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Homework answers / question archive / CHAPTER 14 1) Abnormal behavior in children a

CHAPTER 14 1) Abnormal behavior in children a

Psychology

CHAPTER 14

1) Abnormal behavior in children

a. is based upon destructiveness at any given age.

b. is developmentally determined; that is, normal behavior at one age is abnormal at another.

c. can be reliably determined across age groups.

d. is typically associated with a lack of control.

 

 

2. You witness a child in the grocery store kicking and screaming because his mother won't buy him candy.  Which of the following DSM-IV disorders would apply to the child?

 

a. conduct disorder

b. oppositional defiant disorder

c. It depends on the mother’s response; if she gives in, the behavior is probably not a disorder, but the result of poor parenting strategies.

d. There is not enough information provided to make a diagnosis. In addition, it depends on the child's age.

 

 

3. When diagnosing a child, it is most important to consider the child’s

 

a. intelligence.

b. ethnicity.

c. gender.

d. age.

 

 

4. Externalizing problems are more frequent in _____, and internalizing problems are more frequent in ______, regardless of culture.

 

a. boys; girls

b. girls; boys

c. boys; boys

d. Gender distribution varies widely in different cultures.

 

 

5. Results from a recent follow-up study of behavior problems in Thai and U.S. cultures suggest that

 

a. U.S. children are referred to clinics more often for internalizing problems than externalizing problems.

b. Thai children exhibit more externalizing behaviors.

c. internalizing and externalizing behaviors are fairly comparable across cultures, but specific behaviors within these domains are not.

d. behaviors should not be separated into internalizing and externalizing behaviors because a behavior that is viewed in one culture as internalizing may not be viewed the same way in a different culture.

 

 

6. As compared to developmentally normal levels of hyperactivity, diagnosable hyperactivity

 

a. impairs the child’s functioning.

b. negatively affects the child’s ability to mature appropriately.

c. is treatable only with medication.

d. All of the above are true.

 

 

7. Which of the following distinguishes children with ADHD from other children?

 

a. extreme distractibility.

b. anxiety.

c. problems only in classroom.

d. poor social understanding.

 

 

8. Both attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder are

 

a. new to DSM-IV.

b. even more of a problem to the individual child than to people who interact with him or her.

c. internalizing disorders.

d. externalizing disorders.

 

9. Children labeled "hyperactive" would be usually diagnosed as having
_________________ in DSM-IV.

 

a. conduct disorder

b. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

c. oppositional defiant disorder

d. pervasive developmental disorder

 

10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by all of the following except

 

a. poor academic work.

b. shyness.

c. difficulty getting along with peers.

d. distractibility.

 

 

11. The difference between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and simply being a "rambunctious kid" is that ADHD children

 

a. demonstrate extreme behaviors for a given developmental period.

b. have subtle brain damage.

c. also have academic problems.

d. are truant.

 

 

12. Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

 

a. act socially inappropriate to gain attention from authority figures.

b. have no conception of what socially appropriate behavior is within a certain context.

c. know what socially appropriate behavior is, but choose not to act in that way.

d. know what socially appropriate behavior is, but are often unable to act in that way.

 

 

13. Research on subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder indicates that those with both attentional and hyperactive problems

 

a. have equivalent outcomes to those with only attentional problems. 

b. are more likely to be placed in special education classes than children with only attentional problems.

c. usually learn better than children with only attentional problems.

d. are more likely to have a behavioral, rather than a neurological, basis for their problems.

 

14. The worst prognosis is for those children who have

 

a. only ADHD.

b. only conduct disorder.

c. both ADHD and conduct disorder.

d. ADHD Predominantly Inattentive-type.

 

 

15. A problem facing ADHD researchers is that

 

a. reliance on small sample sizes as ADHD is quite rare.

b. definitions  of ADHD are variable across studies.

c. the follow-up periods are too short.

d. ADHD children often will not comply with research activities.

 

 

16. Epidemiological studies indicate that ADHD

 

a. is about equally common in boys and girls.

b. is more common in boys.

c. is more common in girls.

d. is more common in girls with conduct disorder but in boys with oppositional defiant disorder.

 

 

17. Girls with ADHD

 

a. are more likely to be depressed than girls without ADHD.

b. show deficits in planning and problem-solving.

c. are more likely to be adopted than girls without ADHD.

d. All of the above choices are correct.

 

 

18. When children with ADHD reach adolescence,

 

a. their ADHD symptoms typically remit.

b. other psychiatric disturbances are more prominent than the ADHD.

c. the severity of symptoms may be reduced, but they continue to meet criteria for the disorder.

d. their academic performance greatly improves.

 

 

19.  Studies of the persistence of ADHD into adulthood indicate that

 

a. adults who were diagnosed with ADHD as children are less likely to marry.

b. adults who were diagnosed with ADHD as children usually completely outgrow their symptoms.

c. the rates of ADHD vary considerably depending on the assessment method employed.

d. the rates of ADHD appear to increase in adulthood because so many adults seek out diagnosis in order to obtain prescriptions for stimulants like Ritalin.

 

 

20. What is the prognosis for most children with ADHD?

 

a. symptoms disappear by adolescence.

b. adjust as adults despite minor problems.

c. develop other psychological problems.

d. little change in ADHD symptoms.

