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Homework answers / question archive / 1)Since 1970, marijuana has been officially classified in the United States as a controlled substance in the same category as __________

1)Since 1970, marijuana has been officially classified in the United States as a controlled substance in the same category as __________

Health Science

1)Since 1970, marijuana has been officially classified in the United States as a controlled substance in the same category as __________.

A. barbiturates

B. heroin

C. cocaine

D. anti-anxiety medication (tranquilizers)


2 The potential for drug abuse in general presents a greater challenge for __________.

A. men than for women

B. African Americans than for Latinos

C. young people than for the elderly

D. none of the above



3 Which of the following is NOT an illicit drug in the United States?

A. cocaine

B. heroin

C. nicotine

D. ketamine



4 Which of the following is an illicit drug in the United States?

A. alcohol

B. nicotine

C. caffeine




5 Analogy: Illicit drugs are to cocaine as licit drugs are to __________.

A. crack

B. heroin

C. alcohol

D. ecstasy


6 According to the text, drugs such as alcohol and nicotine are referred to as __________.

A. illegal drugs

B. licit drugs

C. illicit drugs

D. over-the-counter drugs



7 Signs of drug dependence include __________.

A. intense cravings for the drug

B. need for increasingly greater quantities of the drug to get the same desired effect

C. becoming preoccupied with drug-taking behavior

D. all of the above




8 Which statement is true?

A. All psychoactive drugs produce dependence.

B. Some psychoactive drugs produce dependence.

C. Only illicit psychoactive drugs produce dependence.

D. All dependence-producing drugs are illicit.



9 By the definition used in the textbook, a chemical substance would be considered a drug if __________.

A. it intoxicated the user

B. it had an impact on brain functioning

C. it served as a nutrient

D. both A and B


10 An over-the-counter (OTC) cold remedy taken for a cold would be classified as a(n) __________.

A. licit drug for instrumental use

B. illicit drug for instrumental use

C. licit drug for recreational use

D. illicit drug for recreational use



11 Cathy needs to stay awake to study for her psychology midterm, so she decides to take an amphetamine to keep from falling asleep. In this case, the drug had a(n) _____ use.

A. recreational

B. instrumental

C. pre-instrumental

D. pre-creational



12 Dr. Smith recommends drinking four ounces of an alcoholic beverage per day to his patient. The use of alcohol in this case is best described as __________.

