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Homework answers / question archive / Package Title: Testbank Course Title: Real World Psychology  Chapter Number: Chapter 04 Question type: Multiple-Choice   1) Sensation is the process of _____ raw sensory data from the internal and external world and transmitting it to the brain

Package Title: Testbank Course Title: Real World Psychology  Chapter Number: Chapter 04 Question type: Multiple-Choice   1) Sensation is the process of _____ raw sensory data from the internal and external world and transmitting it to the brain


Package Title: Testbank
Course Title: Real World Psychology 
Chapter Number: Chapter 04

Question type: Multiple-Choice


1) Sensation is the process of _____ raw sensory data from the internal and external world and transmitting it to the brain.

a)  detecting, converting, and transmitting

b)  selecting and organizing

c)  detecting and organizing

d)  selecting, receiving, and organizing




2) If three people standing next to each other witnessed a robbery and each person described the robber differently, then these different interpretations most likely would illustrate differences in _____.

a)  sensation

b)  perception

c)  visual acuity

d)  perception distortion




3) When you look feel something soft on your skin you are engaging in the process of _____; when you interpret the information and realize it is a feather, you are engaging in the process of _____.

a)  noticing; daydreaming

b)  sensation; perception

c)  passive observation; active observation

d)  perception; sensation




4) Your visual receptors  detect  the contours of the letters on this exam to your brain. You are therefore engaged in the process of _____.

a) perception

b) organization

c) reading

d) sensation




5) _______ is the mind’s window to the outside world.

a) Perception

b) Sensation

c) Audition

d) Vision




6) The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory data into usable mental representations of the world is called ____.

a)  perceptual accuracy

b)  illusory perception

c)  perception

d)  sensory perception




7) Special sensory cells called receptors are __________.

a)  body cells that take in and process sensory information from the environment

b)  brain cells that detect and respond to stimulus energy

c)  found in the body and the brain

d)  stimulated by perception




8) Tiny cells on your retina are detecting the contours of an animal in your back yard  and sending that information to your brain. These are your _____ for vision.

a) lenses

b) receptors

c) filters

d) transmitters




9) The conversion of sensory stimuli such as light or sound waves into neural impulses is called_____.

a)  adduction

b)  perception

c)  transduction

d)  subduction




10) The process in which neural impulses travel by different routes to different parts of the brain allows us to detect physical stimuli as distinct sensations. This is called _____.

a) transformation

b) sensory transmission

c) transduction

d) coding




11) The process by which we analyze and filter incoming sensations before sending neural impulses for further processing in other part os the brain is called _____.

a)  sensory reduction

b)  perception

c)  transformation

d)  coding




12) The sense of taste is perceived through which pathway?

a)  occipital lobe

b)   temporal lobe

c)   limbic system

d)   parietal lobe




13) “Turning down the volume” on repetitive information helps the sensory receptors cope with an overwhelming amount of sensory stimuli and allows time to pay attention to change, a phenomenon called _____________.

a)  sensory reduction

b)  ignorance

c)  coding

d)  sensory adaptation




14)  Psychophysics is the study of ______.

a)  the specific energy patterns that drive our thought processes

b)  the link between physical characteristics of stimuli and our sensory experience of them

c)  our perceptions of physical laws

d)  the physical laws that govern energy consumption in our brains




15) The branch of psychology that studies the relation between attributes of the physical world and our sensory experience of those attributes is called _____.

a) physical psychology

b) astropsychology

c) parapsychology

d) psychophysics




16) The fact that we can detect a candle flame at 30 miles away on a clear dark night is referred to as the _________________ for vision.

a)  difference threshold

b)  absolute threshold

c)  pain threshold

d)  sensory adaptation




17) The minimum amount of change between two colors that is required to detect a difference between the two colors is referred to as a(n) _________________.

a)  difference threshold

b)  absolute threshold

c)  pain threshold

d)  sensory adaptation




18) A scientist wanting to determine the lightest touch that can be felt by various animals compared to human beings would be interested in finding the _____ for touch.

