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Homework answers / question archive / Kent State University - SOC 1000 CHAPTER 3 Socialization, the Life Course, and Aging CONCEPT MAP 1)How Are Children Socialized?   MULTIPLE CHOICE   Someone claims that socialization only takes place during infancy; a sociologist would counter this by saying socialization takes place in adulthood

Kent State University - SOC 1000 CHAPTER 3 Socialization, the Life Course, and Aging CONCEPT MAP 1)How Are Children Socialized?   MULTIPLE CHOICE   Someone claims that socialization only takes place during infancy; a sociologist would counter this by saying socialization takes place in adulthood


Kent State University - SOC 1000

CHAPTER 3 Socialization, the Life Course, and Aging


1)How Are Children Socialized?




  1. Someone claims that socialization only takes place during infancy; a sociologist would counter this by saying socialization takes place
    1. in adulthood.                                           c.   during young adulthood.
    2. in childhood.                                            d. throughout our entire lives.




  1. Adam’s dad reminds him to sneeze into his sleeve the next time he sneezes. Adam’s dad is engaging in the process of
    1. ageism.                                                    c.   life course development.


    1. socialization.                                            d. resocialization.



  1. Brian, a four-year-old boy, was observed by his preschool teacher grabbing toys away from other children. His teacher approached Brian and discussed with him why this behavior was inappropriate. What process was occurring during this discussion between Brian and his teacher?
  1. ageism
  2. socialization




life course development resocialization





  1. The stories of Caitlyn Jenner and Coy Mathis in the textbook illustrate the importance of
    1. understanding that our lives are a product of both individual biographies and sociohistorical context.
    2. proper medical treatment.
    3. peers to emulate and learn from.
    4. access to schooling and formal education.



  1. Sixty-six-year-old Caitlyn Jenner had to relearn how to walk, dress, and interact with others in her new role as a woman. This process is known as
    1. social dominance.                                   c.   social reproduction.
    2. resocialization.                                        d. socialization.



  1. During socialization, children learn the ways of their parents and ancestors, thereby allowing the society to        over time.
    1. socially reproduce itself                          c.   have conflict among the generations
    2. drastically change itself                          d. biologically reproduce itself



  1. Sociologists who study child socialization emphasize
    1. that socialization occurs between the ages of five and fourteen.
    2. the significance of brain development.
    3. the role of genetics.
    4. the importance of human contact.



  1. One of the most distinctive features of human beings compared with other animals is
    1. our self-awareness, or the sense that one has an identity distinct and separate from others.
    2. the short time that we raise our children.
    3. how much we socialize with other members of our species.
    4. our ability to live in isolation.




  1. Identify the scenario that represents successful social reproduction.
    1. A community of immigrants relinquishes its ethnic past and assimilates into its new local culture.
    2. Before dying out, a civilization leaves behind detailed written records of its history.
    3. At a utopian commune, the whole group, not organized into nuclear families, raises children.
    4. A revolutionary movement seizes power and institutes a series of dramatic political and cultural reforms.



  1. Which theorist would be MOST interested in how children learn math?
    1. Jean Piaget
    2. George Herbert Mead
    3. Charles Horton Cooley
    4. Janice McCabe



  1. According to George Herbert Mead, children develop as social beings by imitating the actions of those around them. Which example would he most likely use to elaborate this point?
    1. Fatima, learning at school                      c.   Marcus, reading a book
    2. Connie, playing piano                              d. Jamel, playing with friends



  1. Celine likes to pretend she is a mechanic. She uses her father’s screwdriver to repair her toy cars.

George Herbert Mead would say she is

    1. developing a self-consciousness.            c.   being egocentric.
    2. taking on the role of the other.               d. developing a social self.



  1. According to George Herbert Mead, young children develop a sense of self by
    1. going through distinct stages of sensorimotor development.
    2. going to school and learning to read.
    3. going to church and gaining a soul.
    4. imitating the actions of those around them.



  1. Susan wore girl’s clothes, as she usually does, to school on the first day of kindergarten. Her teacher and fellow students treated her as a girl, as she is usually treated. According to George Herbert Mead's theory of socialization, Susan sees herself through the eyes of others who treat her as a girl. In other words, Susan has developed
    1. an "I."                                                       c.   a social self.
    2. her concrete operational stage.             d. an ego.




