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Homework answers / question archive / APES Energy Test – Chap

APES Energy Test – Chap

Earth Science

APES Energy Test – Chap. 19, 20, 21

1)The world's most abundant fossil fuel is ________.

    1. biodiesel          b. coal c. oil    d. natural gas  e. methane


  1. Before mining techniques improved in the 1700s, the resource that provided the greatest amount of energy for heating and cooking was ________.
    1. dung                b. wood                       c. coal              d. oil    e. water



  1. Which of the following energy sources is considered nonrenewable?
    1. fossil fuel energy                                d. sunlight (solar) energy
    2. geothermal energy                 e. tidal energy
    3. wind energy


  1. Solar radiation makes several other energy sources possible, including ________.
    1. wind energy                            d. tidal energy
    2. geothermal energy                 e. hydrothermal energy
    3. nuclear energy


  1. For the United States, the primary fuel that we use for our energy is ________.
    1. wood   b. natural gas              c. coal d. oil    e. nuclear



  1. The entire pool of oil is not extracted from a well because ________.
    1. it is too destructive to the environment
    2. it is not cost?effective
    3. in some areas it is too liquid to extract
    4. only a strip mine could fully extract it 
    5. this is not correct; we often are able to extract the entire pool



  1. In deciding whether to extract oil from a site and how much of the total to extract, an oil company considers ________.
    1. the distance the oil must be transported, current market price of oil, potential environmental damage
    2. the amount of greenhouse gases the oil will release when burned
    3. the current price of gasoline at the pump
    4. which nation will make the largest purchases
    5. the fraction of the oil that will go to fuels, plastics, synthetic fibers and lubricants



  1. Secondary extraction of petroleum ________.
    1. occurs immediately after primary extraction
    2. is less expensive than primary extraction
    3. uses solvents, water, or steam
    4. allows the oil to be extracted to the last drop
    5. causes less environmental damage than tertiary extraction



  1. Coal continues to be the main fuel used to generate electricity in the United States. This is partially because ________.
    1. the country has such large reserves of coal
    2. the quality of coal in the United States is very consistent from deposit to deposit
    3. coal causes almost no air pollution when burned
    4. coal deposits in the United States lie very close to the surface and are easily extracted
    5. coal contains very few impurities, such as sulfur, which cause problems in petroleum and natural gas

Answer:  A


  1. Crude oil is ________.
    1. composed of just a few types of hydrocarbon molecules
    2. usable in its raw form
    3. formed less than 100 yards below the surface; in deeper places with more pressure, coal is formed
    4. formed in a wide range of temperature and pressure circumstances
    5. fractionated to obtain the chemicals used for gasoline, lubricants, plastics and other products

Answer:  E


  1. Natural gas 
    1. primary component is octane
    2. produces less greenhouse gases per energy unit than coal
    3. discovered by Bunsen in 1885
    4. will be depleted by 2030 at current usage rates
    5. is transported primarily by truck and rail



  1. Deposits of natural gas are most numerous in ________.
    1. the Middle East                                               d. Panama
    2. Russia and the United States              e. South America
    3. Spain and Portugal



  1. The greatest damage to the environment caused by oil extraction is from ________.
    1. the drilling
    2. road construction and infrastructure development
    3. the development of the market in a new country
    4. the remediation and relocation
    5. the initial logging



  1. When we burn fossil fuels, ________.
    1. we liberate carbon back into the carbon cycle, increasing the amount available for plant growth
    2. the resulting carbonic acid leads to acid rain
    3. the greatest environmental impact is the impact on the ozone layer
    4. the greatest environmental impact is increased greenhouse gases
    5.  the greatest environmental impact is the local damage from extraction




  1. Worldwide, the most widely used renewable energy resource is ________.
    1. solar    b. hydroelectric                       c. biomass       d. wind            e. nuclear



  1. Biomass energy ________.
    1. can be created by microbial action or burned directly as wood or dung
    2. requires fossil fuel input to produce
    3. produces no greenhouse gases when burned
    4. could not supply an alternative fuel to gasoline
    5. is a form of fossil fuel



  1. Atomic energy in power plants is created via ________.
    1. fusion of electrons
    2. ionic transformation of atoms
    3. extraction of energy from the nucleus of cells
    4. bombarding radioactive elements with electrons
    5. fissioning uranium atoms by bombarding them with neutrons

Answer:  E


  1. Which of the following are documented negative impacts of dams?
    1. flooding, habitat destruction, alteration of river sediment deposition
    2. alteration of river salinity
    3. acid deposition
    4. increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and CFCs
    5. increased carbon monoxide emissions, decreased rainfall



  1. Which of the following has the least heat yield when burned?
    1. charcoal          b. petrodiesel  c. wood                        d. ethanol        e. peat

Answer: E


  1. Ultimately, all biofuels are ________, because they are the result of ________.
    1. geological; sedimentation
    2. solar; photosynthesis
    3. inefficient; decomposition by microorganisms
    4. synthetic; chemical manipulation of hydrocarbons
    5. polymers; biological metabolic processes