a)  absolute threshold

b)  difference threshold

c)  human threshold

d)  sensory threshold




19) Subliminal perception refers to the perception of any stimulus that _____.

a)  is presented during a person’s motivational need state

b) is presented in a manipulative way to people

c)  is presented below the threshold of a person’s conscious awareness

d)  is presented within the threshold of a person’s preconscious awareness




20) Experiments on subliminal perception commonly use an instrument to flash images too quickly for conscious recognition but slowly enough to be registered by the brain; this instrument is called a(n)_____.

a) oscilloscope

b) sensorscope

c) tachistoscope

d) sublimascope




21) Experiments on subliminal perception have _____.

a)  supported the existence of the phenomenon, but it has little or no effect on persuasion

b)  shown that subliminal perception occurs only among children and some adolescents

c)  shown that subliminal messages affect only people who are highly suggestible

d)  failed to support the phenomenon




22) The process by which receptor cells become less sensitive due to constant stimulation is called _____.

a) sensory habituation

b) boredom

c) sensory accommodation

d) sensory adaptation




23) When you first put your clothes on this morning you felt them on your skin, but within minutes you no longer noticed them. This is an example of _____.

a) sensory accommodation

b) sensory adaptation

c) sensory habituation

d) sensory threshold




24) The body releases __________, which help(s) athletes play through painful injuries.

a)  serotonin

b)  endorphins

c)  glucocorticoids

d)  enzymes




25) The _____ theory of pain suggests that pain sensations are processed and altered by mechanisms within the spinal cord.

a) reduction

b) gate-control

c) sensory adaptation

d) sensory threshold




26) If you stubbed your toe, how could you apply the gate-control theory of pain to keep your toe from hurting?

a)  Do jumping jacks.

b)  Count to 10.

c)  Swear up a blue streak.

d)  Rub the toe that hurts.




27) In the gate-control theory of pain, _____ open(s) the gate and _____ close(s) the gate.

a)  substance P; endorphins

b)  endorphins; substance P

c)  norepinephrine; epinephrine

d)  epinephrine; norepinephrine




28)  The phantom-limb phenomenon suggests that the _____ can generate pain without sensory input.

a)  brain

b)  spinal cord

c)  nervous system

d)  brain stem




29) Phantom-limb pain is believed to be caused by “static” that arises in the spinal cord area responsible for pain signaling. What happens when an amputee is fitted with a prosthetic limb?

a)  The pain generally disappears.

b)  The pain becomes a dull ache.

c)  The pain becomes more intense..

d)  The pain becomes a tickle or an itch.




30) Light and sound both move in _____________.

a)  series

b)  sequence

c)  cycles

d)  waves




31) The physical properties of light and sound are ____.

a) wavelength, frequency, and amplitude

b) wavelength, duration, and intensity

c) frequency, duration, and intensity

d) amplitude, frequency, and intensity




32) To determine wavelength you would measure from _____.

a) top to bottom

b) bottom to bottom

c) peak to peak

d) peak to bottom




33) AC circuit wavelengths are _____ visible light wavelengths.

a)  longer than

b)  shorter than

c)  the same size as

d)  also called




34) Light waves are a form of ____________.

a)  dust

b)  radiation

c)  electromagnetic energy

d)  microwaves




35) The full spectrum includes what range of light visible to humans?

a)  400–800 nm

b)  300–1000 nm

c)  400–1500 nm

d)  ultraviolet waves




36) Short-wavelength light produces ______ colors, whereas long-wavelength light produces _____ colors.

a)  bluish; reddish

b)  reddish; bluish

c)  violet; magenta

d)  scarlet; violet




37) High-amplitude light waves produce _____ colors, whereas high-amplitude sound waves produce _____ sounds.

a)  bright; louder

b)  dim; softer

c)  bright; softer

d)  dim; louder




38) Small-range sounds produce ________ sounds.

a)  less complex

b)  more complex

c)  louder

d)  higher pitched




39) The iris is the colored part of the eye that controls the opening of the _____.

