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Homework answers / question archive / 1)Regardless of which route of administration is used, the goal is for the drug to be absorbed into the bloodstream

1)Regardless of which route of administration is used, the goal is for the drug to be absorbed into the bloodstream

Psychology

1)Regardless of which route of administration is used, the goal is for the drug to be absorbed into the bloodstream.  

 

 

 

 

            2 An overdose from an orally-administered drug is easier to handle on an emergency basis than an overdose through an intravenous injection.  

            3 High alkaline drugs (i.e., cocaine, morphine) are absorbed better in the stomach than weakly acidic drugs (i.e., aspirin).   (the other way around)

            4 Orally administered drugs are ingested at higher than needed doses because some of the drug will not make it through the bloodstream.   (yes bc some of them will be eliminated through the intestine)

            5 “First-pass metabolism” is an important function of the esophagus. (of the liver)

            6 The intravenous injection is the fastest type of injection to deliver a drug into the bloodstream.  

            7 Tetanus shots, flu shots, and most inoculations are administered by intramuscular injections.  

            8 Intramuscular injections are often referred to as skin-popping. (subcutaneous)

            9 The psychoactive affects of intravenous injections are faster than that of inhalation.

            10 A major disadvantage of drug inhalation is that the linings leading from the throat to the lungs become irritated over time.  

            11 Inhalation of drugs such as crack does not present the hazards to the respiratory system as tobacco-based cigarettes.  

            12 Paint thinners, gasoline, and cleaning fluid are examples of abused products that are typically administered by absorption through the skin or membranes.  

            13 Mild electric currents can be used to help absorb drugs through the skin or membranes.

            14 Elimination of drugs can be done via sweat and saliva.

            15 The smaller the quantity of the drug, the faster the body tries to get rid of it.

            16 Older people eliminate drugs at a slower pace than younger people.

            17 Fat-soluble drugs are eliminated faster than water-soluble drugs.

            18 The elimination half-life of a drug will be faster if the drug is fat-soluble than if it is not.

            19 The half-life of cocaine is only a few hours.

            20 The half-life of nicotine is a few days.

            21 All drugs have similar elimination half-lives.

            22 The length of the latency period is related to the absorption time of the drug.p.

            23 Administering the drug in a time-release form helps eliminate the undesirable side effects of excessive concentrations of a drug in the lood.

            24 If Drug A has an effect of 3 and Drug B has an effect of 6, a purely additive combination effect would be equivalent to 18.

            25 Potentiation is an example of a nonadditive drug combination effect.

            26 Two examples of hyperadditive combinations are synergism and potentiation.pp.

            27 The danger of potentiation is that since the drug seems to have no effect, the combined effect may be so powerful that it can become lethal  

            28 An antagonistic effect is if Drug A had an effect of 5 and Drug B had an effect of 3, but the combination of the two drugs together resulted in an effect of 15.

            29 Dangerous interactions can occur from food-drug combinations.

            30 It is possible to develop a tolerance to a drug you have never taken before.

            31 If we can relieve the withdrawal symptoms of one drug by administering another, than the two drugs show cross-tolerance.  

            32 Cross-dependence can be useful when trying to avoid the withdrawal symptoms of an unavailable drug.

            33 A man and a woman both weigh 175 pounds. If they both take the same dose of a drug, the same effects can be expected.

            34 Individual differences such as weight and gender can affect how one person reacts to a drug compared to another.

            35 African-Americans smoke fewer cigarettes per day than whites because African-Americans may be retaining more nicotine per cigarette than whites.

            36 The nervous system is made up of two parts known as the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

            37 The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.

            38 Breathing is to somatic as lifting your arm is to autonomic.

            39 The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems together form the peripheral nervous system.

            40 An increased heart rate and a decreased rate of digestion are two signs of sympathetic activation.

            41 Psychoactive drugs can produce bodily effects that are oriented toward parasympathetic rather than sympathetic activation.

            42 Sensory nerves enter the CNS at the level of the brain but not the spinal cord.

            43 The processing of reflex responses does not involve the brain at all.

            44 Brain tissue is classified in sections: the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain.

            45 The three categories of brain tissue are the medulla, hypothalamus and cerebellum.

            46 The risk of asphyxiation from a certain dosage level of a drug most likely means that the drug is capable of stimulating the cerebral cortex.  

            47 The part of the brain that determines when we sleep and when we wake up is located in the pons.

            48 The processing of pain information occurs in the hindbrain.

            49 The limbic system and hypothalamus are two structures of the brain that “overhang” the cerebral cortex.

            50 Most theories about the physiological basis for psychological dependence focus on the limbic system.

            51 The most recently evolved region of the human brain is the prefrontal cortex.

            52 Damage to the prefrontal cortex may be associated with loss of personal control with respect to the abuse of alcohol and other drugs.

            53 There are approximately 100 billion neurons in the brain.

            54 There are certain types of neurons that do not contain a cell body or soma.

            55 Dendrites are to transmitting information as axon is to receiving information.

            56 Communication between neurons is accomplished through the actions of chemical substances called neurotransmitters.  

            57 All neurons generate nerve impulses on a continual basis.

            58 The receptor to which a neurotransmitter binds determines whether that neurotransmitter has an excitatory or inhibitory effect.

            59 Reuptake is the process whereby a neurotransmitter returns from the receptor site back to the synaptic knob.

            60 Acetylcholine is involved with the sympathetic nervous system, while norepinephrine is involved with the parasympathetic system.

            61 Alzheimer’s disease has been linked to deficiencies in nicotinic receptors.

            62 The neurotransmitter responsible for regulating our mood states is acetylcholine.

            63 Norepinephrine is to the hypothalamus as serotonin is to the pons.

            64 Drugs that relieve mania and depression act upon serotonin-releasing neurons.

            65 GABA deficiencies are associated with a decreased tendency of epileptic seizures.

            66 Antianxiety medications stimulate GABA-releasing neurons, providing a reduction in feelings of stress and fear.

            67 The blood-brain barrier cannot be crossed by a drug that is fat-soluble.pp.

            68 The key factor which determines if a drug passes through the blood-brain barrier is water solubility.

            69 Barbiturates and caffeine easily pass through the blood-brain barrier.pp.

            70 A major drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease has been L-Dopa.

            71 Tolerance that is a result of changes in the drug's chemical breakdown in the liver is referred to as cellular (pharmacodynamic) tolerance.

            72 Metabolic tolerance occurs when receptors become less sensitive due to being stimulated repeatedly by a drug over time.

            73 When multiple drugs activate the same type of receptor sites, the effects of each drug on brain are equivalent.

            74 Involvement with the nucleus accumbens has been linked to compulsive gambling

            75 The rewarding effects of certain psychoactive drugs are related to their effects upon the nucleus accumbens in the brain.

            76 Involvement with the nucleus accumbens has been linked to compulsive violence.

            77 Placebo is derived from the Latin, “I refuse to comply.”

            78 A placebo contains ingredients that are completely inert.

            79 In a double-blind procedure, neither the individual administering the drug or placebo nor the individual receiving the drug or placebo knows which substance is which.

           

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