religion to the natives of North and South America.



  1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with the myth of ?Prester John?? A) A potential African to join with Spain and Portugal against Islam.

B) He was a Spanish monk who led a holy crusade on Islam. C) He was a mighty Ethiopian monarch who opposed Muslims. D) The determination to link Ethiopia and Iberia for financial gain was irresistible.

E) all of the above


  1. The most important motive(s) for exploration was(were) A) the thrill of adventure.

B) fanatical religious rivalry. C) desire to gain fame and noble titles. D) gold, glory, and God.

E) national rivalry.


  1. The Iberian political systems aided exploration in all the following ways EXCEPT A) the intent to spread Catholicism.

B) aristocrats regarded conquest and plunder as normal sources of income. C) the powers of the monarchs had been usurped by the merchant class. D) the intent to divert the Turkish menace.

E) the monarchs? power had been expanded.


  1. Which European nation led the way in exploration? A) England

B) Netherlands C) Portugal D) Spain

E) France



  1. What was the significance of Sagres to European exploration? A) It was the observatory of Portugal?s Prince Henry, where mariners planned their

voyages. B) It was an important Portuguese trading port at the mouth of the Persian Gulf.

  1. It was a legendary African kingdom with which Christian ruler Prince Henry hoped to ally.
  2. It was a Muslim port on the Moroccan coast captured by the Portuguese, which inspired Prince Henry to encourage further exploits.
  3. It was a library that contained the ancient maps of the Greeks.



  1. The first Portuguese captain to round the southern tip of Africa was A) Alfonso de Albuquerque.

B) Pedro Cabral. C) Vasco da Gama. D) Bartolomeu Dias.

E) Vasco de Balboa.


  1. What name did King John II of Portugal give to the southern tip of Africa rounded by Portuguese sailors in 1489?
    1. Molucca Strait B) Strait of Gibraltar

C) Cape Horn D) Cape of Good Hope

E) the Bosporus


  1. What error in reasoning or calculation led Columbus to believe that Asia could be reached by a short sea voyage?
    1. He believed that the Asian continent lay to the west of Europe. B) He miscalculated the distance from Europe to Asia by 7,000 miles.
  1. He thought that friendly inhabitants living on intervening continents would lend assistance to European explorers.
  2. He knew that the earth is round. E) He reasoned that a water route through or around new continents existed.


  1. Who was the sponsor of Christopher Columbus? A) King John of Portugal

B) The Bourbon royal family C) The Catholic Church D) Queen Isabella of Spain

E) Queen Elizabeth of England


  1. By the terms of the Treaty of Tordesillas, Spain received all major parts of the New World except for
    1. Brazil. B) the Carolinas.

C) Peru. D) Mexico. E) Florida.



  1. The commander of the first European expedition that reached India by sailing around Africa and across the Indian Ocean was
    1. Ferdinand Magellan. B) Vasco da Gama.
  1. Bartolomeu Dias.
  2. Pedro Cabral.


  1. Sao Vincente.


  1. The Portuguese captain who discovered Brazil when he sailed too far westward during his second voyage to India was


    1. Alfonso de Albuquerque. B) Ferdinand Magellan.

C) Bartolomeu de Las Casas. D) Pedro Cabral.

E) Bartolomeu Dias.


  1. Which of the following was NOT a port in Portugal?s Asian trading empire? A) Hormuz

B) Canary Islands C) Mozambique D) Goa

E) Malacca


  1. The Portuguese presence in the Indian Ocean meant A) Muslim states were founded on the Malaysian peninsula.

B) no room for competitors. C) the removal of Muslim traders. D) all of the above.

E) none of the above.


  1. The license issued by the Portuguese to allow non-Portuguese traders in the Indian Ocean was known as a
    1. cartaz.      B) naturae.  C) gujerat.    D) patroon. E) galleon.



  1. China banished the Portuguese because A) the Portuguese refused to trade fairly with the Chinese.

B) the Portuguese erected a fort in Canton without permission. C) China traded with no outside party. D) Portugal had nothing to offer China.

E) religious missionaries were not sent to China.


  1. Until they were expelled in the 1630s, Portuguese arms merchants and missionaries played an active role in the Asian country of
    1. Japan. B) Burma.

C) Laos. D) Vietnam.

E) Cambodia.