a)  lens

b)  optic chiasm

c)  pupil

d)  cornea




40) The ____________ reverses an image from left to right and top to bottom as it is projected onto the retina.

a)  lens

b)  iris

c)  fovea

d)  pupil




41) The light-sensitive inner surface of the back of the eye, which contains rods and cones, is called the _____.

a)  lens

b)  cornea

c)  retina

d)  fovea




42) The point on the retina that contains only cones and is responsible for our sharpest vision is called the _____.

a)  focal spot

b)  photoreceptor

c)  fovea

d)  optical illusion




43) The cones on the retina are sensitive to _____.

a)  many wavelengths

b)  dim light and color

c)  fine detail and dim light

d)  color, fine detail, and dim light




44) Rods are most sensitive _____, and less sensitive _____.

a)  to color wavelengths; in dim light

b)  in dim light; to low-amplitude light waves

c)  in dim light; to color wavelengths

d)  to color wavelengths; to high-amplitude light waves




45) Rods and cones generate neural impulses that send their messages to the brain via _____________________ cells.

a)  ganglion  

b)  vitreous humor

c)  sclera

d)  retinal blood vessel




46) The correct order of the pathway for light energy is _____.

a) pupil à retina à lens à cornea

b) lens à pupil à cornea à retina

c) cornea à pupil à lens à retina

d) retina à pupil à lens à cornea




47) Myopia (or nearsightedness) results from images focused _____.

a)  on the fovea

b)  in front of the retina

c)  behind the retina

d)  on the rods




48) Hyperopia (or farsightedness) results from images focused _____.

a)  on the fovea

b)  in front of the retina

c)  behind the retina

d)  on the rods



49) Presbyopia is caused by _____.

a)  loss of elasticity

b)  clouding of the cornea

c)  floaters in the vitreous humor

d)  diabetes mellitus




50) Bleaching of the pigment in rods is an important factor in temporary blindness during _____.

a)  presbyopia

b)  dark adaptation

c)  light adaptation

d)  hyperopia




51) Entering a movie theater from outside on a bright sunny day will cause temporary blindness due to ______________.

a)  presbyopia

b)  dark adaptation

c)  light adaptation

d)  hyperopia




52) The blind spot is_____.

a) the part of the retina that is clogged with receptors

b) the area where blood vessels and the optic nerve exit the eye

c) related to how large the pupil in any given moment

d) due to damage to the eye and not something everyone has




53) Audition is _____.

a) a tryout for the school band

b) the sense of hearing

c) the sense of touch

d) the interaction of two senses




54) Sound waves cause the _____ to vibrate and pass the mechanical energy on to the three bones in the middle ear.

a)  cochlea

b)  tympanic membrane

c)  malleus

d)  incus




55) Vibration of the bones in the middle ear hit the ____, causing it to vibrate.

a)  tympanic membrane

b)  oval window

c)  ear drum

d)  auditory nerve




56) The snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that contains receptors for hearing is the _____.

a)  auditory canal

b)  cochlea

c)  vestibular canal

d)  auditory vesicle




57) The cochlea contains ___________ that send(s) messages through the auditory nerve to the areas of the brain that are responsible for interpreting auditory information.

a)  receptors for hearing

b)  fluid

c)  basilar membrane

d)  auditory vesicles




58) Which of the following is the correct pathway traveled by sound waves through the ear?

a) Cochlea à hammer à anvil à stirrup à oval window

b) Oval window à ear drum à basilar membrane à cochlea

c) Ear drum à hammer à anvilà stirrup à cochlea

d) Malleus à anvil à stirrupà ear drum à cochlea




59) For each different higher-pitched sound we hear, hair cells bend the most at different locations on the basilar membrane in the cochlea. This statement describes the ____.

a)  place theory

b)  location and pitch theory

c)  pitch theory

d)  location theory




60) Frequency theory states that we hear lower-pitched sounds because _____.

a)  hair cells bend the most at a specific location on the basilar membrane

b)  hair cells on the basilar membrane fire action potentials at the same rate as the frequency of the low sound

c)  more axons fire action potentials (compared with fewer axons with higher-pitched sounds)

d)  auditory vesicles are stimulated at lower pitches




61) Whether we detect a sound as being soft or loud depends on its __________.

