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Homework answers / question archive / Chapter 2—A Continent on the Move, 1400-1725   MULTIPLE CHOICE       1)   One constraint faced by all European nations in America was a

Chapter 2—A Continent on the Move, 1400-1725   MULTIPLE CHOICE       1)   One constraint faced by all European nations in America was a

History

Chapter 2—A Continent on the Move, 1400-1725

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

    1)   One constraint faced by all European nations in America was

a.

the large and powerful presence of Native Americans.

b.

the lack of sufficient agricultural land.

c.

the harsh and bitter climate of much of North America.

d.

political conflict at home.

 

 

 

     2.   The Treaty of Tordesillas (1493)

a.

established Spain's complete control of the Americas.

b.

established a Spanish/Portuguese alliance against the pope.

c.

established peace between the Aztecs and Hernando Cortés.

d.

moved the eastern boundary of new Spanish explorations 1000 miles further westward, thus conceding a small claim on eastern South America to Portugal.

 

 

 

     3.   The Aztec way of war was characterized by

a.

massacring women and children.

b.

being more ceremonial than violent.

c.

taking no prisoners.

d.

the use of mounted troops.

 

 

     4.   England's colonization of Ireland

a.

provided a model for colonization of North America.

b.

was motivated exclusively by a desire to spread Protestantism.

c.

expelled the Spanish from Ireland.

d.

helped England attack Iceland.

 

 

 

     5.   The Armada disaster in 1588

a.

led to the swift decline of the Spanish Empire overseas.

b.

let to anti-Catholic pogroms in England.

c.

tipped the scales in favor of Dutch Protestant rebels against colonization at the hands of the Spanish.

d.

Established Great Britain as a world power.

 

 

 

     6.   After Peter Minuit negotiated the lease of the island of Manhattan in 1626

a.

English settlers quickly began to challenge the Dutch claim on the island.

b.

Dutch settlers began to arrive in droves.

c.

colonists quickly began to lose sight of the beaver trade upstream

d.

only the comprehensive business plan of the Dutch West India Company began to bring about agricultural development on the island and upstream.

 

 

 

     7.   Why did Spain try to invade England in 1588?

a.

Queen Elizabeth had broken her promise to convert to Catholicism.

b.

It was the only way King Philip II could take Spaniards' minds off their poverty.

c.

The Spanish needed to demonstrate that they were the dominant power in the Atlantic.

d.

Spain was nearly bankrupt and needed to plunder English riches.

 

 

 

     8.   Which layer of the Spanish bureaucracy directed colonial policy?

a.

Cabildo seculares

b.

The viceroys

c.

The Catholic Church

d.

Council of the Indies

 

 

 

     9.   Corruption remained rampant in the Spanish colonial system because

a.

the pope supported the colonial governments.

b.

the wealth from the colonies masked problems with administration.

c.

low taxation gave colonists little reason to complain.

d.

colonial governors executed those who objected to bureaucratic policies.

 

 

 

   10.   The Dutch settlements in the New World

a.

ignored farming in favor of raiding English settlements.

b.

proved very popular among those seeking to establish small farms.

c.

were limited to only Dutch landholders.

d.

relied on the fur trade for success.

 

 

 

   11.   Samuel de Champlain

a.

founded trading posts in Nova Scotia and Quebec.

b.

nearly destroyed French power in America.

c.

provoked a war with the Huron Indians by refusing to trade with them.

d.

was more interested in getting land than in trading.

 

 

 

   12.   By the time Europeans had begun serious exploration and settlement of the Northeast,

a.

native Americans were already fully aware of the dangers Europeans posed to their civilizations.

b.

most tribes were already too weakened by disease to offer any resistance.

c.

economic and cultural changes among Woodland Indians had produced two opposing tribal alliances.

d.

the social and political unity among Woodland Indians had already been broken.

 

 

 

 

 

 

   13.   As a result of expeditions by Louis Joliet, Jacques Marquette, and Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, France

a.

established a series of settlements along the Atlantic coast.

b.

established a series of settlements along the Pacific coast.

c.

claimed the Louisiana Territory.

d.

defeated the Spanish in Mexico.

 

 

 

   14.   By acquiring Louisiana, France

a.

gave up any hope of dominating the Canadian fur trade.

b.

gained strategically significant territory.

c.

conquered thousands of Spanish settlements.

d.

defeated the main body of Creek Indians that opposed it.

 

 

 

   15.   Following independence from Spain, Holland

a.

relied extensively on England for economic support.

b.

established Catholicism as the nation's official religion.

c.

developed a thriving commercial economy.

d.

declared war on France in the New World.

 

 

 

   16.   Henry Hudson was an explorer who was searching for

a.

the fabled "seven cities of gold."

b.

a place where he could live, free of religious persecution.

c.

the North American equivalent to the Aztec Empire.

d.

a northwest passage that would connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

 

 

 

   17.   Dutch patroons

a.

became known as landed entrepreneurs.

b.

established New York as "the best poor man's country."

c.

suffered serf-like conditions in their tenancies.

d.

enjoyed near-feudal powers over their tenants.

