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Homework answers / question archive / QUESTION 1) A ‘long’ exposure to foreign exchange risk is: A

QUESTION 1) A ‘long’ exposure to foreign exchange risk is: A

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QUESTION 1)

A ‘long’ exposure to foreign exchange risk is:

A.

a large exposure to a foreign currency

B.

to have significant exposure to foreign exchange risk

C.

an exposure to foreign liabilities

QUESTION 2

The definition of risk includes:

A.

the extent of dispersion around the mean.

B.

the possibility of a gain.

C.

the volatility of unexpected outcomes.

QUESTION 3

A ‘short’ exposure to foreign exchange risk is:

A.

to have no exposure to foreign exchange risk

C.

a small exposure to a foreign currency

D.

an exposure to foreign assets

QUESTION 4

Which of the following is NOT a source of transaction exposure?

A.

The purchase of a foreign asset or liability

B.

The expected loss of foreign market share resulting from domestic currency appreciation

C.

Current interest payments on a foreign currency loan

D.

A contract involving future foreign currency cash flows


 

QUESTION 5

Which of the following statements is NOT a benefit of hedging?

A.

A more stable income may be more conducive to sales in the case of consumer durables and capital goods

B.

In a progressive tax environment hedging increases after tax income

C.

Firms which hedge are valued less than firms which do not hedge

D.

Volatile earnings may lead to higher employee turnover and higher wage demands

QUESTION 6

A decision to hedge receivables in the forward market will be taken if:

A.

the interest parity forward rate is equal to the expected spot rate

B.

the actual forward rate is lower than the expected spot rate

C.

the actual forward rate is higher than the expected spot rate

D.

the interest parity forward rate is lower than the expected spot rate

QUESTION 7

An Australian company has payables of USD100,000, due in three months.  The current AUD/USD exchange rate is 1.7900/1.8000.  The expected exchange rate is 1.7500/1.7600 in three months’ time.  The three-month call with a strike of 1.7200 has a premium of AUD0.03.

Calculate the estimated Australian dollar value of the payables if an options hedge is taken out and the forecast turns out to be correct .

A.

169,000

B.

172,000

C.

176,000

D.

175,000

QUESTION 8

If PPP holds then:

A.

real currency depreciation or appreciation will not occur as changes in commodity prices will be offset by changes in the nominal exchange rate so hedging will not be necessary

B.

the forward rate will equal the spot rate at maturity of the forward contract so hedging will not be necessary

C.

the foreign currency return will equal the domestic currency return and any change in the spot rate will be offset by change in the interest rate differential so hedging will not be necessary

D.

the spot exchange rate will not change so hedging will not be necessary

QUESTION 9

The decision to hedge or not to hedge foreign currency exposure is a speculative decision because:

A.

both hedging and speculation involve a deliberate assumption of risk

B.

the outcome of hedging depends on movements in the forward rate

C.

it depends on the expected movement in the exchange rate

D.

hedging is a profit making operation

QUESTION 10

Which of the following instruments is NOT used for managing transaction exposure?

A.

transfer pricing

B.

currency diversification

C.

cross hedging

D.

leading and lagging

QUESTION 11

Money market hedging of payables will be preferred to forward hedging if the actual forward rate is:

 

A.

higher than the expected spot rate

B.

higher than the expected spot rate

C.

higher than the interest parity forward rate

D.

lower than the expected spot rate

QUESTION 12

Suppose that two counterparties, A and B, enter a three-month forward contract on 1 January, whereby A sells USD1 million at a forward rate of AUD/USD 1.7662. On 1 March, A decides it no longer needs to sell USD1 million on 31 March, so it enters a one-month forward contract to buy USD1 million on 31 March at a forward rate of AUD/USD 1.8000 from counterparty C.

Calculate the net cost to counterparty A, before transaction costs.

A.

0.0338

B.

-AUD33 800

C.

AUD33 800

D.

AUD1.8 million

QUESTION 13

Which of the following is NOT a means whereby the default risk is controlled in futures trading?

