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Homework answers / question archive / Paraphrasing Activity Instructions Please do the following before answering the questions in this activity: 1

Paraphrasing Activity Instructions Please do the following before answering the questions in this activity: 1


Paraphrasing Activity


Please do the following before answering the questions in this activity:

1.) Read the background information on direct quotes and paraphrasing.

2.) Watch the two videos related to paraphrasing.


1.) Background information on direct quotes and paraphrasing:

When writing academic papers like your Case Study, you will be often referencing information from a textbook, website, or journal article.  As you have learned in previous assignments, you need to properly cite the source for where this information comes from. One other aspect of using your source information that we have not discussed is how to properly incorporate it into your paper. There are two ways to incorporate source information within an academic paper 1.) using direct quotations or 2.) paraphrasing. We will be discussing both below and then you will be answering questions on this information.


Direct Quotations:

Directly quoting the material from a source means that you are using the information verbatim (exactly as it is written in the source material) within your paper. Additionally, you need to acknowledge where the information comes from using an in-text or parenthetical citation. To write a direct quote, you should put quotation marks (") on either side of the text you are copying from a source. 

The following portion of the article below will be used as an example of how to directly quote and paraphrase information from a source. 

From: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). Say no to raw dough! Retrieved from: (Links to an external site.)

image for paraphrasing activity.jpg


For an example of how to properly quote the above information from the third paragraph in your article you could write something like this:

According to the CDC (n.d.), "the symptoms of Salmonella infections typically appear 6 to 48 hours after eating a contaminated food, though this period is sometimes longer."

Note that a proper in-text citation was used to document the source of this information. 



As stated in your Case Study prompt, direct quotes are very seldom used within scientific writing. Instead you should paraphrase that information and include the proper in-text or parenthetical citation for the source. Paraphrasing means that you should be putting that information into your OWN WORDS, while still giving the original author credit for their work/thoughts. It does NOT mean just rearranging a few words in the sentence. Paraphrasing information from a source is often the most difficult aspect of writing scientific papers, which is why you are completing this activity to give you practice.

Below is an example of how one might paraphrase that same sentence quoted above:

With dietary related Salmonella infections, symptoms commonly begin sometime between 6 and 48 hours following exposure to the bacteria, such as when a person eats raw cookie dough (CDC, n.d.).


Note that the above sentence example has been changed substantially from the original and is not just a rearrangement of the original words. Additionally, a proper parenthetical citation was included at the end of the sentence to indicate the source of the information. The example above takes the information on timing of symptoms from the article and builds on it by tying it into the main context of the article, which is that eating raw cookie can lead to bacterial infections through either the flour or the uncooked eggs. 


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