  1. The primary motivation to develop the new renewable energy sources comes from ________.
    1. those who believe conservation is important
    2. those who believe human health is impacted by smog and pollution
    3. those who believe fossil fuel dependence is suicide because it makes us vulnerable to the Middle East
    4. concerns over diminishing fossil fuel supplies and negative environmental impacts of fossil fuel use 
    5. concerns that oxygen production by trees is endangered by fossil fuel use





  1. Which of the following methods can be called passive solar energy collection?
    1. using heat?absorbing construction materials
    2. rooftop solar panels
    3. OTEC
    4. photovoltaic cells
    5. rooftop flat?plate solar collectors

Answer:  A


  1. A major advantage of solar power is that ________.
    1. cost is prohibitive even in developed countries
    2. pollution is high
    3. not all regions are sunny enough to provide adequate power with current technology
    4. there is a lack of knowledge on long?term impacts
    5. solar systems provide local, decentralized control over power

Answer:  E


  1. A major disadvantage to using wind to produce electricity is ________.
    1. the emissions it produces once in place
    2. its energy efficiency compared to conventional power sources
    3. that people can use a single mill or develop a large?scale wind farm
    4. the initial startup cost
    5. that land can be leased for wind power development



  1. A major obstacle to the establishment of wind farms near population centers that need them is ________.
    1. the lack of infrastructure to support wind?generated electricity
    2. NIMBY
    3. the lack of financial support for the construction of wind farms
    4. the lack of government support for the construction of wind farms
    5. the lack of large land areas needed to construct wind farms



  1. Offshore wind farms are being seriously considered because ________.
    1. they are more aesthetically pleasing
    2. they do not interfere with bird migration routes
    3. wind speeds are higher and turbulence is lower
    4. development of land for human use is pushing wind farms to open water
    5. maintenance costs are less than they are on land

Answer:  C


  1. Potential energy sources from oceans ________.
    1. chemoluminescent bacteria
    2. motion of currents, waves and tides; ocean thermal energy
    3. solar reflection
    4. lightning strikes in salt water
    5. magnetic field generators





  1. Although solar-PV-generated electricity as a power source is cleaner than burning fossil fuels, the problem with this electricity is that it ________.
    1. is dangerous if stored too long
    2. cannot be stored easily in large quantities for use when and where it is needed
    3. is not sufficiently understood
    4. will be replaced shortly with other sources of power for homes
    5. is less efficient than fossil fuels



  1. One difficulty with the process of using hydrogen as a power source is that it ________.
    1. is not properly understood
    2. is less efficient than fossil fuels
    3. requires a fuel that is a nonrenewable resource
    4. requires an energy investment to begin the process
    5. has highly volatile and dangerous components



  1. One advantage of using hydrogen fuel cells is ________.
    1. the potential for production of greenhouse gases
    2. the ease of transporting and storage
    3. the energy efficiency
    4. that they are nonpolluting
    5. the low impact on atmospheric ozone



  1. The chemical product of using hydrogen as an energy source is ________.
    1. ingestion         c. combustion              e. water molecules    
    2. incineration     d. electrolysis

Answer: E


  1. A major advantage that hydrogen?generated electricity has over other new renewable energy sources is that it ________.
    1. is less expensive
    2. creates greenhouse gases but no acid deposition
    3. can be produced where and when electricity is needed
    4. converts the kinetic energy of earth processes to electrical energy
    5. already has an infrastructure in place for using hydrogen as fuel



  1. Wind will not be a major energy resource in ________.
    1. the SE              b the NW         c. California    d. Texas                       e. the NE



  1. Which of the following is used in nuclear reactions?
    1. Uranium                      b. platinum      c. iridium         d. magnesium e. radon


  1. In the course of a day a home takes in 10,000 units of energy but due to poor insulation, 8,000 units leave the house. What is the efficiency of this home?
    1. 80%                 b. 18%             c. 20%              d. 8%               e. 1.2%



  1. Which of the following convert sunlight into electrical energy?
    1. Photovoltaic cells                    b. fuel cells      c. turbines       d. batteries      e. solar cookers



  1. As time passes for buried organic material, the concentration of carbon in that material
    1. Increases                     b. decreases    c. remains constant    d. exponentially decays




  1. Discuss the conventional alternatives to fossil fuels. Why are we not using more renewables?


  1. Why is waste disposal a significant problem in nuclear power generation? Discuss Yucca Mountain.


  1. Briefly discuss the pros and cons of hydropower.


  1. What are the benefits of using electrolysis to produce and store energy?


  1. Explain the major problem with wind energy.
  2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of wind power.
  3. Compare and contrast passive solar collection and active solar collection.
  4. What is geothermal power?  What are the advantages and disadvantages of the use of geothermal power?


  1. Why has the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) been a subject of debate?


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