  1. The policies of Japan?s daimyo toward Christians included A) executing all Christians.

B) tolerating Christians but assessing a tax on them. C) anti-Christian edicts that forced Christians to emigrate over a long period of time. D) using Catholics as allies against the Dutch.

E) expelling European Christians.


  1. The principal interest of the Portuguese in Africa was A) conversion of Africans to Christianity.

B) trade. C) exploration. D) settlement.

E) none of the above


  1. Unable to establish trade with the kingdom of Mali, the Portuguese emphasized its trade with A) Yemen.

B) Cairo. C) Akan. D) Baghdad.

E) Beni.  87 196

  1. The Portuguese became involved in the slave trade because A) they supplied the Akan states on the west coast of Africa, who required slave labor to

clear the forests. B) they believed the Africans to be fit only for slavery.

C) Benin invited Portugal to join in the slave trade. D) Portugal?s extensive colony in Brazil demanded cheap labor.


E) they were in economic competition with the Dutch.


  1. What powerful kingdom, whose capital of Edo boasted intricate metal work, markets, and an efficient government, did the Portuguese encounter in West Africa in the 15th century?
    1. Benin B) Kanem-Bornu

C) Mali D) Zimbabwe

E) Ozuloa


  1. In order to remain competitive with European trade, some African nations A) modernized their agricultural system.

B) diversified their economy. C) became dependent on the slave trade. D) developed monetary systems and banking.

E) all of the above.


  1. Which of the following is NOT true of King Nzinga Mbemba of Kongo? A) He urged people to dress in the European style.

B) He resisted the introduction of Christianity. C) He changed his name to Don Alfonso. D) He made Portuguese the official language.

E) He banned the Catholic Church.


  1. Using black mercenaries and the feared Imbangala warriors, the Portuguese launched a war of conquest, which acquired
    1. the Kongo kingdom. B) Changamire.

C) Angola. D) Songhai.

E) Mombasa.  90 197

  1. The Swahili city-states of East Africa were easily subdued because A) the Portuguese sacked and plundered the city-states.

B) the Portuguese possessed a strong navy. C) they were weak militarily. D) the Portuguese used intimidation ruthlessly.

E) all of the above.


  1. The Portuguese were expelled from the Swahili coast by the A) Ethiopians.

B) Spanish. C) Arabs. D) Dutch.

E) Karanga kingdom.


  1. The Ethiopians and Portuguese allied in order to A) extend Christianity into the Arabian peninsula.

B) control the trade routes through the Red Sea. C) expel the Muslims. D) establish a western African empire.

E) form a centralized government in Ethiopia.


  1. The most destructive impact of the Portuguese on Africa included A) a more disastrous result than Spain had on the New World.

B) its involvement in the slave trade. C) the ability to dictate terms of trade with the African kingdoms. D) little or no lasting results.

E) colonization and the expulsion of Africans from those colonies.


  1. The conquistadora were the Spanish A) adventurers who participated in the subjugation of the New World.


B) Catholic friars who sought to convert the Indians. C) plantations established by nobility. D) governors of the New World colonies.

E) professional soldiers who defended Spain.



  1. The Spanish leader of the expedition who defeated the Aztec Empire in Mexico was A) Montezuma.

B) Hernando Corte ?s. C) Francisco Pizarro. D) Hernando de Soto.

E) Ponce de Leon.


  1. The outnumbered Spaniards were able to conquer the Aztecs due to each of the following reasons EXCEPT
    1. the introduction of smallpox. B) other groups of Amerindians supported the Spanish against the Aztecs.

C) the superior weapons of the Spanish. D) the use of human sacrifice by the Aztecs.

E) the use of horses .


  1. The Spaniards maintained which of the following from the Aztecs? A) religion

B) military establishment C) feudal system D) social hierarchy system

E) egalitarian policies


  1. The first colony founded in North America was A) San Diego.

B) San Antonio. C) St. Augustine. D) Santa Fe.

E) San Francisco.


  1. Spain?s claim on the Philippine Islands resulted from a naval expedition across the Pacific Ocean captained by
    1. Hernando de Soto. B) Francisco Pizarro.

C) Ferdinand Magellan. D) Francisco de Coronado.

E) Vasco da Gama.