a)  hertz

b)  amplitude

c)  frequency

d)  timbre




62) Loudness of sound is measured in the unit called __________.

a)  hertz

b)  decibel

c)  frequency

d)  timbre




63) Your cell phone could ring in class without your instructor hearing it because ______________.

a)  the volume is too low for adults to hear

b)  the ringtone frequency is too high for adults to hear

c)  you sit farther away from the instructor

d)  the ringtone frequency is too low for adults to hear




64) Conduction hearing loss is also known as _________.

a)  inner-ear deafness

b)  cochlear deafness

c)  nerve deafness

d)  conduction deafness




65)  _____ deafness involves damage to the mechanical system that regulatessound waves to the cochlea.

a)  Conduction

b)  Middle-ear

c)  Temporary

d)  Nerve




66) Sensorineural hearing loss is also known as _________.

a)  inner-ear deafness

b)  cochlear deafness

c)  nerve deafness

d)  conduction deafness




67) The only known treatment for nerve deafness is (a) _____________.

a)  stapes implant

b)  nerve stimulation

c)  cochlear implant

d)  tympanic membrane implant




68) Exposure to high-decibel sounds can lead to _____.

a)  conduction deafness

b)  mechanical deafness

c)  middle-ear deafness

d)  nerve deafness




69) Sounds between _________ decibels are only dangerous if there is  prolonged exposure.

a)  90 and 130

b)  100 and 200

c)  130 and 180

d)  150 and 200




70) Sounds between _________ decibels put someone in immediate danger of hearing loss.

a)  90 and 130

b)  100 and 200

c)  130 and 180

d)  150 and 200




71) A whistling or ringing sensation in the ears is called ______.

a) pitch error

b) timbre error

c) tingling

d) tinnitus




72) The chemical senses are made up of _____________.

a)  gustation and audition

b)  smell, taste, and touch

c)  vision and hearing

d)  smell and taste




73) Our sense of smell is also known as _____________.

a)  gustation

b)  kinesthesis

c)  the chemical sense

d)  olfaction




74) According to your text, humans possess more than ____ types of olfactory receptors.

a)  100

b)  1000

c)  10,000

d)  1 million




75) According to your text, humans can detect more than ____ types of distinct smells.

a)  100

b)  1000

c)  10,000

d)  1 million




76)  ________________ are naturally occurring body scents that affect, in particular, the sexual behaviors of others.

a)  Hormones

b)  Pheromones

c)  Neurotransmitters

d)  Phenomes




77) Most olfactory information is processed in the __________ before being sent to other parts of the brain.

a)  olfactory bulb

b)  olfactory epithelium

c)  olfactory receptors

d)  olfactory hair cells




78) According to the text, which of the following is the most likely reason that humans have a preference for sweet foods?

a)   In the last century, they have become more plentiful.

b)   They are more nutritious than bitter foods.

c)   Historically, they are less likely to be poisonous.

d)   There are more advertisements for sweets than for savory foods.




79) Our sense of taste is also known as _____________.

a)  gustation

b)  kinesthesis

c)  the chemical sense

d)  olfaction




80) The sense of gustation is important from an evolutionary standpoint because __________.

a)  it allows us to enjoy the food that we eat

b)  it helps us stay away from foods that are harmful or toxic

c)  it helps to enhance our sense of smell

d)  sensations bypass the thalamus




81) What is the most likely reason that Jessica, who lives in the United States thinks raw fish and chicken feet are“yucky,” but Akiko, a girl in Japan, eats these as a normal part of her diet?

a)  Cultural differences may mean that Jessica was not exposed to as many foods as Akiko.

b) Like most Americans, Jessica likes sugar more than Japanese children.

c)  Jessica’s taste buds are replaced more quickly than Akiko’s.

d)  Jessica dislikes bitter tastes more than Akiko does.