A.

only low-risk participants are allowed to trade

B.

the clearing corporation acting as the counterparty to all contracts

C.

implementing daily settlement and margin requirements

D.

imposing daily limits on price movements

QUESTION 14

Marking-to-market risk of futures trading arises from:

A.

the effect of unpredictable changes in the interest rate on the margin account

B.

daily exchange rate volatility

C.

variable transaction costs

D.

all of the given answers


 

QUESTION 15

Suppose that two counterparties, A and B, enter a three-month forward contract, whereby A sells USD1 million at a forward rate of AUD/USD 1.7662.

Which party is likely to default if the spot rate three months hence is 1.7000?

A.

counterparty A

B.

counterparty B 

C.

both counterparty A and counterparty B

D.

neither counterparty

 

QUESTION 16

Consider a 3-year currency swap with a notional principal of AUD100,000, whereby A receives annual payments in Australian dollars and B receives annual payments in U.S. dollars at a contracted rate of 0.9300 (USD/AUD).  The market exchange (USD/AUD) rate assumes the values 0.9500, 0.9300 and 0.8900 at the end of each year.

Calculate the cash flows in year one.

A.

B pays A USD2,000

B.

A pays B USD2,000

C.

B pays A AUD2,000

D.

A pays B AUD2,000

QUESTION 17

A cross currency interest rate swap involves:

A.

two fixed interest rates on two currencies

B.

a fixed interest rate on one currency and a floating interest rate on another currency

C.

two floating interest rates on two currencies

D.

two fixed or floating interest rates on two currencies, neither of which is the U.S. dollar

QUESTION 18

A firm buys AUD1 million, twelve months forward at the USD/AUD exchange rate of 0.5000. The spot rate at settlement is 0.5100.

How much will the firm gain or lose on the forward contract?

A.

–USD10 000

B.

AUD10 000

C.

USD10 000

D.

–AUD10 000

QUESTION 19

A trader buys a call option at a premium of USD0.01.  The call option gives him the right to buy AUD1 million at an exercise exchange rate of 0.9000 (USD/AUD).

Calculate the trader’s net profit on expiry, assuming the exchange rate is 0.9200 at expiry.

A.

-USD10,000

B.

–AUD10,000

C.

+USD10,000

D.

+AUD10,000

QUESTION 20

A long straddle position can be constructed by combining:

A.

a long call and a long put

B.

a short call and a long put

C.

a long call and a short put

D.

a short call and a short put

QUESTION 21

A trader buys a call option.  The call option gives him the right to buy AUD1 million at an exercise exchange rate of 0.9000 (USD/AUD).

Calculate the trader’s gross profit on expiry, assuming the exchange rate is 0.9200 at expiry.

A.

–USD20,000

B.

+USD20,000

C.

–AUD20,000

D.

+AUD20,000

QUESTION 22

An option is in the money if it:

A.

can be exercised at net profit

B.

has a zero intrinsic value

C.

can be exercised at gross profit

D.

has a negative intrinsic value

QUESTION 23

The writer of a put currency option has:

A.

the obligation to sell a currency

B.

the right to sell a currency

C.

the right to buy a currency

D.

the obligation to buy a currency

QUESTION 24

The writer of a call currency option has:

A.

the obligation to buy a currency

B.

the right to sell a currency

C.

the right to buy a currency

D.

the obligation to sell a currency

QUESTION 25

A long put position gives:

A.

a commitment to sell a currency

B.

the right to buy a currency

C.

the right to sell a currency

D.

a commitment to buy a currency

 

 

 

 

PART 2

QUESTION 1

Which of the following methods is the most widely used method for translating foreign exposures?

A.

closing rate method

B.

monetary/non-monetary method

C.

current/non-current method

D.

temporal method


 

QUESTION 2

Uncertainty differs from risk in that the former:

A.

is not a term that is used in financial analysis.

B.

implies that the probability distribution of the outcome is unknown.

C.

implies a higher probability for bad outcomes than in the case of risk.

D.

pertains to the long run only.