  1. According to George Herbert Mead's theory of socialization, children develop   by coming to see themselves as others see them.
    1. a soul                                                       c.   self-consciousness
    2. intelligence                                              d. an ego



  1. At nine years old, Arjun began playing organized sports, learning that teams are supposed to play by the rules of the game. According to George Herbert Mead, Arjun is developing an understanding of
    1. the "I."                                                     c.   the generalized other.
    2. the "me."                                                 d. socialization.



  1. Which theorist would be most interested in how we feel and think about ourselves when others insult us?
    1. Jean Piaget
    2. George Herbert Mead
    3. Charles Horton Cooley
    4. Janice McCabe




  1. What is one criticism that can be made of Charles Horton Cooley’s theory of the looking-glass self?
    1. Individuals seldom take action to bring others around to their own views of themselves.
    2. Individuals do not passively accept what others think of them.
    3. Individuals rarely consider how others see them.
    4. Individuals develop a sense of self that is not affected by how others react to them.



  1. What would sociologists conclude is one difficulty that arises when applying Jean Piaget's approach to the study of child development to all children across all societies and cultures?
    1. In American culture, the family is far more important than any other agent of socialization.
    2. Schooling is far more important than the family in the concrete operational stage.
    3. Piaget underestimated the role of the ego in children.
    4. The development of formal operational thought depends in part on one’s education.



  1. David likes to talk with others, but what he says is more or less unrelated to what the other speaker said. Piaget would argue that David is in which stage of cognitive development?
    1. egocentric stage                                      c.   sensorimotor stage
    2. preoperational stage                               d. concrete operational stage




  1. At age three Emily was beginning to master her spoken language, but she was also able to use her hands to speak some words in sign language. According to Jean Piaget, what stage of cognitive development was Emily in?
    1. concrete operational                               c.   formal operational
    2. preoperational                                        d. egocentric



  1. Eleven-year-old Evan was asked by his math teacher, "If Adam is older than Bill and Bill is older than Cathy, who is the oldest?" This question was too abstract for Evan, and he was unable to answer. This shows that Evan is in which stage of development?
    1. the egocentric stage                               c. the concrete operational stage
    2. the formal operational stage                  d. the preoperational stage



  1. In second grade, Reina was earning A's on her math tests, which included multiplication and division. According to Jean Piaget, what stage of cognitive development is Reina in?
    1. the preoperational stage                        c.   the formal operational stage
    2. the concrete operational stage               d. the generalized other stage




  1. In which exchange is the child’s speech egocentric?
    1. Adult: “I like hot dogs.” Child: “I’ll trade you my hot dog for your cookie.”
    2. Adult: “I like hot dogs.” Child: “I like hamburgers better.”
    3. Adult: “I like hot dogs.” Child: “I like real dogs better.”
    4. Adult: “I like hot dogs.” Child: “I like fire engines.”



  1. Groups or social contexts in which significant processes of socialization occur are known as
    1. agents of socialization.
    2. social roles.
    3. social gerontologists.
    4. generalized others.



  1. In which context is primary socialization MOST likely to occur?
    1. families
    2. schools
    3. peer groups


    1. workplaces



  1. Growing up in rural Idaho, there are many agents of socialization for Albert, but  is/are the most significant agent(s) of his socialization.
    1. television and magazines                        c.   friends
    2. family                                                      d. teachers



  1. For most individuals in modern society,           is/are the agent(s) of socialization that is/are most responsible for their early childhood development.
    1. their preschool                                        c.   the television
    2. their friends at school                             d. the family



  1. Devonte and Michelle have one child. This social formation is known as
    1. a nuclear family.                                     c.   a secondary group.
    2. a normal family.                                      d. a peer group.



  1. A mechanism through which schools socialize children is the hidden curriculum. Which of the following is an example of the hidden curriculum in schools?
    1. teaching students proper English
    2. the subtle ways that boys and girls are exposed to different messages and curricular materials from their teachers
    3. teaching students the importance of math
    4. making certain that students learn proper use of the comma



  1. According to the textbook, peer groups can be defined as social groups in which members
    1. grew up in the same household.
    2. have the same hair color.
    3. are of similar age and have common interests.
    4. were born in the same country.



