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Homework answers / question archive / University of Health Sciences Lahore - BIOLOGY 2301 CHAPTER 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)Viruses are infectious agents that infect exclusively multicellular organisms

University of Health Sciences Lahore - BIOLOGY 2301 CHAPTER 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery MULTIPLE CHOICE 1)Viruses are infectious agents that infect exclusively multicellular organisms

Health Science

University of Health Sciences Lahore - BIOLOGY 2301

CHAPTER 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery


1)Viruses are

    1. infectious agents that infect exclusively multicellular organisms.
    2. noncellular particles that take over the metabolism of a cell to generate more virus particles.
    3. pathogens that replicate in complex growth media.
    4. cellular particles that belong to the archaea domain.
    5. microbes that consist of lipid membrane–enclosed genomes.



  1. Analysis of DNA sequences reveals
    1. the ancient convergence of two cell types (i.e., prokaryotes and eukaryotes).
    2. that prokaryotes and eukaryotes evolved from a common ancestral cell.
    3. that bacteria share a common ancestor with archaea but not with eukarya.
    4. that prokaryotes are cells with a nucleus.
    5. that the genome of Haemophilus influenzae has about 2 billion base pairs.




  1. Which of these groups are considered to be microbes but NOT considered to be cells?
    1. viruses                                                     d. protists
    2. bacteria                                                   e.   filamentous fungi
    3. archaea



  1. A microbe is commonly defined as a           that requires a microscope to be seen.

a.   virus


multicellular eukaryote

b. bacterium


living organism


single-cellular prokaryote




  1. Which one of the following statements regarding microbial cells is FALSE?
    1. Microbial cells acquire food, gain energy to build themselves, and respond to environmental change.
    2. Most single-celled organisms require a microscope to render them visible, but some

bacterial cells are large enough to be seen with naked eyes.

    1. Microbes function as individual entities.
    2. Many microbes form complex multicellular assemblages.
    3. Viruses are not considered microbial cells.




  1. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
    1. A genome is the total genetic information contained in an organism’s chromosomal DNA.
    2. If a microbe’s genome includes genes for nitrogenase, that microbe probably can fix nitrogen.
    3. By comparing DNA sequences of different organisms, we can figure out how closely

related they are.

    1. Fred Sanger developed the first applicable DNA sequencing method.
    2. Fred Sanger completed the sequences of Haemophilus influenzae.



  1. The first cellular genomes to be sequenced were those of
    1. humans.                                                  d. prions.
    2. bacteria.                                                  e.   fungi.
    3. viruses.



  1. The environment of early Earth may have contained all of the following EXCEPT
    1. ferrous iron.                                            d. oxygen.
    2. methane.                                                 e.   hydrogen gas.
    3. ammonia.

                                 DIF:     Medium        REF: Special Topic 1.1


  1. The development of the theory of the “RNA world” resulted from the discovery of
    1. archaea.                                                  d. ribozymes.
    2. prions.                                                     e.   endosymbionts.
    3. bacteria.



  1. What is the evidence that living cells existed on Earth up to 3.8 billion years ago?
    1. microfossils                                             d. Martian folded rock formations
    2. 16S ribosomal RNA                                 e.   diatom shells
    3. Miller and Urey’s experiments



  1. What did van Leeuwenhoek discover using microscopic observations before and after drinking hot beverages?


    1. Heat did not kill microbes.
    2. Heat killed microbes.
    3. Heat did not kill algae.
    4. Caffeine in coffee killed microbes.
    5. The existence of spiral-shaped microbes.



  1. Tyndall’s spontaneous generation experiments occasionally failed due to
    1. nutrient chirality.                                    d. lack of oxygen.
    2. dust.                                                        e.   endospores.
    3. fermentation.



  1. The discovery of microbes occurred in the          century?
    1. seventeenth                                            d. twentieth
    2. eighteenth                                               e.   twenty-first
    3. nineteenth



  1. Robert Koch won the Nobel Prize for his contribution to medical bacteriology regarding
    1. Escherichia coli.                                      d. rabies.
    2. Bacillus subtilis.                                      e.   smallpox.
    3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis.



  1. How did European invaders to North America kill much of the native population?
    1. tuberculosis                                             d. HIV
    2. leprosy                                                    e.   bubonic plague
    3. smallpox



  1. Florence Nightingale
    1. is best known as the founder of professional nursing.
    2. was the first to use disinfectant to demonstrate the significance of aseptic technique.
    3. developed the pie chart of mortality data during the Crimean War.
    4. performed the first controlled experiment on the chemical conversion of matter, known today as chemotherapy.
    5. argued that the environment of early Earth contained mainly reduced compounds.




  1. Who developed the concept of medical statistics?


a.   Francis Crick


Louis Pasteur

b. Florence Nightingale


Alexander Fleming

c.                                Edward Jenner





  1. The first person to visualize individual microbial cells was
    1. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.                     d.   Lady Montagu.
    2. Robert Hooke.                                         e.   Edward Jenner.
    3. Louis Pasteur.



  1. Semmelweis and Lister noted that many of their patients’ deaths were due to
    1. fungi.                                                       d.   pathogen transmission by doctors.
    2. Escherichia coli.                                      e.   Staphylococcus.
    3. chlorine.



  1. What is the standard sterilization method for the controlled study of microbes?
    1. boiling                                                     d. autoclaving
    2. pasteurization                                         e.   irradiation
    3. filter sterilization



  1. How does the Winogradsky column differ from Koch’s plate media?
    1. Koch’s media creates a gradient from oxygen-rich conditions at the surface to highly reduced conditions below.
    2. The Winogradsky column is used for culturing viruses.
    3. The Winogradsky column is used for growing extremophiles.
    4. The Winogradsky column uses the kinds of nutrients that feed humans.
    5. The bacteria that Winogradsky isolated can grow only on inorganic minerals.



  1. Suppose Pasteur’s swan-necked flasks containing boiled broth became cloudy twenty-four hours after boiling. Which choice could best explain the turbidity or cloudiness in the broth without supporting spontaneous generation?
    1. Endospores in the broth survived boiling and grew after the broth cooled.
    2. Contaminating organisms in the broth killed by boiling became alive again after the broth cooled.
    3. Chemicals in the broth came together to form living organisms.
    4. The broth allowed light to pass through it with less interference after boiling.
    5. Solid material in the broth dissolved during boiling.



  1. Which of the following is NOT considered to be an extremophilic condition for bacteria?
    1. high alkalinity                                         d. high nutrients
    2. high salinity                                             e.   high temperature
    3. high acidity



  1. The use of agar as a more robust gelling agent in solid media was suggested by
    1. Robert Koch.                                           d.   Louis Pasteur.
    2. Ignaz Semmelweis.                                 e.   Richard Petri.
    3. Angelina Hesse.



  1. It took the advent of the polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the causative agent for which disease?
    1. anthrax                                                    d. rabies
    2. tuberculosis                                             e.   smallpox
    3. AIDS



  1. The word “vaccination” is derived from the Latin word vacca, which means
    1. inject.                                                      d. cow.
    2. smallpox.                                                 e.   pustule.
    3. immunize.




  1. What was the basis for the original smallpox vaccine?
    1. chickenpox virus                                     d. smallpox virus
    2. cowpox virus                                           e.   anthrax
    3. rabies virus



  1. Penicillin was first used to save the lives of many people during which war?
    1. the U.S. Civil War                                    d. World War I
    2. the Korean War                                       e.   World War II
    3. the Vietnam War




  1. How do many animal endosymbionts grow?