QUESTION 3

A firm’s economic exposure to changes in exchange rates:

A.

can be accurately calculated in advance

B.

concerns contractual planned cashflows

C.

can be estimated from a regression equation relating changes in real cashflows to changes in the exchange rates to which they may be exposed

D.

none of the given answers

QUESTION 4

According to the current/non-current method of translation:

A.

current assets are translated at the current exchange rate, while long-term assets are translated at the average exchange rate

B.

current items are translated at the current rate, while long-term items are translated at the historical rate

C.

current items are translated at the closing rate, while long-term assets are translated at the average rate

D.

current items are translated at the average rate, while long-term items are translated at the historical rate

QUESTION 5

A decision to hedge payables in the forward market will be taken if:

A.

the interest parity forward rate is equal to the expected spot rate

B.

the interest parity forward rate is higher than the expected spot rate

C.

the actual forward rate is lower than the expected spot rate

D.

the actual forward rate is higher than the expected spot rate

QUESTION 6

Futures hedging produces different results from those produced by forward hedging for the following reasons except:

A.

Futures contracts involve marking to market.

B.

Futures contracts are traded on organised exchanges.

C.

Futures contracts are standardised with respect to size.

D.

Futures contracts are standardised with respect to the settlement date.

QUESTION 7

Under an option hedge, the domestic currency value of payables and receivables is not known in advance because:

A.

the outcome depends on the delta of the option

B.

the price of an option depends on the volatility of the underlying exchange rate

C.

the outcome depends on whether or not the option is exercised

D.

the outcome depends on the vega of the option

QUESTION 8

An Australian company has receivables of USD100,000, due in six months.  The current AUD/USD exchange rate is 1.7900/1.8000.  The expected exchange rate is 1.8200/1.8300 in six months’ time.  The six-month put with a strike of 1.8700 has a premium of AUD0.03.

Calculate the estimated Australian dollar value of the receivables if an options hedge is taken out and the forecast turns out to be correct.

A.

AUD186,000

B.

AUD184,000

C.

AUD182,000

D.

AUD183,000

QUESTION 9

Which of the following is NOT an argument why there is NO need to worry about foreign exchange risk?

A.

Risk implies both good and bad outcomes

B.

Shareholders are naturally hedged through diversification

C.

If international parity conditions hold then foreign exchange risk will not arise

D.

Foreign exchange risk can be controlled if it is possible to forecast exchange rates

QUESTION 10

An Australian company has payables of USD100,000, due in three months.  The current AUD/USD exchange rate is 1.7900/1.8000, the three-month Australian interest rate is 3.4/3.5%pa and the three-month U.S. interest rate is 2.5/2.6%pa.

Calculate the implicit forward rate achieved via a money market hedge.

A.

1.8450

B.

1.8176

C.

1.8045

D.

1.7826

QUESTION 11

An Australian company has receivables of USD100,000, due in six months.  The current AUD/USD exchange rate is 1.7900/1.8000, the six-month Australian interest rate is 3.4/3.5%pa and the six-month U.S. interest rate is 2.5/2.6%pa.

Calculate the implied forward rate achieved via a money market hedge.

A.

1.7988

B.

1.8000

C.

1.7971

D.

1.8089

QUESTION 12

In a currency swap involving A receiving euro payments and B receiving Australian dollar payments, a rise in the actual exchange rate expressed as (EUR/AUD) implies:

 

A.

appreciation of the euro and a loss incurred by B

B.

depreciation of the Australian dollar and a loss incurred by A

C.

depreciation of the euro and a loss incurred by A

D.

appreciation of the Australian dollar and a loss incurred by B

QUESTION 13

Suppose that a trader buys one three-month Australian dollar future contract on 1 February at 0.5662 (USD/AUD).  On successive days the following may happen as the settlement exchange rate changes (in accordance with the spot rate):

Date

Settlement Rate

Value of Contract

Margin Account

credit/(debit)

2 Feb

0.5700

57,000

+380

3 Feb

0.5815

58,150

+1,150

4 Feb

0.5750

???