  1. Given the high proportion of women now in the workforce whose young children play together in day- care centers and preschool,  is/are more important than ever before.
    1. the extended family
    2. the nuclear family
    3. the peer group
    4. babysitters




  1. Chelsea started playing video games for three hours a day and her mother is scared of the impact video games might have on Chelsea. Should Chelsea's mother be worried?
    1. Yes. Chelsea plays nonviolent rapid-action games, and even games with no violent imagery can desensitize players to violence.
    2. No. Even though Chelsea plays rapid-action games with very violent imagery, there is no evidence that suggests that these types of games desensitize players to violence.
    3. Yes. All fast-paced video games harm children’s cognitive development.
    4. It depends. Research has shown both positive and negative correlations between video games and school performance.



  1. Jesse, a server at a large chain restaurant, feels exhausted after trying to keep customers happy all day. What sociological pattern does Jesse's experience fit into?
    1. the need to raise the minimum wage for food service workers
    2. the difficulty of men asserting their emotions
    3. the many workers who must learn how to "feel" on the job
    4. the need for the social role of service workers to garner more respect



  1. Functionalists argue that social roles
    1. change every few generations.               c.   are the same in all societies.
    2. are related to social power.                    d. remain relatively stable.



  1. As a doctor, Ivan is expected to follow certain standards, such as keeping patient information confidential. What would a sociologist call these expectations?
  1. social outcomes
  2. social roles




social identities social norms





  1. According to sociologists, which of the following best describes the relationship between identity and socialization?
    1. Through socialization, individuals are robbed of their individuality and free will.
    2. Through socialization, we lose the identity we were born with.
    3. Through socialization, each person develops an identity and capacity for individual thought and action.
    4. After the age of twelve we have already been socialized into the identity that we will have for the rest of our lives.



  1. This term refers to the process of self-development through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world around us.
    1. individual identity                                    c.   social identity


    1. generalized identity                                d. self-identity



  1. Sociologists argue that social and geographic mobility have affected our self-identities in which way?
    1. Our self-identities are more multifaceted.
    2. Our self-identities are more rigid and unchanging.
    3. We have a difficult time forming self-identities.
    4. Our social identities are overwhelming our self-identities.



  1. The learning of gender roles through social factors such as the family and the media is known as
    1. gender socialization.
    2. gender typing.
    3. gender fluidity.
    4. gender binary.



  1. Gender socialization begins at
    1. infancy.                                                    c.   early adolescence.
    2. toddlerhood.                                            d. adolescence.



  1. Researchers examined the ways that boys and girls are portrayed in children’s programming on three networks. There was some evidence that characters were depicted behaving in stereotypical ways, where boys were more likely to be aggressive “rescuers” and girls were more likely to show affection. What is the sociological implication of this research?
    1. Gender roles don't solidify until most people reach their teens.
    2. Girls probably don't enjoy aggressive activities as much as boys.
    3. Television programs teach important yet subtle lessons about gender.
    4. The entertainment industry is responsible for creating gender conflict in U.S. society.



  1. By what age do children generally have a partial understanding of what gender is?
    1. ten                                                           c.   five
    2. at birth                                                     d.   two



  1. The verbal and nonverbal messages that older generations transmit to younger generations regarding the meaning and significance of race, racial stratification, intergroup relations, and personal identity is known as
    1. social reproduction.
    2. resocialization.
    3. the hidden curriculum.
    4. race socialization.




  1. Although race socialization has historically focused on raising Black children to fit in and get ahead in a racist world, scholars today recognize that white children, too, should be socialized to
    1. learn to be proud of their white heritage.
    2. recognize and fight racism.
    3. recognize and fight reverse racism.
    4. become color blin



  1. In modern societies, death is most commonly associated with old age, but a few hundred years ago, death was most commonly associated with infancy. How do sociologists understand this transformation?
    1. People are generally happier in contemporary society.
    2. The life course is influenced by cultural and material circumstances.
    3. Earlier societies had an inaccurate understanding of death.
    4. Modern societies have higher health disparities across race.



  1. At the age of eight, Ricky is in school and is not required to have a job. Would expectations likely have been similar for Ricky's great-great-grandfather?
    1. Yes, as long as Ricky and his great-great-grandfather were brought up in similar socioeconomic backgrounds.
    2. Yes, childhood has been a distinct life stage for at least 500 years.
    3. No, because the quality of education was not as good in the past.
    4. No, because childhood only became a distinct stage of the life course in contemporary society.



  1. Pointing to medieval paintings in which children were portrayed with mature faces and participating in the same work and play activities as adults, French historian Philippe Aries made the argument that
    1. children were considered nuisances.
    2. childhood did not exist in medieval times.
    3. children had the same rights as adults.
    4. children often married very young.



