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Homework answers / question archive / University of Toronto PSYCHOLOGY SOP4731 CHAPTER 8 1)Which of the following statements about self-esteem is most accurate? a)            There is very little variation in self-esteem across cultures

University of Toronto PSYCHOLOGY SOP4731 CHAPTER 8 1)Which of the following statements about self-esteem is most accurate? a)            There is very little variation in self-esteem across cultures


University of Toronto




1)Which of the following statements about self-esteem is most accurate?

a)            There is very little variation in self-esteem across cultures.

b)            In interdependent cultures, interdependence is negatively related to self-esteem, whereas in independent cultures, interdependence is positively related to self-esteem.

c)            Independence is positively related to self-esteem.

d)            Interdependence is positively related to self-esteem.

e)            Self-esteem is higher among children than adults in Eastern cultures; however, self-esteem is higher among adults than children in Western cultures.

2.            Raquel habitually engages in self-enhancement. She recently did poorly on a sociology exam. Which of the following would you NOT expect her to do?

a)            disregard the importance of sociology

b)            blame her poor performance on her professor for not writing a fair exam

c)            think about how the student with the lowest score in class did

d)            focus on how other classmates from her track and field team did really well e) compare herself with how the best student in her class did

3.            Based on the biases self-enhancers have, which of the following is someone who self-enhances most likely to say after failing a chemistry test?

a)            “Even though I failed this chemistry test, I can still do well in physics.”

b)            “I failed this chemistry test, so I have to study even harder in this class.”

c)            “This test was fair; I just did not work hard enough.”

d)            “Chemistry is still very important to me.”


e)            “Lex did so well! I need to work to be more like him.”


4.            If a person basks in the reflected glory of his or her group, which of the following is most likely?

a)            The person will not engage in self-serving biases.

b)            The person has a stronger endowment effect than East Asians would exhibit.

c)            The person has a prevention orientation.

d)            The person has an entity theory of the world.

e)            The person is not someone who engages in self-enhancement.


5.            What is one distinction between “predestination” and “calling”?

a)            They are synonyms of each other.

b)            “Predestination” refers to a goal that one works toward in one’s lifetime; “calling” refers to the way by which one achieves the goal.

c)            “Predestination” refers to what one has to do to go to heaven; “calling” refers to the fact that one is preordained to go to heaven.

d)            “Predestination” refers to when one will die; “calling” refers to what a person does in life to prepare for his or her death.

e)            “Predestination” refers to something after death; “calling” refers to something before death.


6.            Group-enhancing biases are

a)            more pronounced among East Asians than Westerners.

b)            more pronounced among Native Americans than Euro-Americans. c) more pronounced among Westerners than East Asians.

d)            weaker than self-enhancing biases for people from all cultures.

e)            evident with equal levels in all cultures.


7.            Ichiro, a Japanese student, wants to sell his used book that he’s had for a decade. Kent, an American student, wants to sell the exact same book, which he has also owned for a decade. They price their respective books depending on how much they think the books are worth. The books themselves are valued at $50. Which of the following best predicts what the two price tags will most likely be?

a)            Ichiro: $50; Kent: $50

b)            Ichiro: $20; Kent: $15

c)            Ichiro: $60; Kent: $50

d)            Ichiro: $70; Kent: $20 e) Ichiro: $30; Kent: $60

8.            How is the Protestant Reformation relevant to the question of why Westerners self-enhance so much?

a)            The Christian doctrine that all of God’s creations should be respected requires that people respect themselves and come to view themselves in unrealistically positive terms.

b)            Because God loves everybody, it follows that people should also love themselves.

c)            Catholicism emphasizes confession, which involves a recognition of one’s faults. The shift to Protestantism led Protestants to avoid thinking about their faults.

d)            People are motivated to believe that they are predestined to go to heaven, and this leads them to interpret their behavior in an unrealistically positive light.


e)            None of these statements are relevant.


9.            Which of the following statements is true of face?

a)            People can increase their face by focusing on their positive qualities.

b)            All people have roughly the same amount of face. c) Face is more easily lost than it is gained.

d)            Face is negatively correlated with self-esteem.

e)            The importance of face is unrelated to collectivism.


10.          Kosuke is a Japanese student who just won a drawing competition. Kent is a Canadian student who also just won a drawing competition. Immediately after their victories, they were asked to create another drawing. Compared to Kosuke, what is Kent more likely to do?

a)            spend more time drawing than Kosuke

b)            stop drawing earlier than Kosuke

c)            draw for about the same amount of time as Kosuke

d)            spend less time drawing than he would if he had not won

e)            move on to a different task


11.          Claudia and Hideki are math students. Claudia has a self-enhancement orientation, whereas Hideki has a self-improvement orientation. The best way to make them both continue to put in effort to learn math is to give

a)            both students a very difficult math test that is rigged to make them do poorly.

b)            both students a very easy math test that is rigged to make them do well.

c)            Claudia a very easy math test so she is rigged to do well, but give Hideki a very difficult math test so he is rigged to do poorly.

d)            Claudia a very difficult math test so she is rigged to do poorly, but give Hideki a very easy math test so he is rigged to do well.

e)            both students a very easy math test, but do not tell them their scores.