???

 

Calculate the value of the contract at 4th February and the credit or debit to the margin account on the 4th February.

A.

57,500 and -880

B.

57,500 and -650

C.

57,500 and +650

D.

57,500 and +880

QUESTION 14

In a parallel loan, the interest payments and the repayment of principal are based on:

A.

the exchange rate prevailing when the payment is due

B.

an exchange rate that is agreed upon in advance

C.

the forward exchange rate

D.

the expected spot exchange rate


 

QUESTION 15

Suppose that two counterparties, A and B, enter a three-month forward contract, whereby A sells USD1 million at a forward rate of AUD/USD 1.7662.

Which party is likely to default if the spot rate three months hence is 1.7000?

A.

counterparty A

B.

counterparty B 

C.

both counterparty A and counterparty B

D.

neither counterparty

QUESTION 16

Suppose that two counterparties, A and B, enter a three-month forward contract, whereby A sells USD1 million at a forward rate of AUD/USD 1.7662.

Which party is likely to default if the spot rate three months hence is 1.8000?

A.

counterparty A

B.

counterparty B

C.

both counterparty A and counterparty B

D.

neither counterparty

QUESTION 17

A firm buys AUD1 million, twelve months forward at the USD/AUD exchange rate of 0.5000. The spot rate at settlement is 0.4900.

How much will the firm gain or lose on the forward contract?

A.

–USD10 000

B.

USD10 000

C.

–AUD10 000

D.

AUD10 000

QUESTION 18

Consider a 3-year interest rate swap with a notional principal of AUD100,000, whereby A receives annual payments based on a floating interest rate and B receives annual payments based on a fixed rate of 5%pa.  The floating interest rates on each payment date assume the values 6%, 5% and 4%.

Calculate the cash flows in year three.

A.

B pays A USD1,000

B.

A pays B USD1,000

C.

B pays A AUD1,000

D.

A pays B AUD1,000

QUESTION 19

A trader buys a call and a put option.  The call option gives him the right to buy AUD1 million at an exercise exchange rate of 0.9000 (USD/AUD), whereas the put option gives him the right to sell AUD1 million at the same exercise exchange rate.

If the exchange rate at expiry is 0.8500 will the trader exercise the options?

A.

He will exercise the put but not the call option

B.

He will exercise both options

C.

He will exercise the call but not the put option

D.

He will exercise neither option

QUESTION 20

The holder of a put currency option has:

A.

the right to buy a currency

B.

the right to sell a currency

C.

the obligation to buy a currency

D.

the obligation to sell a currency


 

QUESTION 21

A ‘naked’ call currency option implies that:

A.

the option can be exercised before the expiry date

B.

the option cannot be exercised before the expiry date

C.

the writer has a spot position in the underlying currency

D.

the writer has no spot position in the underlying currency

QUESTION 22

A trader sells a put option.  The put option requires him to buy AUD1 million at an exercise exchange rate of 0.9000 (USD/AUD).

Calculate the trader’s gross profit on expiry, assuming the exchange rate is 0.9300 at expiry.

A.

–USD30,000

B.

Unknown without knowing the option premium

C.

+USD30,000

D.

+AUD30,000

QUESTION 23

If an option is out of the money then its intrinsic value is:

A.

zero

B.

negative

C.

positive

D.

any of the given answers

QUESTION 24

An option is in the money if it:

A.

has a negative intrinsic value

B.

can be exercised at gross profit

C.

has a zero intrinsic value

D.

can be exercised at net profit

QUESTION 25

A short call position gives:

A.

the right to sell a currency

B.

a commitment to sell a currency

C.

a commitment to buy a currency

D.

the right to buy a currency

PART 3

QUESTION 1

 

Foreign exchange transaction exposure arises:

 

  1. only for multinational companies

 

  1. irrespective of the currency payables and receivables are denominated in

 

  1. if payables are denominated in a foreign currency

 

  1. if receivables are denominated in the local currency

 

 

QUESTION 2

 

A ‘long’ exposure to foreign exchange risk is:

 

  1. an exposure to foreign liabilities

 

  1. an exposure to foreign assets

 

  1. to have significant exposure to foreign exchange risk

 

  1. a large exposure to a foreign currency

 

QUESTION 3

 

Which of the following is NOT a source of transaction exposure?