 

 

21. Eight-year-old Hank is extremely active and very distractible.  He has particular difficulty in school, as he does not comply with the teacher's directions and has a hard time concentrating.  When Hank reaches adolescence, he will most likely

 

a. be in jail or juvenile hall.

b. exhibit the same behaviors that he exhibits now.

c. be less active but continue to have difficulty in school.

d. outgrow his problem.

 

 

22. In recent molecular genetic studies, genes associated with the neurotransmitter_______________ have been linked to ADHD.

 

a. dopamine

b. serotonin

c. norepinephrine

d. GABA

 

23. Which of the following statements are true?

 

a. Heritability estimates for ADHD are quite low.

b. A single gene, such as the dopamine receptor gene DRD4, is most likely responsible for ADHD.

c. Serotonin has been found to be associated with ADHD etiology.

d. Several genes interacting with various environmental factors most likely explain the cause of ADHD.

 

 

24. The genetic factors that are inherited by children with ADHD are

 

a. brain function and structure.

b. neurotransmitter function and specificity.

c. appetitive and metabolic functions.

d. All of the above are correct.

 

 

25. The hypothesis that ADHD has a genetic basis

 

a. has been proven false; the disorder is more likely caused by environmental stress.

b. has been demonstrated in twin studies.

c. has been found to be true only for those children whose parents are also antisocial.

d. has been found to be true only for those children who also have learning disabilities.

 

 

26. Although low birth weight is a predictor of the development of ADHD, _________ has been shown to help reduce the impact of low birth weight on later symptoms of ADHD.

 

a. vitamin C

b. maternal warmth

c. nicotine

d. breast-feeding

 

 

27. Investigations of the causes of ADHD have found that environmental toxins, such as food additives and lead

 

a. do not explain more than a small percentage of cases.

b. are usually the cause of the disorder in those children with an organic basis to their ADHD.

c. are more likely to cause attentional problems without hyperactivity, but not in those children with both attentional problems and hyperactivity.

d. cause subtle attentional problems, but not to the degree of ADHD.

 

 

28. The association between nicotine and ADHD is that

 

a. children's smoking can cause attention problems.

b. maternal smoking can cause hyperactivity in offspring.

c. nicotine in pill form reduces the side effects of Ritalin.

d. the combination of Ritalin and nicotine has been shown to cause dangerous synergistic effects in adults with ADHD.

 

 

29. Animal studies suggest that chronic exposure to nicotine can affect the developing fetus via the

 

a. frontal lobes.

b. serotonergic system.

c. dopaminergic system.

d. nervous system.

 

 

30. The relationship between maternal smoking and ADHD is

 

a. correlational.

b. causal.

c. dependent on the type of cigarette the women smokes.

d. not well studied.

 

 

31. Which best explains the fact that ADHD children and their parents typically struggle with discipline and obeying rules?

 

a. ADHD children are often noncompliant and negative in interactions with their parents.

b. Parents of ADHD children are demanding and disapproving.

c. Most parents of ADHD children also have ADHD and are therefore are also noncompliant and negative.

d. ADHD children do not understand verbal instructions.

 

 

32. Stimulant drugs have which of the following effects on hyperactive children?

 

a. increased activity level

b. immediate and steady improvement in academic achievement

c. short-term improvements in attention, goal-directed activity and behavior

d. addiction to the medication

 

 

33. Ritalin

 

a. has not been shown to be effective for improving long-term academic achievement. 

b. has been shown to have equal effectiveness to behavioral training alone.

c. has been shown to be more effective in white children than Latino or African American children.

d. All of the above choices are correct.

 

 

34. Medications for children with ADHD have little effect on their

 

a. classroom misbehavior.

b. social interactions.

c. academic achievement.

d. concentration.

 

 

35. Studies of intensive behavioral treatment in managing ADHD show that behavioral treatment

 

a. more effectively controlled disruptive behavior than Ritalin.

b. alone was as effective as Ritalin.

c. was completely ineffective.

d. allowed for lower dosages of Ritalin in reducing ADHD symptoms.

 

36. Rafael is a constant source of problems for his third grade teacher, as he is out of his seat every time she turns around, talking to other children, looking to see what is on their desks or outside the window, or simply walking up to the front of the classroom to converse with the teacher.  Which of the following interventions would probably be most effective in improving Rafael's school behavior?

 

a. operant conditioning involving a token reward system.

b. anti-anxiety medication.

c. long term psychodynamic treatment.

d. cognitive-behavior therapy aimed at reducing impulsivity.

 

37. One of the most difficult diagnostic issues for mental health professionals treating children today is

 

a. distinguishing between learning disabilities and mental retardation.

b. distinguishing between bipolar disorder and ADHD.

c. coming to a consensus on externalizing behaviors and internalizing behaviors.

d. distinguishing between autism and Rett’s disorder.

 

38. The use of stimulant medications in children and adolescents

 

a. leads to dramatic increases in illicit drug use.

b. leads to later alcohol abuse.

c. does not lead to increases in illicit drug use with the exception of cocaine.

d. has decreased in recent years.