12.          Which of the following people would you expect to feel the need to maintain face?

a)            “I go along with what other people want to do, and make myself enjoy it.”

b)            “I really like to make myself feel good about myself.”

c)            “I prefer to avoid negative outcomes from happening.”

d)            “I cannot change who I am—I am who I am.”

e)            “I like to compare myself with those who are worse off than I am.”


13.          Which of the following was NOT a belief to emerge from the Protestant Reformation?

a)            People have an individualized relationship with God. b) People are inherently good.

c)            It has been decided, before someone is born, whether he or she will go to heaven or to hell.

d)            People have specific purposes to fulfill during their lives.

e)            People must work hard at their callings.


14.          A study comparing Protestants and non-Protestants in their interactions with others in a working context found that Protestants


a)            paid more attention to relational cues than non-Protestants, regardless of condition.

b)            did not work as hard at the task compared with non-Protestants.

c)            worked harder at the task than non-Protestants when it was a fun task, but the two groups did not differ in their work when it was a serious work task.

d)            paid less attention to relational cues than non-Protestant men in a serious work task.

e)            worked less hard than non-Protestants when it was a serious work task.


15.          Based on Sanchez-Burks’s research on relational styles and work, how does religion affect relational styles?

a)            Protestantism leads people to work harder, regardless of condition, than non-Protestants.

b)            Protestants work harder than non-Protestants, but only when they are reminded of their religion.

c)            Protestantism leads people to work as hard as non-Protestant people do; however, they do so without attending to their relationships, regardless of condition.

d)            Protestantism leads people to attend less to relationships than do non-Protestant religions when engaged in a work task.

e)            Protestants have less fun than non-Protestants when engaged in a casual task.


16.          A Catholic and a Protestant walk into a bar. Their names are Jon and Jack, respectively. They start discussing everything from social issues to psychological research. They agree that they have many similarities and differences. Based on the textbook’s research on Catholics and Protestants, which of the following is likely similar or different between the two of them?

a)            Both Jon and Jack equally find overweight people to be lazy. b) Jack is much more individualistic than Jon.

c)            Jon has a high-status nonmanual occupation, while Jack does not.

d)            Jack is more accepting of overweight people than Jon.

e)            Jon was self-reliant at a much younger age than Jack.


17.          A person is building a road to connect two towns, but the road is stopped by a mountain. The person can either build the road so that it follows the side of the mountain and continues on from the other side, or the person can just tunnel through the mountain. This person decides that people should not get pushed around by nature, so decides to tunnel through the mountain. Which of the following terms best describes this way of thinking?

a)            secondary control

b)            self-enhancement

c)            maintaining face

d)            self-serving bias

e)            incremental theory of the world


18.          Which combination of different ways of thinking is most conducive to developing learned helplessness?

a)            low entity theory of the self; high primary control

b)            high self-esteem; high need for many choices

c)            high tendency to engage in self-serving biases; low in ability to exert secondary control


d)            high entity theory of the world; low in ability to exert primary control

e)            low incremental theory of the self; low entity theory of the world


19.          Which of the following would be an example of secondary control?

a)            You work hard at your studies in the beginning of the term so that you do not have such a busy time at the end of the term.

b)            You try to convince your friends that they should move their planned hiking trip to the following weekend because that would fit better with your schedule.

c)            You convince yourself that taking the bus to work is not so bad after all.

d)            You return the sweater that you just bought because you decide it does not look very good on you.

e)            You start showing up at work before your boss does in an effort to get a raise.


20.          Several real estate agents have been convicted of several counts of real estate fraud. The most plausible reaction from American and Japanese news outlets is that Japanese newspapers are likelier than American ones to

a)            recommend strong punishment of the agents. b) view the real estate companies to be at fault.

c)            predict similar events will happen in the future.

d)            remove their assets from the companies involved.

e)            perceive the agents as having exercised choice.


21.          Which of the following would be the best example of primary control?

a)            You and your friends decide as a group to spend a day at the amusement park.

b)            You choose to paint your house yellow after your partner tells you about her strong preference for yellow.

c)            You cook spaghetti and meatballs because your parents are in town and it is their favorite dish.

d)            You return a computer game to the local computer store because it did not excite you as much as you wanted it to.

e)            You buy a dog as a pet.


22.          You are a teacher who assesses your students’ science knowledge by having them play one of many science games available on the computer, so you want them to take this task seriously. Your class is comprised fully of Asian American and Euro-American children. How would you maximize their motivation to play these science games?

a)            Allow all the children to choose the game that they want.

b)            Let other classmates choose the game for the Asian American students, but let the Euro-American students choose for themselves.

c)            Let the Asian American children’s mothers choose the game for them, and let the Euro-American children’s classmates choose for them.

d)            Let the Euro-American students choose for themselves, and ask students from another school to choose for the Asian American students.

e)            Let both the Euro-American and Asian American parents choose for their children.