 

  1. The purchase of a foreign asset or liability

 

  1. A contract involving future foreign currency cash flows

 

 

  1. The expected loss of foreign market share resulting from domestic currency appreciation

 

  1. Current interest payments on a foreign currency loan

 

QUESTION 4

 

The volatility of the real exchange rate is close to the volatility of the nominal exchange rate because:

 

  1. the real exchange rate takes into account domestic prices only

 

  1. the real exchange rate takes into account foreign prices only

 

  1. prices are not highly volatile

 

  1. the volatility of domestic prices is counterbalanced by the volatility of foreign prices

 

 

QUESTION 5

 

Money market hedging of receivables will be preferred to forward hedging if the actual forward rate is:

 

 

  1. lower than the expected spot rate

 

  1. higher than the expected spot rate

 

  1. lower than the interest parity forward rate

 

  1. higher than the expected spot rate

 

QUESTION 6

 

Which of the following instruments is NOT used for managing transaction exposure?

 

  1. transfer pricing

 

  1. cross hedging

 

  1. leading and lagging

 

  1. currency diversification

 

QUESTION 7

 

An Australian company has payables of USD100,000, due in three months.  The current AUD/USD exchange rate is 1.7900/1.8000, the three-month Australian interest rate is 3.4/3.5%pa and the three-month U.S. interest rate is 2.5/2.6%pa.

 

Calculate the implicit forward rate achieved via a money market hedge.

  1. 1.8045

 

  1. 1.8176

 

  1. 1.7826

 

  1. 1.8450

 

QUESTION 8

 

An Australian company has receivables of USD100,000, due in six months.  The current AUD/USD exchange rate is 1.7900/1.8000.  The expected exchange rate is 1.8200/1.8300 in six months’ time.  The six-month put with a strike of 1.8700 has a premium of AUD0.03.

 

Calculate the estimated Australian dollar value of the receivables if an options hedge is taken out and the forecast turns out to be correct.

.          

  1. AUD186,000

 

  1. AUD183,000

 

  1. AUD184,000

 

  1. AUD182,000

 

QUESTION 9

 

Futures hedging produces different results from those produced by forward hedging for the following reasons except:

  1. Futures contracts are traded on organised exchanges.

 

  1. Futures contracts are standardised with respect to the settlement date.

 

  1. Futures contracts are standardised with respect to size.

 

  1. Futures contracts involve marking to market.

 

QUESTION 10

 

If the foreign currency is expected to depreciate it is better:

  1. to pay payables earlier

 

  1. to get receivables earlier

 

  1. both to get receivables earlier and to pay payables later

 

  1. to pay payables later

 

QUESTION 11

 

A decision to hedge receivables in the forward market will be taken if:

  1. the interest parity forward rate is lower than the expected spot rate

 

  1. the actual forward rate is higher than the expected spot rate

 

  1. the interest parity forward rate is equal to the expected spot rate        

 

  1. the actual forward rate is lower than the expected spot rate

 

QUESTION 12

 

A firm buys AUD1 million, twelve months forward at the USD/AUD exchange rate of 0.5000. The spot rate at settlement is 0.5100.

 

How much will the firm gain or lose on the forward contract?

  1. AUD10 000

 

  1. USD10 000

           

  1. –AUD10 000

 

  1. –USD10 000

 

QUESTION 13

 

Consider a 3-year interest rate swap with a notional principal of AUD100,000, whereby A receives annual payments based on a floating interest rate and B receives annual payments based on a fixed rate of 5%pa.  The floating interest rates on each payment date assume the values 6%, 5% and 4%.

 

Calculate the cash flows in year three.