 

 

39. Which of the following is the best reason for the dramatic increase in cases of autism in the past decade?

 

a. There are more carcinogenic materials in the environment today than ever before.

b. More children are in full-time daycare than ten years ago.

c. There is greater public awareness of autism.

d. More frequent administration of the MMR vaccine.

 

 

40. Shannon, a junior in high school, was recently suspended from school for stealing money from ninth-graders, writing graffiti on the bathroom walls, and beating up another student.  Shannon's teacher reports that she has very few friends. The most likely diagnosis for Shannon would be

 

a. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

b. antisocial personality disorder.

c. oppositional defiant disorder.

d. conduct disorder.

 

 

41. Which of the following is not a symptom of oppositional-defiant disorder?

 

a. extreme physical aggressiveness

b. temper tantrums

c. refusing to follow directions

d. annoying others deliberately

 

 

42. The difference between "conduct disorder" and "oppositional defiant disorder" is

 

a. still a matter of debate.

b. devious, sneaky, behaviors associated with conduct disorder.

c. the onset of conduct disorder is earlier.

d. conduct disorder is often comorbid with ADHD, while oppositional defiant disorder is not.

 

 

43. Compared to children with ADHD, children with oppositional defiant disorder 

 

a. are more impulsive.

b. are more planful.

c. are more likely to be male.

d. have more attentional deficits.

 

 

44. Conduct disorder is associated with

 

a. substance abuse.

b. ADHD.

c. depression.

d. All of the above are associated with conduct disorder.

 

 

45. Frank was just diagnosed with conduct disorder. He recently stormed into an electronics store, beat up the clerk, and stole a video game system. He also lit a neighbor’s cat on fire and sprayed graffiti on a local church.  At what age did Frank most likely commit these crimes?

 

a. 9

b. 17

c. 28

d. None of the above; it is not possible to guess.

 

 

46. Conduct disorder in childhood is most likely to lead to which adult disorder?

 

a. schizophrenia.

b. sadistic personality disorder.

c. antisocial personality disorder.

d. paranoid personality disorder.

 

47. Sam is a 16-year-old adolescent who feels that he is unable to be an adult, despite the fact that he’s nearly 6 feet, 3 inches tall and has grown a beard. Although he led a “normal” childhood, when he was about 11, he began to get into frequent fights at school and has had trouble with the law ten times.  According to Moffitt, Sam would be categorized as having

 

a. life-course persistent conduct problems.

b. adolescence-limited conduct problems.

c. antisocial development disorder.

d. explosive personality disorder.

 

 

48. Based on the results from Moffitt’s longitudinal study, if Sam (from the previous question) is assessed during early adulthood, which of the following is the most likely outcome for him?

 

a. Sam will report feeling depressed but will exhibit no antisocial behavior.

b. Sam continues to show some conduct problems, but reports that he is beginning to “grow out of it.”

c. Sam continues to commit crimes and abuse drugs.

d. Sam has been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder.

 

49. Moffitt has theorized two forms of conduct disorder distinguished by their different

 

a. response to treatment.

b. seriousness of symptoms.

c. hormone levels.

d. prognoses.

 

 

50. Both ______________ and ______________ theories of the etiology of conduct disorder have empirical support.

 

a. genetic; environmental

b. behavioral; psychoanalytic

c. biochemical; behavioral

d. labeling; biological

 

51. Research on the role of genetics in conduct disorder has found that

 

a. conduct disorder is primarily genetically determined.

b. the different behaviors of conduct disorder reflect differential genetic influence.

c. the concordance rates of MZ twins are not appreciably different from DZ twins.

d. biological factors play a more prominent role in late-onset antisocial behavior than early-onset antisocial behavior.

 

 

52. Which of the following factors were found to be predictive of conduct disorder in a large scale research study on children from New Zealand?

 

a. being maltreated as children and low birth weight

b. presence of low MAOA activity

c. low birth weight and being male

d. both maltreatment and low MAOA activity

 

53. Neuropsychological findings from research on conduct disorder children suggests impairment in all of the following areas except

 

a. memory.

b. problem-solving.

c. focused attention.

d. verbal skills.

 

 

54. According to learning theorists, aggressive behavior is

 

a. both modeled and rewarded in society.

b. is modeled, but not rewarded in society.

c. is not modeled, but is rewarded in society.

d. is neither modeled, nor rewarded in society.

 

 

55. Children with conduct disorder

 

a. feel badly for their wrong-doings, but cannot help themselves.

b. have moral awareness, but choose not to abide by it.

c. often feel guilty for their wrong-doings.

d. lack moral awareness and remorse for their wrong-doings.

 

 

56. According to Dodge and Frame (1982), aggressive children demonstrate cognitive biases in situations

 

a. in which peers act aggressively.

b. in which peers act in a prosocial manner. 

c. which are ambiguous.

d. in which they are rejected.

 

 

57. Conduct disorder is more common in children whose parents are

 

a. harsh and inconsistent disciplinarians.

b. psychologically disordered.

c. overprotective.

d. ethnic minorities.

 

 

58. Which of the following has not been investigated regarding peers and antisocial behavior?

 

a. Competitiveness with peers.

b. Acceptance by peers.

c. Rejection by peers.

d. Affiliation with deviant peers.