A. illicit

B. instrumental

C. recreational

D. forensic


13 Alcohol and nicotine generally belong to a category of __________.

A. licit drugs for instrumental use

B. licit drugs for recreational use

C. illicit drugs for recreational use

D. illicit drugs for instrumental use


14 Analogy: Licit recreational drug use is to smoking a cigarette as illicit recreational drug use is to __________.

A. smoking marijuana

B. drinking a caffeinated beverage

C. injecting heroin

D. both A and C



15 Instances in which a prescription or nonprescription drug is used in an inappropriate way are regarded as __________.

A. illicit drug-taking behavior

B. extremely rare

C. drug misuse

D. drug abuse



16 Which of the following is an example of drug misuse?

A. taking a sleeping pill while drinking beer

B. taking your mother’s prescription pain medication for a toothache

C. taking aspirin after its expiration date

D. all of the above



17 A particularly dangerous situation can result when medications are combined with __________.

A. caffeine

B. alcohol

C. nicotine

D. excessive water


18 Instances of drug abuse involve __________.

A. illicit drugs only

B. licit drugs only

C. instrumental use of drugs

D. licit or illicit drugs


19 Which of the following plants has (have) been sources of hallucinogenic effects?

A. morning glories

B. yellow-orange fruits on cacti

C. certain types of mushrooms

D. all of the above



20 Analogy: Willow bark is to senna as __________.

A. aspirin is to laxative

B. hallucinogenic is to non-hallucinogenic

C. poisonous is to non-poisonous

D. constipation is to headache



21 A shaman is __________.

A. a primitive healer

B. an “extinct” cultural phenomenon

C. an individual who relies upon elaborate rituals

D. often appointed at random from among young females in a tribe


22 Which statement is NOT true?

A. Shamans still exist in some areas of the world.

B. The decline of shamanism was due to the development of centralized religions in Egyptian and Babylonian societies.

C. Shamanism was eventually replaced by a more extreme form in certain parts of the world before it died out completely.

D. Modern shamanic healing utilizes hallucination-producing plants.



23 The Ebers Papyrus contained __________.

A. the secrets to the location of medicinal herbs hidden in royal tombs

B. totally useless remedies for common diseases

C. recipes for preparations used in medical treatment                    

D. ancient Babylonian writings that were later found to be a hoax 


24 Analogy: Placebo effect is to a genuine effect as __________.

A. ancient is to modern

B. physiological is to psychological

C. shamans are to priests

D. psychological is to physiological



25 Viking warriors known as berserkers displayed wild behavior due to ingestion of which psychoactive drug?


B. Amanita muscaria, also known as fly agaric

C. Bupromorphine                             

D. Berserkium



26 The toads that were often included in “witch’s brew” recipes __________.

A. were quite poisonous

B. produced hallucinatory and blood-pressure elevating effects

C. were effective only by virtue of a placebo effect

D. had no effect whatsoever



27 ________ is the primary active ingredient in opium.

A. Cocaine

B. Morphine

C. Nicotine

D. Heroin



28 Analogy: Edward Jenner is to Louis Pasteur as __________.

A. smallpox is to rabies

B. bromides are to chloral hydrate

C. a placebo effect is to a vaccine

D. morphine is to opium



29 Patent medicines in the 1800s were purchased through __________.

A. peddlers

B. general stores

C. mail-order advertisements

D. all of the above



30 Patent medicines in the nineteenth century contained __________.

A. opium, heroin, and nicotine

B. opium, cocaine, and heroin

C. alcohol, cocaine, and nicotine

D. opium, cocaine, and alcohol



31 Laudanum was a drink containing which psychoactive drug?

A. cocaine

B. alcohol and cocaine

C. opium

D. extract of laudanum



32 Opium use in the nineteenth century was __________.

A. limited to the wealthy

B. primarily associated with the poor

C. associated with practically everyone

D. limited to infants and children


33 The attraction of opium used prior to 1900 was related to its being __________.

A. cheap

B. legal

C. easily available

D. all of the above



34 Which of the following was regarded as a respectable way to use opium?

A. snorting it

B. smoking it

C. injecting it

D. drinking it



35 Which of the following was regarded as a degrading and immoral way to use opium?

A. snorting it

B. smoking it

C. injecting it

D. drinking it



36 In the nineteenth century, opium drinking was __________.

A. associated with Coca-Cola beverages

B. another name for opium smoking

C. generally tolerated and considered respectable

D. associated with Chinese immigrants in America


37 Until 1903, Coca-Cola contained which of the following psychoactive drugs?

A. opium

B. cocaine

C. alcohol

D. a combination of opium and alcohol



38 A prominent nineteenth-century advocate of cocaine use was __________.

A. Louis Pasteur

B. Alexander Fleming

C. Edward Jenner

D. Sigmund Freud



39 If you were alive in 1900, you would consider heroin __________.

A. safe and completely legal

B. a dangerous alternative to morphine

C. to belong to the cocaine family of drugs

D. a menace to society

 Ans: A


40 In the early twentieth century, for which of the following disorders would heroin NOT have been advised as a medicine?

A. pneumonia

B. smallpox

C. tuberculosis

D. morphine addiction



41 The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the Temperance movement in general were dedicated to the prohibition of which psychoactive drug?

A. alcohol

B. cocaine

C. marijuana

D. all drugs



42 The Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution restricted which of the following psychoactive drugs?

A. heroin and other opiates

B. cocaine

C. tobacco

D. alcohol



43 The Prohibition era in U.S. history is associated with which prohibited drug?

A. opium

B. cocaine

C. alcohol

D. marijuana



44 The social problems associated with the Prohibition era have often been cited as an argument against __________.

A. prevention programs for drug abuse

B. restricting drugs in general

C. encouraging chronic alcohol abuse

D. all of the above



45 Some molds and fungi have been sources of which class of drugs?

A. drugs effective in treating schizophrenia

B. drugs effective in treating bacterial infections

C. drugs effective in treating constipation

D. aspirin and other headache medications



46 Chlorpromazine was an early __________.

A. antibiotic drug

B. antispasmodic drug

C. anti schizophrenia drug

D. antidiuretic drug



47 Which decade is generally associated with the beginning of drug use among young, middle-class Americans?

A. 1920s

B. 1940s

C. 1950s

D. 1960s



48 Neuroscience research has focused upon which of the following aspects of the body?

A. the functioning of the brain

B. the workings of the small and large intestines

C. the processes underlying bacterial infections

D. the cardiovascular system



49 The name for a branch of science joining the efforts of biochemists, pharmacologists, psychologists, and psychiatrists, among others, in order to study brain functioning is __________.