  1. B pays A USD1,000

 

  1. A pays B USD1,000

 

  1. B pays A AUD1,000

 

  1. A pays B AUD1,000

 

 

QUESTION 14

 

Consider a 3-year currency swap with a notional principal of AUD100,000, whereby A receives annual payments in Australian dollars and B receives annual payments in U.S. dollars at a contracted rate of 0.9300 (USD/AUD).  The market exchange (USD/AUD) rate assumes the values 0.9500, 0.9300 and 0.8900 at the end of each year.

 

Calculate the cash flows in year two.

  1. B pays A USD2,000

 

  1. A pays B USD2,000

 

  1. no net payment is required

 

  1. none of the given answers

 

QUESTION 15

 

Which of the following is NOT a means whereby the default risk is controlled in futures trading?

 

 

  1. the clearing corporation acting as the counterparty to all contracts

 

  1. only low-risk participants are allowed to trade

 

  1. imposing daily limits on price movements

 

  1. implementing daily settlement and margin requirements

 

QUESTION 16

 

In a currency swap involving A receiving Australian dollar payments and B receiving euro payments, a rise in the actual exchange rate expressed as (EUR/AUD) implies:

 

 

  1. appreciation of the Australian dollar and a loss incurred by B

 

  1. depreciation of the Australian dollar and a loss incurred by A

 

  1. appreciation of the euro and a loss incurred by B

 

  1. depreciation of the euro and a loss incurred by A

 

QUESTION 17

 

Suppose that two counterparties, A and B, enter a three-month forward contract on 1 January, whereby A sells USD1 million at a forward rate of AUD/USD 1.7662. On 1 March, A decides it no longer needs to sell USD1 million on 31 March, so it enters a one-month forward contract to buy USD1 million on 31 March at a forward rate of AUD/USD 1.8000 from counterparty C.

 

Calculate the net cost to counterparty A, before transaction costs.

 

  1. 0.0338

 

  1. -AUD33 800

 

  1. AUD33 800

 

  1. AUD1.8 million

 

QUESTION 18

 

In a parallel loan, the interest payments and the repayment of principal are based on:

 

  1. the exchange rate prevailing when the payment is due

 

  1. the forward exchange rate

 

  1. an exchange rate that is agreed upon in advance

 

  1. the expected spot exchange rate

 

 

QUESTION 19

 

A short call position gives:

 

  1. the right to buy a currency

 

  1. a commitment to sell a currency

 

  1. the right to sell a currency

 

  1. a commitment to buy a currency

 

QUESTION 20

 

The writer of a call currency option has:

 

  1. the obligation to buy a currency

 

  1. the right to sell a currency

 

  1. the obligation to sell a currency

 

  1. the right to buy a currency

 

QUESTION 21

 

A trader buys a call option at a premium of USD0.01.  The call option gives him the right to buy AUD1 million at an exercise exchange rate of 0.9000 (USD/AUD).

 

Calculate the trader’s net profit on expiry, assuming the exchange rate is 0.9200 at expiry.

 

  1. +AUD10,000

 

  1. –AUD10,000

 

  1. +USD10,000

 

  1. -USD10,000

 

QUESTION 22

 

A long put position gives:

 

  1. the right to sell a currency

 

  1. a commitment to buy a currency

 

  1. a commitment to sell a currency

 

  1. the right to buy a currency

 

QUESTION 23

 

A trader sells a put option.  The put option requires him to buy AUD1 million at an exercise exchange rate of 0.9000 (USD/AUD).

 

Calculate the trader’s gross profit on expiry, assuming the exchange rate is 0.9300 at expiry.

 

  1. Unknown without knowing the option premium

 

  1. +USD30,000

 

  1. –USD30,000

 

  1. +AUD30,000

 

QUESTION 24

 

The writer of a put currency option has:

 

  1. the right to sell a currency

 

  1. the obligation to sell a currency

 

  1. the right to buy a currency

 

  1. the obligation to buy a currency

 

QUESTION 25

 

A long forward position can be constructed by combining:

 

  1. a long call and a short put

 

  1. a short call and a short put

 

  1. a long call and a long put

 

  1. a short call and a long put

 

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