 

 

59. Sociocultural perspectives on conduct disorder suggest

 

a. disadvantaged children are very likely to become antisocial.

b. disordered thinking is a result of exposure to antisocial acts among disadvantaged groups.

c. early antisocial behavior in combination with socioeconomic disadvantage leads to conduct problems.

d. there are established ethnic differences in antisocial behavior.

 

 

60. Which of the following has been shown to be a promising treatment for conduct disorders?

 

a. medication

b. covert desensitization

c. parent-management training

d. juvenile justice programs

 

 

61. In the treatment of conduct disorder, the most promising approaches focus on the

 

a. individual.

b. family.

c. school.

d. legal system.

 

 

62. Head Start

 

a. improves intellectual functioning of the neediest children to a level akin to their peers.

b. uses medical and psychological interventions only.

c. is targeted towards children with developing conduct disorder and ADHD.

d. None of the above are correct.

 

 

63. Relative to other disadvantaged children who attended a different pre-school or no preschool, Head Start children

 

a. had significantly improved social-cognitive abilities and motor impulsivity.

b. had significantly higher overall IQ’s.

c. were less socially proactive.

d. had similar impulsivity problems.

 

 

64. Multisystemic therapy

 

a. focuses solely on the conduct disordered child.

b. is based upon intervention in ecologically valid settings such as home, school or peer group.

c. is a combination of medication and individual therapy.

d. is multifaceted in the sense that multiple approaches to family intervention are applied.

 

 

65. Sixteen-year-old Chris had a history of trouble with the law since age 10; most recently, he was picked up by the police because he was truant from school and was vandalizing a bus stop with several friends. He was court-ordered to Dr. Henggeler's program for multisystemic treatment.  Which of the following was probably a part of the treatment?

 

a. medication to reduce Chris’ impulsivity

b. separating Chris from the damaging effects of his current peer system

c. conducting therapy at Chris' home or school

d. All of the above choices are correct.

 

 

66. Brian was enrolled in a program of anger-control training to reduce his aggression. As part of his training, peers were told to insult Brian and he was told to

 

a. respond with calm statements to the children, such as "I'm not going to let you upset me."

b. firmly but politely tell them to stop.

c. distract himself by humming or turning away.

d. signal an adult when he begins to become angry.

 

 

67. Ten-year-old Sharita has appeared sad and tearful much of the time over the past three weeks. She shows little interest in playing the games she used to enjoy, rarely feels like eating, frequently complains of stomachaches, and lies awake at night, unable to fall asleep. Which of the following DSM-IV diagnoses would best fit Sharita?

 

a. dysthymic disorder

b. major depression

c. separation anxiety disorder

d. depressive reaction of childhood

 

68. Depressed children and depressed adults both exhibit which of the following symptoms?

 

a. suicide attempts and guilt

b. fatigue and suicidal ideation

c. loss of appetite and early morning depression

d. delusions

 

 

69. Adults with depression are more likely to have which of the following symptoms when compared to children?

 

a. suicide attempts and guilt

b. fatigue and suicidal ideation

c. loss of appetite and early morning depression

d. delusions

 

 

70. In comparing adolescent boys and girls with depression, it appears

 

  1. girls are more likely to be depressed.
  2. boys are more likely to be depressed.
  3. the rates for boys and girls are the same in adolescence, although in adulthood more women are depressed.
  4. girls tend to experience more cognitive symptoms of depression, whereas boys tend to experience more psychomotor symptoms of depression.

 

 

71. Depressed children and their parents

 

a. tend to avoid conflict.

b. have more negative interactions.

c. have less supportive relationships, but are generally free of conflict.

d. frequently have overinvolved relationships.

 

 

72. A recent randomized clinical trial comparing Prozac, CBT and both for teenagers with depression found that

 

a. Prozac alone was most effective in reducing depressive symptoms.

b. CBT alone was more effective in reducing depressive symptoms.

c. CBT alone resulted in more suicide attempts.

d. combined treatment was most effective in reducing depressive symptoms.

 

73. Penelope is a 9-year-old girl who has had the following symptoms for the past month: lack of interest in her friends, loss of appetite and weight, tearfulness, and difficulty concentrating. Which of the following treatments would most likely be effective in treating her problem?

 

  1. antidepressant medication and cognitive-behavioral therapy
  2. multisystemic treatment
  3. social skills training
  4. psychodynamic psychotherapy

 

 

74. School phobia in young children is most often associated with

 

a. fear of being away from parents.

b. fear of humiliation by peers.

c. fear of academic demands.

d. fear of the unknown.

 

 

75. Alexandra has school phobia. Which of the following is most likely also true of Alexandra?

 

a. She has been abused.

b. She has a learning disability.

c. She often sleeps with her parents.

d. She has a health problem.

 

 

76. John was diagnosed as having selective mutism.  This means that he

 

a. has a communication disorder which makes him unable to talk.

b. refuses to speak in unfamiliar social circumstances.

c. communicates to his parents and other family members with gestures only.

d. has created his own language; this disorder is common in twins.

 

 

77. Generally speaking, children exposed to trauma

 

a. do not re-experience the traumatic events or avoid trauma-related situations like adults do.

b. almost always develop PTSD.

c. rarely develop PTSD.

d. experience the same symptoms as adults exposed to trauma.