  1. Why, according to some researchers, is the nature of childhood as a distinct stage of life diminishing in modern societies?
    1. Children are entering the workforce sooner than a few decades ago.
    2. Children are in greater danger of becoming crime victims.
    3. Medications prescribed for children are causing earlier onset of puberty.
    4. Children are consuming the same entertainment as adults.



  1. Which statement best characterizes what it is like to be a teenager today?
    1. The idea of the teenager is becoming less relevant today.
    2. The process of psychosexual development is easier to negotiate than in the past.
    3. The process of unlearning childish pursuits is much less jarring than in the past.
    4. Teenagers today are betwixt and between, navigating the often-complicated space between childhood and adulthoo



  1. Which stage of the life course is best characterized as a psychological turning point where men and women may assess their past choices and accomplishments and make new choices that prepare them for the second half of life?
    1. teenager
    2. young adulthood
    3. midlife
    4. later life




  1. What is one conclusion that sociologists can draw from comparing thirty-year-olds in 1975 and 2015?
    1. Thirty-year-olds are meeting more markers of adulthood than they did in 1975.
    2. Thirty-year-olds in 1975 had better job opportunities.
    3. Thirty-year-olds are not meeting as many of the markers of adulthood as they did in 1975.
    4. Career took a backseat to family for thirty-year-olds in 1975.



  1. Why are older adults of great interest to policymakers?
    1. Older adults tend to have a lot of money.
    2. Older adults are less likely to vote.
    3. Older adults are the life stage group seeing the greatest growth.
    4. Policymakers are more likely to be older themselves.



  1. According to your textbook, which of the following is a reason that the meaning of the term aging is changing today?
    1. People are not living as long as they used to.
    2. Medicare and Social Security are expanding to include younger adults.
    3. There are more social programs for older people.
    4. Advances in nutrition and health have enabled people to live longer.



  1. The discipline concerned with the study of the social aspects of aging is known as
    1. social gerontology.                                  c.   age studies.
    2. social chronology.                                   d. elder studies.




  1. According to 1950s functionalist theorist Talcott Parsons, failure to find adequate roles for the elderly in U.S. society will cause them to
    1. be alienated from society.
    2. organize social movements to struggle for more social programs.
    3. retire to other countries.
    4. move in with their adult children.



  1. Which of the following best summarizes how disengagement theory views the elderly?
    1. As people age, they are more interested in watching TV than interacting with others.
    2. As people age, they no longer want to participate fully in society.
    3. As people age, they need to be removed from their traditional roles in order to free up those roles for the younger generation.
    4. As people age, they are not given the same respect as the younger generation.



  1. Critics of functionalist theories of aging argue that these theories
    1. place too much emphasis on the importance of the elderly in modern societies.
    2. emphasize the need for the elderly to adjust to existing societal conditions rather than participate in changing them.
    3. give too much agency to the elderly in defining their own role in society.
    4. focus too little on racial inequalities affecting the elderly.



  1. According to activity theory, both the elderly and society can benefit
    1. if the elderly retire from their jobs so that the younger generation can fill them.
    2. if the elderly remain physically active but refrain from too much social activity.
    3. if the elderly remain socially active but do not tax themselves physically.
    4. if the elderly remain actively engaged in work and other social roles as long as they can.



  1. Both activity and continuity theory suggest that remaining active and engaged as we age is a good thing, but they differ primarily in what way?
    1. the kind of activities that the elderly participate in
    2. the willingness of the elderly to maintain the exact same activities as they grow older
    3. the extent to which the elderly are isolated as they grow old
    4. the extent to which the elderly are able to adapt to new activities



  1. According to               theories of aging, social institutions that favor those who have the most economic power are the source of many of the problems of aging.
    1. social conflict                                          c.   social psychological


    1. functionalist                                             d. life course



  1. A key difference between conflict and functionalist theoretical perspectives on aging is that
    1. functionalist theory tends to see the elderly as victims of the stratification system that denies them opportunities.
    2. conflict theory attributes the participation of the elderly in satisfying activities to individual willpower and personalities.
    3. conflict theory emphasizes the role of social structures in shaping the opportunities available to older adults.
    4. functionalist theory stresses that older people can be productive to society as long as they pursue activities that are consistent with their personalities and lifestyle choices.