  1. Why did extended naval voyages especially cause so many deaths? A) scurvy

B) storms C) drowning D) hostile natives

E) smallpox


  1. The Inca state had been weakened before the Spaniards arrived by A) a succession crisis.

B) attacks from the Aztecs. C) the Portuguese. D) a famine brought on by a drought.

E) civil war.


  1. Francisco Pizzarro was able to conquer the Inca because A) he commanded a huge military force.

B) the Portuguese in Brazil assisted the Spanish. C) he was able to exploit the fight between two claimants to the throne. D) the Inca had no military.

E) all of the above.


  1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with the Spanish control of the Inca empire? A) mestizo population resulted

B) unprecedented fortitude and courage C) no success in establishing Christianity D) persecution of the Amerindian population

E) all resistance ended



  1. The capital of the vice-royalty of Peru was A) Lima.

B) Mexico City. C) Havana. D) Cuzco.

E) Vilacamba.  95 200

  1. The most important source of wealth taken from Spain?s colonies in the New World was A) cocoa.

B) tobacco. C) silver from Peruvian and Mexican mines. D) gold from the temples and palaces in Mexico.

E) lumber.


  1. All of the following were Spanish colonies EXCEPT A) Venezuela.

B) Peru. C) Mexico. D) Bolivia.

E) Brazil.


  1. Probably the most significant factor that made it possible for a relatively small number of Europeans to colonize the Americas with surprising ease was
    1. rivalries among Amerindian civilizations that prevented cooperation against the intruding Europeans.
    2. the absence of immunity among Amerindians to diseases brought by Europeans to the Americas.
    3. the superiority of European firepower. D) the lack of confidence among Amerindians about their religions.

E) the technology of the Europeans.


  1. Which of the following does NOT accurately describe Iberian regimes in America? A) Portugal controlled its empire more directly than Spain.

B) As with Rome and Turkish empires, the colonies were meant to provide revenue. C) Brutality toward native peoples was common. D) Amerindian chiefs acting as rulers of peasant villages collected taxes.

E) Mining, agriculture, and ranching were common economic ventures.


  1. Encomiendas in the Spanish New World were A) grants permitting owners to take income or labor from land and its inhabitants.

B) local Indian chiefs who collected taxes and administered Spanish laws. C) elected assemblies. D) local councils of aristocrats who assisted the viceroys.

E) courts to enforce laws for the fair treatment of the native population.



  1. The Dominican friar who argued to Charles V that Indians were entitled to equal treatment under the law was
    1. Archbishop Laud. B) Bartolome ? de Las Casas.

C) Francisco de Coronado. D) Bartolomeu Dias.

E) Bishop Miguel Sanchez.


  1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with the effect of Europeans on the Amerindians? A) horses

B) alcoholism C) improved education D) Jesuit and Dominican missions to alleviate the misery

E) disease


  1. Scarcity of labor in the Americas led the Spanish and Portuguese colonizers to A) establish a wage-earning system for the Indians.

B) institute policies that protected the Indians. C) import slaves from Africa. D) encourage English and Dutch settlers to emigrate to the New World.


E) encourage the unemployed in Europe to migrate.


  1. Which industry required the greatest amount of slave labor? A) sugar B) rice C) cotton          D) tobacco

E) indigo


  1. Women in Spanish society A) could not operate a business.

B) were not considered less than men in social situations. C) were not allowed a legal separation in the case of abuse in a marriage. D) had legal protection of their property.

E) married at a much younger age than most Europeans.



  1. All of the following are consistent with the Catholic Church in the Spanish colonies EXCEPT A) its increasing wealth.
  1. it established an Inquisition to discipline Indian converts who continued traditional rituals.
  2. the monastic orders established schools. D) it suppressed indigenous religions.

E) its leaders organized against abuses that the Indians suffered.


  1. A mulatto is a person of A) European and African descent.

B) Amerindian and European descent. C) African descent imported as a slave. D) Amerindian and African descent.

E) of native Indian descent.


  1. Estates or plantations belonging to elite families were known as A) casas.

B) haciendas. C) encomenderas. D) zambos.

E) cabildos.


  1. Which of the following took advantage of the growing weakness of Spain and Portugal to expand New World colonial possessions?
    1. England B) France

C) Holland D) all of the above

E) none of the above


  1. The major cause of the growing weakness of Spain and Portugal after 1600 was the A) successful opposition by Amerindians and Africans.