 

 

78. Which of the following symptoms manifest in children with PTSD, but usually not in adults with PTSD?

 

a. sleep-problems

b. agitation

c. flashbacks

d. hopelessness

 

 

79. Research on treatments for childhood PTSD

 

a. indicates that antidepressant medication can be beneficial.

b. overwhelmingly suggests that family therapy is crucial.

c. is sparse, but suggests CBT and family involvement may be beneficial.

d. indicates that older children respond better to treatment than younger children.

 

 

80. Studies of treatment for childhood fears and phobias suggest that the best treatment is

 

a. based on exposure methods.

b. relaxation.

c. insight-oriented therapy.

d. parent training.

 

81. Children with learning disabilities typically have ________ intelligence.

 

a. severely deficient

b. slightly below average

c. average to above-average intelligence

d. None of the above; learning disabilities are equally distributed across all levels of intelligence.

 

 

82. Children with reading disorder, better known as dyslexia

 

a. have global difficulties with reading.

b. primarily struggle with proper orientation of letters.

c. do not have the disorder as adults.

d. often cannot achieve academically.

 

 

83. Dyslexia refers to significant difficulty in

 

a. reading.

b. writing.

c. arithmetic.

d. speaking.

 

 

84. Individuals with reading disorder/dyslexia

 

a. are rarely able to be self-supporting as adults.

b. can usually read without difficulty when fitted with proper eyeglasses.

c. are unusual; there are fewer with this disorder than with other learning disabilities.

d. are not destined to be unsuccessful.

 

 

85. Which of the following is a learning disability?

 

a. pervasive developmental disorder

b. mental retardation

c. mathematics disorder

d. attention deficit disorder

 

 

86. Three-year-old Billy is unable to think of the word ‘dog’ when one crosses his path during a walk in the park. Billy most likely suffers from

 

a. phonological disorder.

b. expressive language disorder.

c. dyslexia.

d. disorder of oral interpretation.

 

 

87. Phonological disorders are characterized by

 

a. difficulties in understanding information presented verbally.

b. a general difficulty with articulation of later-acquired speech sounds.

c. difficulty in reading aloud, but no difficulty with spontaneous speech.

d. None of the above are correct.

 

 

88. Phonological disorder would be characterized by which of the following cases?

 

a. Carla, age 8, switches letters when reading and writing.

b. Jason, age 6, is unable to count objects or recognize numerical symbols.

c. Jonathan, age 6, does not articulate clearly.

d. Meredith, age 10, has difficulty comprehending what others say.

 

 

89. Sara, age seven, talks "baby talk," like when she says "wabbit" instead of "rabbit," and "bu," when she means "blue."  What type of outcome would we expect for Sara?

 

a. Sara's problem is probably caused by emotional distress and will likely clear up when the cause of stress is relieved.

b. Even with speech therapy, Sara will continue to have severe difficulty speaking clearly.

c. With some training in the later-acquired speech sounds, complete recovery is likely.

d. Sara's problem is an early sign of dyslexia; she is likely to have difficulty learning to read when she begins first grade.

 

 

90. What label is appropriate for five-year-old Kerry who still talks "baby talk?" Kerry uses and understands words appropriately and has no other obvious problems.

 

a. dyslexia

b. mental retardation

c. phonological disorder

d. expressive language disorder

 

91. Stuttering

 

a. is based largely on biological factors and is readily treated with medication.

b. frequently remits by adulthood.

c. is more common in females than males.

d. is worsened when the person reads aloud rather than speak extemporaneously.

 

92. Typically, the outcome for stuttering is

 

a. complete recovery in adolescence, even without intervention.

b. recovery to the point that the person only stutters when nervous.

c. complete recovery is possible if speech therapy is initiated early.

d. most people do not recover, even with speech therapy.

 

93. In a recent fMRI study examining three different types of readers, adults who had trouble learning to read early in school, but not later in school

 

a. showed less activation in the areas of the brain linked to reading than adults who never had any trouble with reading.

b. showed the same activation in the areas of the brain linked to reading as adults who never had any trouble with reading.

c. showed more activation in the areas of the brain linked to reading than adults who never had any trouble with reading.

d. showed no activation on the right side of the brain.

 

 

94. Which of the following may explain why an fMRI study examining Chinese children with dyslexia failed to find problems in the temporoparietal area of the brain during reading tasks?

 

a. This study only evaluated 10 children.

b. Differences between Chinese and English languages.

c. The study examining Chinese children used older fMRI techniques.

d. The Chinese language relies on less visual processing than does English.

 

 

95. All of the following are characteristics of different types of mathematics disorder except

 

a. problems memorizing arithmetic rules.

b. failure to translate written numbers into verbal statements.

c. using immature strategies for a given age.

d. misaligning numbers in columns.

 

 

96. Typical treatment of learning disabilities consists of

 

a. specialized diet and medication to improve brain functioning.

b. individualized instruction and practice in the deficient skill.

c. systematic reinforcement of the desired academic behavior.

d. instruction in other skills that compensate for the deficiency.