 

 

 

   18.   Immigrants to Dutch colonies in the New World

a.

came to take advantage of the opportunities of the patroon system.

b.

were expelled if they did not join the Dutch Reformed Church.

c.

came from a variety of religious and ethnic backgrounds.

d.

were all equal in governmental affairs.

 

 

   19.   Indians who allied themselves with the Spanish against the Aztecs

a.

won independence.

b.

were awarded gold.

c.

were awarded land.

d.

were forced to pay tribute to the Spanish.

 

 

 

   20.   Which religious order led Church efforts to convert Indians in New Mexico?

a.

Dominicans

b.

Jesuits

c.

Franciscans

d.

Marists

 

 

 

   21.   Don Juan de Onate

a.

was a popular missionary amongst Pueblo Indians.

b.

became famous for his enormous gold discoveries in future New Mexico.

c.

ordered the brutal execution of eight hundred rebellious Indians and the enslavement of their surviving families.

d.

wrote with shock and disgust about the abuse and exploitation of Indian serfs in the Spanish encomienda system.

 

 

 

   22.   Indians in the Southeast responded to their declining numbers by

a.

becoming the clients of the French.

b.

forming alliances among themselves.

c.

moving into cities.

d.

converting to the white man's religion.

 

 

 

   23.   How did the French initially forge alliances with the Huron Indians in the Northeast?

a.

The French paid them the customary tribute.

b.

The French freed them from servitude to the more powerful Iroquois.

c.

The French successfully claimed to be gods because they could predict solar eclipses.

d.

The French intermarried with them.

 

 

   24.   The proliferation of bison herds during the climatic changes of the "Little Ice Age" between 1300 and 1800

a.

prompted Wichita, Pawnee, and Arikara Indians to abandon agriculture and turn to hunting.

b.

fed the European fashion trend of bison coats in the early eighteenth century.

c.

led to the overgrazing of the Great Plains.

d.

meant that buffalo hunting became a colonial pastime for English settlers.

 

 

 

   25.   The Mandans took advantage of the shift to buffalo hunting on the Great Plains by

a.

contracting with European traders to provide buffalo meat and skins.

b.

moving into territories deserted by other tribes.

c.

controlling trading posts used by Europeans.

d.

becoming the agricultural providers for the hunting tribes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

   26.   In what way did the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico transform the lives of Plains Indians?

a.

It inspired Plains Indians to revolt against their French rulers.

b.

Thousands of refugees from New Mexico poured into the region.

c.

The rebels released thousands of Spanish horses, which greatly helped buffalo hunters.

d.

It successfully kept the Spanish from moving into the area.

 

 

 

   27.   In the years after the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico

a.

sheep ranching became increasingly important.

b.

the Spanish largely abandoned the region.

c.

a growing number of Spanish women moved into the area.

d.

traditional ideals of empire and administration were solidified.

 

 

 

   28.   How did Santa Fe differ from other Spanish settlements?

a.

Success depended on being able to trade with a range of non-Spaniards.

b.

The Catholic Church was virtually absent.

c.

A man's status there depended on how much "pure Spanish blood" he had.

d.

Indians were virtually absent from the town.

 

 

 

   29.   Which of the following was a unique characteristic of the French colony of Louisiana?

a.

Its critical shortage of labor

b.

Its initial dependence on Indians.

c.

It found itself embroiled in a complicated Native American world.

d.

It brought together a diverse lot of former military men, Canadian coureurs de bois, and French craftsmen in search of economic independence.

 

 

 

   30.   The French in Louisiana depended on an alliance with the

a.

Natchez tribe.

b.

Choctaws.

c.

Chicasaws.

d.

Creeks.

 

 

 

   31.   The French colony of Louisiana

a.

quickly came to depend on a steady stream of French settlers.

b.

became home to a homogenous and coherent community of religious refugees from France.

c.

became known as America's "breadbasket."

d.

attracted few Frenchmen.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   32.   How did the Dutch try to attract settlers to the New Netherland colony?

a.

They offered settlers the protection of a feudal lord.

b.

They guaranteed that only members of the Dutch Reformed Church would be permitted to settle.

c.

They offered a tract of land to any free man who would farm it.

d.

The Dutch West Indies Company was powerful enough to guarantee prosperity.

 

 

 

   33.   One common characteristic of both Dutch settlement in New Netherland and the French in Louisiana was

a.

Catholicism.

b.

the presence of African slaves.

c.

an abundance of female settlers.

d.

cultural and ethnic diversity.

 

 

 

   34.   Why did Bartolomé de las Casas's arguments win in the Spanish court?

a.

He proved that Indians were great warriors.

b.

He repeatedly stressed the accomplishments of Indians.

c.

Indians proved to be inadequate laborers.

d.

He claimed that Church doctrine did not apply to Indians.

 

 

 

ESSAY

 

   35.   What enabled the Spanish to defeat the Aztecs?

 

   36.   How did the arrival of Europeans affect relations among Native Americans in and around the Hudson River Valley?

 

   37.   What were the major ways that life for Native Americans on the Plains was changing during this period?

 

   38.   How did life in the Spanish northern frontier develop differently from life in the main part of Mexico?

 

   39.   Students should think about what primarily motivated European expansion to the New World.

 

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