B) drain placed on Iberia?s finances by colonization efforts in the Americas. C) deflationary impact of bullion imports. D) failure to find productive investments with profits from New World colonies.

E) wars of conquest.



  1. An important source of food for Europe was fish, which were caught in greatest abundance A) in Newfoundland?s Grand Banks.

B) off Africa?s south Atlantic coast. C) in the Caribbean Sea. D) in the Indian Ocean.

E) in the north Atlantic near Iceland.


  1. The Aztec sacred beverage, which became the rage in Europe, was A) goat?s milk.

B) coffee. C) tea. D) cocoa.


E) cassava.


  1. Potatoes, sugar, and tobacco were products introduced to Europe from A) Africa.

B) Pacific islands. C) the Americas. D) Asia.

E) trade with India.


  1. Gold and silver from America and Africa had which impact on Europe? A) stimulated capitalism

B) lowered prices for goods in Europe C) a gold drain to Asia D) a money shortage

E) decreased profits for merchants


  1. In the 17th century, Iberian cities were surpassed as leading commercial centers by Antwerp and later by
    1. Naples. B) London.

C) Paris. D) Amsterdam.

E) Brussels.  02 204

  1. The Dutch East India Company had a monopoly on all trade with A) the North Atlantic.

B) South America. C) the Caribbean. D) Asia and the Pacific.

E) the West Indies.


  1. The creator of the Dutch trading empire in the East, with its capital at Batavia, was A) Samuel de Champlain.

B) John Cabot. C) Jan Pieterszoon Coen. D) Henry Hudson.

E) Hans Holweg.


  1. The Dutch were unable to establish permanent settlements in Asia for all the following reasons EXCEPT
    1. the failure to convince Dutch women to move there. B) the resentment of the natives who did not allow intermarriage.

C) Dutch men who stayed were not interested in establishing family empires. D) the desire of Dutch men to concentrate on making a fortune and returning to Holland.

E) prosperity in Holland.


  1. The Dutch conquered           in Latin America. A) Chile

B) Argentina C) Brazil D) Peru

E) Mexico


  1. The Hudson River and Manhattan Island were explored and claimed by Henry Hudson, who sailed in the service of the
    1. French. B) Spanish. C) English.

D) Dutch. E) none of the above.



  1. The most profitable activity of the Dutch in North America was A) agriculture.

B) mining. C) fishing. D) the fur trade.

E) lumbering.


  1. Early French claims on North America resulted from exploration from the Carolinas to Newfoundland by
    1. Giovanni da Verrazzano. B) Jacques Cartier.


C) Francis Drake. D) Samuel de Champlain.

E) Francis I.


  1. Samuel de Champlain founded a French settlement on the Saint Lawrence River at A) Montreal.

B) Isle of Bourbon. C) Port Royal. D) Quebec.

E) Toronto.


  1. The French Empire in America A) possessed Santo Domingo, which was the largest sugar and coffee producer.

B) initiated the fur trade around the headwaters of the Mississippi River. C) suffered from underpopulation. D) established a base on Nova Scotia.

E) all of the above.


  1. The goal of the voyages of John Cabot and other captains sailing for England was to discover A) a source of slaves.

B) areas for the excess population to settle. C) new fishing grounds. D) a northern passage to Asia.

E) a new continent.



  1. The first permanent English colony in America was founded in 1607 at A) Plymouth.

B) Jamestown. C) Manhattan Island. D) Williamsburg.

E) Boston.


  1. English colonies differed from the Spanish, French, and Dutch colonies in all the following ways EXCEPT that
    1. slavery was illegal. B) settlers arrived with the purpose of staying.

C) religious dissenters settled in the colonies. D) there was a tradition of self-government.

E) entire families emigrated rather than single males.

  1. Anne Hutchinson and Anne Bradstreet A) led a slave revolt on Barbados.

B) exemplified the independent pioneering spirit of English colonists. C) were martyred for their political beliefs. D) founded a colony to the north of Virginia.

E) were burned as witches.


  1. An area where the English succeeded in ousting Dutch rivals was A) Sumatra.

B) Java. C) the Moluccas. D) India.

E) the Philippines.


  1. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries the English government regarded the          as more important economically than the wild forests of North America.
    1. East Indies B) Persian Gulf region

C) West Indies D) coast of India

E) Central America


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