97. Six-year-old Holly had great difficulty understanding language and was diagnosed with a communication disorder. She went to a new clinic where her understanding of language improved using computers.  The intervention likely included

 

a. reading into a microphone and being corrected by the computer.

b. playing computer games involving slowed speech sounds.

c. repeated practice in hearing and repeating hard consonants.

d. false advertising, since receptive language disorders rarely improve.

 

 

98. Mental retardation can be distinguished from learning disabilities as

 

a. mental retardation is chronic, whereas learning disabilities usually clear up by adolescence.

b. learning disabilities are treated within school settings.

c. mental retardation is genetic, whereas learning disabilities are caused by inadequate education.

d. mental retardation is more pervasive.

 

 

99. The DSM-IV diagnosis of mental retardation requires both low intellectual functioning and

 

a. poor social skills.

b. poor adaptive skills.

c. poor academic achievement.

d. inability to hold a job.

 

 

100. A diagnosis of mental retardation may not be made if the problem begins

 

a. after age 6.

b. after age 12.

c. after age 18.

d. after age 21.

 

 

101. Until recently, a limit in measuring adaptive functioning was  

 

a. differing definitions of what 'adaptive' refers to.

b. that previous measures were subjective.

c. that there were no well-established norms.

d. the variability across age ranges.

 

102. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales are used for diagnosing

 

a. learning disabilities.

b. conduct disorders.

c. mental retardation.

d. adjustment disorder.

 

103. Mental retardation is diagnosed based on

 

a. parent and teacher reports.

b. psychological test scores.

c. measures of sensory-motor abilities by a pediatrician.

d. a psychiatrist's evaluation.

 

 

104. Five-year-old Jake has an IQ of 68. He has not yet learned to count and does not know the names of all the colors, but he can tie his shoes without help, loves to tell stories and jokes, and helps his mother with cooking.  Which of the following diagnoses would fit Jake?

 

a. mild mental retardation

b. moderate mental retardation

c. severe mental retardation

d. None of the above are correct.

 

 

105. Mildly retarded individuals have IQs between about

 

a. 70 and 85.

b. 50 and 70.

c. 40 and 55.

d. 30 and 60.

 

 

106. Gretchen is mentally retarded.  She is 18 years old, but her academic skills are at about the 1st grade level despite many years of specialized schooling. She has an IQ of 45.  She lives with her family and walks each day to a school program where she works on self-care and social skills. Gretchen has some trouble with both fine and gross motor skills, but enjoys playing active games with her brothers and sisters. What level of mental retardation does Gretchen exhibit?

 

a. mild

b. moderate

c. severe

d. profound

 

 

107. The American Association of Mental Retardation recommends assessment

 

a. in terms of overall ability to function in society.

b. using tests free of cultural/ethnic bias.

c. of specific skills and needs in many areas in each individual.

d. in coordination with parents and teachers.

 

 

108. In diagnosing mental retardation, the approach of the American Association of Mental Retardation emphasizes

 

a. assessing skills to improve functioning.

b. minimizing use of IQ tests.

c. distinguishing between retardation and learning disabilities.

d. regular reassessment to measure progress.

 

 

109. In its classification system, the American Association of Mental Retardation focuses on

 

a. categorizing levels of mental retardation by IQ and adaptive functioning level.

b. categorizing subtypes of mental retardation based on etiology.

c. reducing the stigmatizing effects of labeling by describing only strengths and no weaknesses.

d. determining what resources would maximize a person's functioning.

 

 

110. An important shift in focus for the American Association of Mental Retardation has been

 

a. away from classification and toward assessment of maximum functioning capability.

b. away from functioning and toward global classification.

c. on methods for increasing intelligence performance among mentally retarded individuals.

d. there has been no recent shift in focus by this organization.

 

 

111. Mentally retarded people with known etiologies are

 

a. rarely detected on routine medical exams.

b. typically mildly to moderately retarded.

c. commonly from poor backgrounds.

d. the minority of individuals with mental retardation.

 

 

112. Down's syndrome is the result of

 

a. environmental insult, usually during the birth process.

b. a recessive-gene disease.

c. a specific chromosomal abnormality.

d. None of the above; the cause is unknown.

 

 

113. Which of the following problems are common in people with Down's syndrome?

 

a. violent outbursts

b. heart problems

c. phenylketonuria

d. autism

 

 

114. "Fragile X" is commonly due to

 

a. a mutation in the X-chromosome.

b. a fragile psychological state that leads to mental retardation.

c. a brief period where there was limited exposure to oxygenated air.

d. a metabolic disorder.

 

115. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is the result of a(n)

 

a. infectious disease during pregnancy.

b. specific chromosomal abnormality.

c. recessive-gene.

d. fragile X syndrome.

 

 

116. It is recommended that people with phenylketonuria (PKU)

 

a. be kept on a special diet to prevent mental retardation.

b. be educated at home since the disease is highly infectious.

c. not marry, since their offspring will almost certainly be mentally retarded.

d. undergo frequent blood tests to determine whether their lithium levels are within safe limits.

 

 

117. If a pregnant woman is exposed to an infectious disease,

 

a. the fetus will only be affected if the mother is symptomatic while pregnant.

b. the mother’s immune system will protect the fetus.

c. the child has a greater chance of developing Down syndrome.

d. the consequences of the disease are most serious during the first trimester.