  1. What statistical reality about older people today tends to support the perspective promoted by conflict theory in the 1980s?
    1. Low poverty rates among the elderly are a fact today.
    2. There are high poverty rates among black and Hispanic unmarried older women.
    3. Social conflict between the elderly and other age groups has lessened considerably.
    4. The elderly have increasing opportunity to remain active members of society.



  1. Which perspective would most carefully consider how the smartphone has shaped the aging process?
    1. disengagement theory
    2. continuity theory
    3. conflict theory
    4. life course theory



  1. Most individuals over 65 years of age
    1. lead active, independent lives.
    2. suffer from mental disabilities.
    3. are foreign-born.
    4. suffer from arthritis.



  1. Among the elderly, which group is most likely to be independent, healthy, and actively engaged?
    1. young old                                                 c.   middle old
    2. old old                                                      d. oldest old



  1. Compared to the old old and the oldest old, the young old are most likely to be economically independent, healthy, and active. These differences are not only due to the effects of aging, but they also reflect the fact that
    1. the young old came of age during the post–World War II period of strong economic growth.
    2. the young old grew up with social norms that emphasized independence and hard work.
    3. the young old have better health care and nutrition.
    4. the young old are more politically active.



  1. Among the elderly, which group is most likely to experience poor health, isolation, and economic insecurity?
    1. young old                                                 c.   middle old
    2. old old                                                      d. oldest old



  1. A seventy-seven-year-old woman is currently struggling with foreclosure, living on a “patchwork of welfare,” and coping with a system of institutions that seem to make her life difficult. Her experience with aging has been shaped by her earlier life, as well as by social and historical contexts. This is consistent with which theoretical perspective?
    1. social conflict
    2. life course
    3. continuity
    4. disengagement



  1. Despite having access to Medicare, the elderly spend about     of their income on health care.
    1. 13 percent                                               c.   33 percent
    2. 50 percent                                               d. 1 percent



  1. Elder abuse is present when an elderly person experiences which of the following?
    1. a nutritious diet                                       c.   difficulty accessing health care
    2. poverty                                                    d. neglect and abandonment



  1. Elderly people in the United States are likely to be stereotyped as
    1. lonely.                                                      c.   aggressive.
    2. intelligent.                                               d. financially savvy.



  1. Emma was asked to volunteer at the senior center after school a few times a week. She was reluctant to do so because even though she loves seeing her own grandparents, she views the elderly as old- fashioned, senile, and embittered. Emma's stereotypes of the elderly were most likely learned from
    1. mass media and popular entertainment.
    2. her parents.
    3. her grandparents.
    4. the elderly she meets on the street.





  1. Which theorist do you believe provides a more accurate explanation of child development today: George Herbert Mead or Jean Piaget? Explain in three to four sentences.




  1. Pick a game you played as a child and use it to explain, in three to four sentences, George Herbert Mead's theory of the development of the self and the process children go through to acquire self- consciousness.




  1. According to Piaget, the first three stages of cognitive development (sensorimotor, preoperational, and concrete operational) are universal, but some adults never reach the fourth stage (formal operational). According to the text, "The development of formal operational thoughts depends in part on one's education, which may foster abstract reasoning." In three to four sentences, hypothesize why you think that might be.




  1. Imagine that you and your family want to raise a child in a gender-neutral way. In three to four sentences, compare how agents of socialization other than your own family would affect the process of gender-neutral socialization as your child grows into a young adult.




  1. Your textbook begins chapter 3 with the example of six-year-old Coy and her use of the girls' bathroom. In three to four sentences, explain how Coy's self-identity may have been shaped by this situation and the role that different agents of socialization played in this process. Which agent of socialization do you think would have the greatest impact on Coy's self-identity? Explain.




  1. Pick one agent of socialization other than your family and, in three to four sentences, explain the role it played in your socialization as a child.





  1. A person can have several social identities at one time, and these social identities can have a profound impact on the person's self-identity. Using yourself as an example, name three social identities you have and, in one sentence each, explain how they influence your self-identity.




  1. Choose one of the five stages of the life course—childhood, teenager, young adulthood, middle age, and old age—and explain in a few sentences how the stage you chose is different in modern societies compared with more traditional societies.




  1. Given the elderly people you know, distinguish which theory of aging (activity theory, disengagement theory, or conflict theory) you think best explains the situation of most elderly people in today's society. Explain your answer in three to four sentences.




  1. List at least three of the physical, emotional, and financial challenges facing older adults in the United States. Decide which one of these challenges you think you will face when you are elderly; explain why in a couple of sentences.




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