23.          One frozen yogurt parlor has ten flavors from which to choose (Parlor X), and another parlor has more


than one hundred flavors (Parlor Z). You ask people to choose which one they want to patron. Which of the following is most indicative of people’s preferences, given the research on choices as described in the textbook?

a)            Americans, like people from other Western cultures, would always prefer to go to Parlor Z.

b)            Europeans prefer Parlor Z more than Americans do.

c)            Although Americans may say that they prefer Parlor Z, they actually would have a more difficult time choosing a flavor from Parlor Z than from Parlor X.

d)            Americans would prefer it if their significant others choose for them.

e)            Europeans would have no preference for either parlor.


24.          Working-class and upper-middle-class Americans differ in that

a)            working-class Americans are happier than upper-middle-class Americans.

b)            although working-class Americans do not have as many choices available to them, they desire choice, and respond to choices made by others, in the same way that upper-middle-class Americans do.

c)            upper-middle-class Americans employ more primary and more secondary control than do working- class Americans.

d)            working-class Americans use more primary control than upper-middle-class Americans, but there is no difference in the use of secondary control.

e)            working-class Americans respond to a choice being taken away from them better than do upper- middle-class Americans.

25.          At an academic debate, you overhear one researcher say, “Based on Iyengar and colleagues’ work on choice across cultures, Asian Americans have a stronger preference for everyone else to make choices for them rather than making choices for themselves.” Do you agree?

a)            Disagree. Asian Americans prefer choices that are chosen for them by an in-group member, but not by an out-group member.

b)            Disagree. Asian Americans prefer to make choices for themselves rather than have someone else choose for them.

c)            Agree. Asian Americans prefer someone else to make choices for them, regardless of who that someone else is—because they are high in agreeableness.

d)            Agree. Asian Americans prefer someone else to make choices for them, regardless of who that someone else is—because they are high in collectivism.

e)            Disagree. Asian Americans prefer to make choices for others rather than for themselves.


26.          Research conducted on East and West Germany found that

a)            West Germans employed more secondary control strategies than did East Germans.

b)            although they had fewer choices available to them, East Germans were happier than West Germans.

c)            East Germans preferred having choices made for them by their governments, whereas West Germans preferred having choices made for them by their families.

d)            East Germans showed more achievement motivation than West Germans.

e)            East Germans displayed more behaviors associated with learned helplessness than West Germans.


27.          According to Snibe and Markus’s study, working-class Americans liked the pen they were given,


regardless of whether they chose it or not, unlike upper-middle-class Americans, who much preferred the pen that they chose. This can be explained by

a)            upper-middle-class Americans scoring higher on entity theory of the world than working-class Americans.

b)            working-class Americans engaging in more secondary control than upper-middle-class Americans.

c)            working-class Americans having more of a calling than upper-middle-class Americans.

d)            upper-middle-class Americans having more of a prevention orientation than working-class Americans.

e)            working-class Americans wanting to save face more than upper-middle-class Americans.


28.          In a study, five people are asked to taste test three dishes, one of which tastes like garbage. They must then judge which dish was the best. However, four of the people are confederates and are told to always say that the garbage dish is the best. The real participant (the fifth person) is then asked to give his or her judgment. This study is done in both an individualistic and a collectivistic culture. Based on the results obtained using Asch’s paradigm across cultures, what do you expect to happen in this case?

a)            Participants from the individualistic culture would most likely not say that the garbage dish is the best one.

b)            Participants from both cultures would be equally likely to say that the garbage dish is the best one.

c)            Participants from the individualistic culture would be more likely to say that the garbage dish is the best one if the first four participants were friends.

d)            A lot of participants from the individualistic culture would say that the garbage dish is the best one, but even more participants from the collectivistic culture would say the same.

e)            No participants from either culture would say that the garbage dish is the best one.


29.          A group of East Asians and Americans have won a contest, and each person is allowed to pick a car from a selection of cars. All cars are of the same make, model, and year. The only thing that differs between them is that they can be one of two colors. Furthermore, there is an extremely unequal proportion between the two colors, making the minority color very unique. Given this scenario, which of the following statements is true?

a)            East Asians will choose their cars randomly.

b)            Americans will choose cars with the brightest colors.

c)            East Asians will choose unique-colored cars. d) Americans will choose minority-colored cars.

e) East Asians will choose white cars.

30.          You are an executive for a Korean advertising agency and you have been asked to create a TV commercial for a new condominium, targeting people from Korea. Based on Kim and Markus’s research on advertisements in Korea and the United States, which of the following would you most likely use in your commercial?

a)            “No need for stockpiled money—Condo X is cheap and affordable!”

b)            “Condo X—there’s nothing else quite like it.”

c)            “The architecture of this condo blends in well with the buildings surrounding it.”


d)            “This condo was designed by an architect who has a unique style.”

e)            “Need a place to live? Try our condo!”


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