 

 

118. A child born to an HIV-infected mother has a ________ chance of developing mental retardation.

 

a. 25%

b. 50%

c. 75%

d. 85%

 

 

119. Which of the following has not been hypothesized to cause mental retardation in children?

 

a. meningitis

b. lead-based paint

c. malnutrition

d. near-drowning experiences

 

120. Wanda, a 12-year-old severely retarded girl, was taught to dress herself using the following approach: First, her teacher broke down the behavior of getting dressed into a number of smaller steps, like pulling the neck hole over her head, putting her arm into a shirt sleeve, and then putting the other arm in.  Each step was then demonstrated to Wanda, and she was rewarded for each small movement toward the goal.  This approach is called

 

a. behavioral rehearsal.

b. applied behavior analysis.

c. self-instructional training.

d. behavior contracting.

 

 

121. With the mentally retarded, applied behavior analysis 

 

a. has been used to improve fine motor and self-help skills.

b. has been used to improve gross motor skills and linguistic ability.

c. has been unsuccessful in reducing self-injurious behavior.

d. All of the above choices are correct.

 

 

122. Behavioral treatments for marked retardation emphasize

 

a. teaching skills that improve functional intelligence.

b. breaking behaviors into teachable components.

c. concrete reinforcers and immediate feedback.

d. round the clock treatment in specialized settings.

 

 

123. Applied behavior analysis as a method of working with severely retarded individuals

 

a. teaches skills in small, sequential steps.

b. builds on existing individual strengths.

c. emphasizes computer-assisted instruction.

d. has shown long-term intellectual gains.

 

 

124. Cognitive-behavior therapy with retarded children

 

a. is the primary method used for teaching them self-care skills.

b. is combined with insight therapies to help them understand and cope with rejection.

c. focuses on teaching the children to use self-instructions to guide their academic efforts.

d. is inappropriate, since such children are unable to grasp the concepts.

 

 

125. Jim, a 10-year-old mentally retarded boy, must learn how to spell simple words. However, Jim is highly distractible and has no one around who is willing to sit with him and repeatedly go over such a simple task.  Jim would likely benefit from

 

a. living in a residential facility with 24-hour nursing care.

b. Ritalin.

c. computer-assisted instruction.

d. applied behavior analysis.

 

 

126. Autism was first identified by

 

a. Sigmund Freud.

b. Leo Kanner.

c. Emil Kraepelin.

d. Eugen Blueler.

 

 

127. The category "pervasive developmental disorder" includes which of the following disorders?

 

a. learning disabilities

b. mental retardation

c. autistic disorder

d. All of the above are included.

 

 

128. Autism is more common among

 

a. upper socioeconomic classes.

b. Caucasian children.

c. boys.

d. learning disabled children.

 

 

129. What is the best diagnostic label for Misha? At six years of age, she does not play with other children and turns away when they approach her. She spends much of her time spinning a pencil endlessly in her fingers.  She does not talk to others although she does sing jingles from T.V. commercials.

 

a. mental retardation

b. expressive language disorder

c. autistic disorder

d. Rett’s disorder

 

 

130. The fundamental characteristic of autism is

 

a. intolerance for routines.

b. not relating to others.

c. mental retardation.

d. poor gross motor skills.

 

 

131. Which of the following has been considered a mild form of autism?

 

a. Rett's disorder

b. Disintegrative disorder

c. PKU

d. Asperger's syndrome

 

132. Autistic children typically score in what range on intelligence tests?

 

a. below 50

b. below 70

c. 85 to 105

d. 100 to 115

 

 

133. Generally, mentally retarded children show _____ deficits in intellectual functioning while autistic children show ______ deficits.

 

a. overall; only language

b. only language; overall

c. overall; only visual-spatial

d. visual-spatial; overall

 

 

134. A “high-functioning” autistic individual most likely

 

a. has a peer group and is able to attend regular schools.

b. has an IQ score of over 130.

c. has an IQ score of over 80.

d. has a very good long-term memory.

 

 

135. Extreme autistic aloneness describes

 

a. the parents' supposed rejection of the autistic child, leading to extreme isolation.

b. the autistic child's sensory deprivation.

c. the autistic child's total detachment from interpersonal relationships.

d. the autistic child's total lack of involvement with people, animals, and objects.

 

136. The play of autistic children is

 

a. similar to normal children.

b. similar to mentally retarded children.

c. generally inappropriate.

d. often highly social.

 

 

137. When completing face perception or identity tasks, fMRI studies of autistic children have found that

 

a. autistic children can easily recognize faces, but just cannot express this knowledge.

b. the areas of the brain associated with the identification of faces were not activated.

c. the fusiform gyrus is overactive, indicating that despite not paying attention to people’s faces, these children can identify them.

d. these children have overactive amygdalas.

 

 

138. fMRI studies of autistic people’s reactions to facial expressions of emotions show

 

a. no activation in emotion centers of the brain.

b. that autistic people biologically perceive faces in the same manner as nonautistic people.

c. increased activation in the frontal lobe.

d. that the autistic brain is incapable of perceiving facial expressions.

