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Homework answers / question archive / 1)Cocaine has been used as a local anesthetic in the United States

1)Cocaine has been used as a local anesthetic in the United States


1)Cocaine has been used as a local anesthetic in the United States.






2 Water has the potential for being a psychoactive substance.

                3 There are substances that exist which do not have any potential for toxicity. (any substance has the potential for toxicity)

                4 Drug safety depends on the possibility that the drug can be toxic at low doses compared to other drugs.

                5 If a drug is ED50, it means the drug will become toxic if 50 mg of the drug is taken. 

                6 Each effect produced by a particular drug will have its own dose-response curves.

                7 Examining the properties of a drug effect is that same as examining the properties of the drug itself

                8 If an LD100 dose were to be given to a group of 50 mice, all of them would have died.

                9 The margin of safety measure of a drug is a more conservative (in the direction of safety) measure of drug toxicity than the therapeutic index for that drug.  

                10 The higher the margin of safety ratio, the more toxic the drug.

                11 A problem with street drugs is that the user doesn’t know the toxicity risks until the drug has been used.  

                12 The DAWN reporting program reaches practically all emergency-department patients in the United States.   

                13 According to 2006 DAWN statistics, nearly one-third of drug-related ED visits were due to use of illicit drugs only.

                14 According to 2006 DAWN statistics, most ED visits involved alcohol only.

                15 Toxicity can occur from the misuse of licit drugs.

                16 Men outnumber women two-to-one in terms of ED visits involving illicit drug use.

                17 A patient mentions drinking eight glasses of vodka and gin during a drug-related ED visit. This is an example of an alcohol-in-combination DAWN case.  

                18 Polydrug use refers to the use of a drug at different dosage levels from administration to administration.  

                19 Multiple substance use is another name for polydrug use.

                20 Injecting heroin followed by snorting heroin is an example of polydrug

                21 In the DAWN reports, cocaine, heroin, and alcohol-in-combination cases are almost always lethal.

                22 According to recent DAWN statistics, drug-related ED visits involving illicit club drugs and narcotic analgesics are on the rise.

                23 There are more fatalities from chronic smoking of tobacco than from illicit drug use.Ans:T

                24 If an individual experiences drug tolerance, an increasing dose must be taken over time in order to maintain the same level of drug effect.

                25 Drug abusers take drug doses which are well beyond the LD-response curve amounts.

                26 In most cases, the dosage levels taken by drug abusers would be lethal if taken by a a first-time user.  

                27 Tolerance is maximized when the user always takes the drug in the same setting.

                28 Drug tolerance is to setting as behavioral tolerance is to repetition.

                29 Behavioral tolerance is based on Pavlovian conditioning.

                30 Conditioning effects have been demonstrated with nicotine.

                31 The existence of physical dependence for a drug hinges upon the presence of physical withdrawal syndrome when the individual stops taking the drug.

                32 Withdrawal symptoms are the approximately the same for every psychoactive drug. (only could predict the withdrawal symptoms)

                33 Continuing drug-taking behavior in order to avoid withdrawal is one indication of physical dependence.

                34 Withdrawal symptoms involve symptoms generally opposite from the original effect of the drug.

                35 Most addicts completing the withdrawal process in its entirety do not become re-addicted.

                36 Laboratory animals would choose cocaine over food even if the animal was starving to death.

                37 Tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, and unintentional overuse are three of the seven criteria for substance dependence.  

                38 The placental barrier protects a fetus from toxic substances in the mother.

                39 The greater the extent of drug-taking behavior during pregnancy, the more likely there will be adverse consequences during labor and delivery.  

                40 Prescription drugs have little effect on pregnant woman and the newborn.

                41 All psychoactive drugs have the same adverse effects on the fetus.

                42 Fetal effects of methamphetamine are unknown but seem similar to effects of cocaine, reducing normal fetal blood flow.  

                43 A dirty needle carries the risk of HIV-infection but not of hepatitis. (both)

                44 Due to political resistance towards needle exchange programs, many operate underground.  

                45 Needle exchange programs in many parts of the United States are illegal.

                46 Needle-exchange programs have increased the prevalence of heroin abuse in recent studies.   (have nothing in related)

                47 There is a statistical association between the use of illicit drugs and crime.

                48 Violence resulting directly from the physiological effects of an injected drug is referred to as systemic violence.  

                49 Tendencies toward violence have been observed during times of crack withdrawal as well as crack intoxication.  

                50 The high price of illicit drugs on the street contributes to the incidence of economically compulsive violence.  

                51 Systemic violence might include robbing a shopkeeper in order to get money to buy drugs.  

                52 Under a laissez-faire philosophy, the government would assert little or no regulatory control with respect to drugs.  

                53 Under the Harrison Act, cocaine was defined as a narcotic but opiate drugs were not.

                54 The smoking of opium in the United States was opposed at least in part because of the association with Chinese immigrants.  

                55 Though cocaine was not defined as a narcotic, it was still affected by the Harrison Act of 1914.

                56 The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 did not apply to growers of marijuana.

                57 Five "schedules" of controlled substances resulted from the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970.

                58 Schedule IV drugs have the highest potential for abuse.

                59 Heroin is an example of a Schedule I drug.

                60 “Drug czars” were established as a result of the 1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Act.

                61 After the overthrow of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, opium production in that country rose sharply.

                62 Expenditures to carry out the war on drugs are up by more than 1,400 percent since 198


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