A. psychopharmacology

B. endocrinology

C. neuroscience

D. neurology



50 Neuroscience examines __________.

A. the relationship between psychology and biology

B. the relationship between brain functioning and biology

C. the relationship between brain functioning and human behavior

D. the relationship between pharmacology and brain functioning



51 Crack is defined as __________.

A. a smokable form of opium

B. a smokable form of cocaine

C. a smokable form of heroin

D. an injectable form of tobacco



52 In the 1980s, cocaine was __________.

A. considered very glamorous

B. very inexpensive

C. getting a great deal of media attention

D. both A and C



53 The most recent attitude toward drug-taking behavior considers __________.

A. a wide range of licit and illicit drugs with varying levels of potential for misuse or abuse        

B. an increasingly narrow definition of psychoactive drugs 

C. criteria that effectively exclude alcohol and nicotine from being classified as drugs

D. problems associated with illicit drugs to the exclusion of problems associated with licit drugs



54 According to the text, a recent study has found that __________.

A. prior marijuana drug use by parents leads to increased marijuana use by their children

B. prior marijuana drug use by parents leads to a slightly decreased level of marijuana use by their children

C. prior marijuana drug use by parents leads to absolutely no marijuana use by their children

D. there is no relationship between marijuana drug use by parents and marijuana drug use of their children




55 The University of Michigan survey is based upon reports of drug-taking behavior among __________.

A. college students

B. eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth-grade students

C. young adults

D. all of the above     



56 A major disadvantage of the University of Michigan survey is that __________.

A. high-school dropouts are not included

B. it is conducted every five years

C. college students are included

D. it has only been conducted since 1995



57 Advantages of repeating the University of Michigan survey year after year include all of the following EXCEPT __________.

A. it allows us to examine trends in drug-taking behavior over time

B. it allows us to compare the use of one drug relative to another

C. it allows prevalence rates to be examined from year to year

D. it allows us to examine the effects of drug-taking behavior on the participant sample as they grow up


58 In 1979, about _____ of U. S. high school seniors had reported illicit drug use.

A. three-fourths

B. one-half

C. one-eighth

D. one-fourth



59 According to the University of Michigan survey, in 2009 about _____ of U. S. high school seniors had used an illicit drug during the previous year.

A. 17 percent

B. 37 percent

C. 63 percent

D. 77 percent



60 Illicit drug experimentation among high school seniors in 2009 has been reported to be __________.

A. less than figures reported in 1979

B. more than figures reported in 1979

C. practically equal to figures reported in 1979

D. at the lowest levels since the University of Michigan survey began in 1975


61 Cocaine use during 2009 was reported by _________ of seniors.

A. 2 percent

B. 3 percent

C. 4 percent

D. 5 percent



62 Nonmedical use of inhalants has held steady at between _________ since 200

A. 2 and 3 percent

B. 3 and 4 percent

C. 3 and 5 percent

D. 4 and 5 percent



63 Compared to high school seniors, college students report a roughly equivalent annual prevalence rate in the use of illicit drugs in general, which is about ____________.

A. 26 percent

B. 36 percent

C. 46 percent

D. 48 percent



64 According to the 2009 University of Michigan survey, almost one-half of high school seniors reported having consumed ______ in the past month.

A. alcohol

B. cigarettes

C. cocaine

D. a hallucinogenic drug



65 According to the University of Michigan survey, binge drinking is defined as consuming _____ or more alcoholic drinks in a row.

A. five

B. seven

C. ten

D. fifteen



66 In 2009, high school seniors reported drinking an alcoholic beverage in the previous month at a prevalence rate that was approximately ______ the rate reported with respect to illicit drugs in the previous month.

A. three times

B. one-half

C. two times

D. the same as



67 According to the text, it is likely that the decline of alcohol consumption from the 1980s to the present among high school seniors can be attributed to __________.

A. increased rates of cigarette smoking

B. reduced accessibility to alcohol for minors

C. the “know when to say when” message promoted by beer companies

D. a substantial increase in every other category of drug-taking behavior


68 The most frequently used drug on a daily basis by high school students is __________.

A. alcohol

B. marijuana

C. nicotine

D. some form of inhalants



69 Alcohol use among _____ has declined to a lesser degree than alcohol use among high school seniors.

A. college students

B. eighth graders

C. tenth graders

D. high-school dropouts



70 In comparison to rates of nicotine use among high school seniors in 1977, current usage rates among high school seniors are __________.