 

 

139. Joan, an autistic child, reacts to her mother’s expression of pain by
withdrawing from her.  This reaction

 

a. is atypical of autistic children.

b. is Joan’s way of expressing sympathy.

c. supports the idea that Joan does not have ‘theory of the mind.’

d. is indicative of a more serious disturbance underlying Joan’s autism, such as childhood disintegrative disorder.

 

140. What term is used to describe the following communication:  Mother: "Would you like to play with this?"  Child: "Would you like to play with this?"

 

a. pronoun reversal

b. echolalia

c. alogia

d. extreme autistic aloneness

 

141. What term is used to describe the following communication:  Teacher: "What are you playing with, Carl?"  Carl: "He's playing ball."

 

a. poverty of speech

b. pronoun reversal

c. echolalia

d. alogia

 

 

142. A child with autistic disorder might respond to the question, “How are you?” by saying, “He’s fine”.  This is an example of

 

a. echolalia.

b. theory of mind.

c. pronoun reversal.

d. ritualistic behavior.

 

 

143. Which of the following is not a characteristic of autistic communication?

 

a. Edward uses the phrase “Do you want to go to the park” when he wants to be let out the front door.

b. When Carla’s mom calls her for dinner, Carla answers “She’s coming.”

c. Michael uses the phrase “Don’t touch the stove” to mean no.

d. Dawn calls her mother “daddy” and father “mommy.”

 

 

144. An autistic person’s preoccupation with repetitive and ritualistic acts is thought to be

 

a. a form of self-soothing.

b. a kind of stimulating activity.

c. akin to compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

d. tics.

 

 

145. Bettelheim compared autism to

 

a. the long-lasting trauma resulting from severe child abuse.

b. the apathy and hopelessness of concentration camp inmates.

c. the confusion and disorganization of schizophrenia.

d. the fear and distress of children exposed to extreme marital discord.

 

 

146. According to Oliver Sacks, Temple Grandin, despite her great successes,

 

a. still struggles with severe symptoms and appears depressed.

b. does not appear to understand social interactions.

c. may have a different form of psychopathology.

d. is actually completely recovered from autism, thus her ability to succeed.

 

 

147. Early behavioral theorists emphasized the role of ____________ in the etiology of autism.

 

a. exposure to war or other traumas

b. biological factors

c. inadequate parenting

d. well-meaning but overindulgent parents

 

 

148. Autistic disorder was originally attributed to

 

a. receiving little attention from parents.

b. birth trauma.

c. food allergies.

d. child abuse.

 

 

149. What does research indicate about the cause of autism?

 

a. environmental factors are primary

b. psychological factors are primary

c. biological factors are primary

d. A diathesis involving poor parenting is involved.

 

 

150. The most important factor in the etiology of autism appears to be

 

a. auditory and visual deficits.

b. prenatal hormones.

c. faulty parenting.

d. genetic heritability.

 

 

151. If differences were found between parents of autistic children and parents of normal children, what problem of interpretation would limit assumptions that the parents caused the disorder?

 

a. third variable

b. directionality

c. correlational

d. All of the above are correct.

 

 

152. Twin studies of people with autism

 

a. have been inconclusive.

b. have uncovered striking similarities between the functioning of autistic and non-autistic identical twins.

c. are often carried out with poor methodologies.

d. None of the above; twin studies have yet to be conducted on this rare disorder.

 

 

153. Most autistic children are born with

 

a. a larger than normal head circumference.

b. heart problems.

c. brains of a relatively normal size.

d. less neurons than normal.

 

 

154. Neurological studies have found abnormalities in which part of the brains of autistic individuals?

 

a. prefrontal cortex

b. left hemisphere language centers

c. cerebellum

d. limbic system

 

 

155. The Parkers read about Ivar Lovaas' pioneering work with autistic children and were relieved when he agreed to accept their son into his program.  What type of treatment would the Parker's autistic boy be likely to receive in Lovaas' clinic?

 

a. a supportive, loving milieu program within a residential setting

b. careful attention to diet and treatment with fenfluramine

c. group therapy geared toward encouraging the children to express their anger and frustration more openly

d. behavior therapy based on social-learning principles

 

 

156. Lovaas' program of behavioral treatment of autistic children

 

a. takes one full day each week.

b. requires the child be hospitalized periodically.

c. includes parenting skills training for parents.

d. has yielded dramatic improvements.

 

 

157. Education provided by parents to their autistic children as part of a behavioral treatment program is more effective than education provided by clinics because

 

a. parents command more authority.

b. parents are present in various situations.

c. parents can ensure that behaviors are targeted in the appropriate sequential manner.

d. All of the above choices are correct.

 

 

 158. Current treatments for autism put emphasis on

 

a. involving parents.

b. reducing disruptive behaviors.

c. antipsychotic medication.

d. providing emotional support.

 

 

159. The most common medication prescribed for autism is

 

a. antipsychotic medication.

b. stimulant medication.

c. antidepressants.

d. drugs which lower serotonin levels.

 

 

160. What neurotransmitter has been found to be elevated in some autistic children?

 

a. dopamine

b. norepinephrine

c. serotonin

d. fenfluramine

 

 

161. At the present time, psychopharmocological interventions are ____________          
behavioral intervention programs in treating autism.

 

a. less effective than

b. more effective than

c. as effective as

d. None of the above; effectiveness depends on the individual patient’s characteristics.

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