A. higher

B. lower

C. the same

D. Rates fluctuate too often to be accurate.


71 When compared to high school seniors, fewer college students smoke cigarettes. This statistic is due to __________.

A. a change in smoking behavior from high school to college

B. the heaviest smokers not being included in the college population

C. college students having less access to cigarettes

D. both A and C



72 Non-college-bound high-school seniors are ___ times more likely to smoke at least half a pack of cigarettes a day than college-bound high-school seniors.

                                    A. two

                                    B. two and a half

                                    C. three

                                    D. three and a half



73 Societal changes in the 1990s which the text cites as reasons why youngsters did not have a tendency to view regular drug use as dangerous include __________.

A. lack of drug abuse prevention programs in schools

B. poor communication between parents and children regarding drugs

C. lack of anti-drug public service messages in the media

D. all of the above


74 According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health survey, about _____ of adults aged 26 or older in 2009 have used an illicit drug within the previous year.

                                    A. 4 percent

                                    B. 6 percent                           

C. 11 percent

                                    D. 30 percent



75 A major limitation in interpreting the University of Michigan survey of adults is that __________.

A. millions of adults refused to participate

B. fewer adults were surveyed compared to high school seniors

C. institutionalized patients and homeless people were not represented in the sample

D. adults were more likely to report false data



76 When asked about their motivation for drug use, high school seniors have frequently cited __________.

A. dissatisfaction with their parents

B. parental abuse

C. economic hardship

D. peer influence


77 Vulnerability toward drug-taking behavior is shaped by which type(s) of factors in a person’s life?

A. risk factors

B. protective factors

C. conjoint factors

D. both A and B


78 Analogy: Risk factors are to protective factors as __________.

A. illicit drug use is to licit drug use

B. daily drug use is to recreational drug use

C. more likely to use drugs is to less likely to use drugs

D. drug abuse is to drug misuse


79 Which factor is considered a risk factor for drug use?

A. socioeconomic status

B. membership in a deviant subculture

C. high self-esteem

D. overly strong parent-child attachment



80 Generally speaking, as the number of risk factors ____, the likelihood of drug use ____.

A. increases; decreases

B. decreases; increases

C. increases; increases

D. There is no relationship.



81 The leading risk factor(s) for marijuana use include __________.

A. the perceived prevalence of marijuana use by friends

B. the perceived prevalence of use in the community

C. individual attitudes toward marijuana smoking

D. all of the above


82 Which is NOT a protective factor for drug use?

A. parent’s level of education

B. closeness to an adult outside the family

C. easy availability of drugs in one’s environment

D. socially conforming attitudes


83 Having six or more protective factors in one’s life __________.

A. lowers the level of resistance against drug use

B. raises the level of resistance against drug use

C. does next to nothing

D. sometimes lowers the level of resistance, sometimes not


84 According to a study cited in the text, as the number of protective factors _____, the resistance to drug use ______.

A. increased; decreased

B. decreased; increased

C. increased; increased

D. There was no relationship.


85 ________ refer to substances often ingested at all-night dance parties.

A. Rave drugs

B. Club drugs

C. Night drugs

D. Underground drugs



86 Which of the following is NOT considered a “club drug”?

A. smokable heroin

B. MDMA (Ecstasy)

C. ketamine



87 Which of the following drugs is associated with a marked increase in body temperature?      


B. MDMA (Ecstasy)

C. ketamine

D. Rohypnol


88 Which of the following drugs produces increased alertness and energy?

A. Rohypnol

B. MDMA (Ecstasy)

C. ketamine

D. methamphetamine


89 Which of the following drugs (also known as the forget-me pill) is easily dissolved in beverages and is used to intoxicate or sedate individuals?

A. Rohypnol

B. MDMA (Ecstasy)

C. ketamine

D. methamphetamine



90 What is particularly dangerous about many club drugs?

A. They are colorless, odorless, and tasteless.

B. They can be slipped into drinks unobtrusively.

C. They have been used in sexual assault cases.

D. all of the above



91 In 2009, about ¬¬¬¬______ million young adults in the United States used prescription pain relievers on a recreational basis in the past year.

A. two

B. three

C. four

D. five


92 Individuals with attention deficit disorder (ADD) are treated with _______________.

A. oxycodone

B. dextromethorphan

C. ketamine

D. methamphetamine



93 In 2009, approximately _________ of high school seniors reported taking OTC cough and cold medications.

A. 2 percent

B. 3 percent

C. 4 percent

D. 6 percent


94 The alcohol content in some OTC cough and cold medications may be as high as ___________.

A. 23 percent

B. 25 percent

C. 26 percent

D. 28 percent




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