82) ___________ is a synonym for umami, one of the five tastes.

a)  Acidic

b)  Alkaline

c)  Sour

d)  Savory




83) Taste buds are located within _____ that are on the surface of the tongue.

a)  gustation receptors

b)  papillae

c)  gustatory pores

d)  epithelia




84) Which of the following statements is true?

a)  In addition to salty and savory, spicy is a type of taste.

b)   Children in other non-American cultures probably think cheese is “yucky”.

c)   Taste buds are located only at the tip and back of the tongue

d)  the sense of balance is called the kinesthesis sense.




85) The three full body senses are _____.

a) pressure, temperature, and pain

b) skin, vestibular, and kinesthesis

c) skin, pressure, and movement

d) pain, kinesthesis, and balance




86) Where are most skin receptors located on the body?

a)  back and legs

b)  feet and fingers

c)  face and fingers

d)  arms and legs




87) Where are skin receptors least concentrated on the body?

a)  back and legs

b)  feet and fingers

c)  face and fingers

d)  arms and legs




88) Itching, tickling, and vibration sensations seem to be produced by light stimulation of _____ receptors.

a) pressure and pain

b)  pain and temperature

c) temperature and pressure

d) pressure, pain, and temperature




89) Confusion of the vestibular sense leads to ____.

a)  loss of consciousness

b)  cognitive dysfunction

c)  loss of balance

d)  numbness




90) The vestibular sense is controlled by what part of the body?

a)  semicircular canals

b)  vestibular canals

c)  cochlea

d)  papillae




91) The sense that detects bodily posture and movement of body parts relative to one another is called _____.

a)  kinesthesis

b)  vestibular sense

c)  cochlear synthesis

d)  posturalthesis




92) Bodily posture, orientation, and movement information is provided to the brain by the _____ sense(s).

a)  kinesthetic

b)  vestibular

c)  balance

d)  chemical




93) Kinesthetic receptors are located _____.

a)  in the semicircular canals

b)  throughout the muscles, joints, and tendons

c)  in the occipital lobe of the brain

d)  in the extremities




94) When our perceptions don't agree with our sensations, a(n) _______ results.

a)  illusion

b)  hallucination

c)  delusion

d)  sensory enigma




95) Perceptual abilities that we think of as psychic that go beyond the known senses is called ___________._______ .

a)  illusion

b)   extrasensory perception

c)  delusion

d)  sensory enigma




96) Which of the following is an optical illusion?

a) wavelength

b) perceptual constancy

c)Shepard’s tables

d)binocular cues




97) When the brain is sorting out and attending only to the most important messages from the senses, it is engaged in the process of _____.

a) sensory adaptation

b) sensory habituation

c) selective attention

d) selective sorting




98)  Jose didn’t even notice the loud crash outside the door while he was focused on taking the written  driver’s exam. This is an example of ________________.

a)  sensory adaptation

b)  selective habituation

c)  sensory detection

d)  selective attention




99) Feature detectors are specialized cells in the brain that _____.

a)  detect and alert the nervous system to painful stimuli

b)  detect the difference between different kinds of touch

c)  respond only to certain sensory information

d)  detect and respond only to certain features in the visual field




100) Prosopagnosia involves the inability to recognize_____.

a)  one’s own reflection in the mirror

b)  certain colors such as reds and oranges

c)  auditory stimuli

d)  right from left



101) The brain’s reduced responsiveness due to repeated stimulation of the same stimulus is ______.

a)  sensory adaptation

b)  selective perception

c)  habituation

d)  selective attention




102)  After a month of having stuck a post-it note by your door to remind you of an appointment, you forgot the appointment. This is an example of ___________.

a)  sensory adaptation

b)  selective perception

c)  habituation

d)  selective attention




103) You are at a party talking to a group of friends, and your attention is suddenly drawn to another group's conversation as your name is mentioned. This is an example of _______________.

a)  sensory reduction

b)  habituation

c)  the cocktail-party phenomenon

d)  sensory adaptation




104) .  At a noisy party, you are able to focus on what your girlfriend is telling you. What principle governs this ability?

a)  Freudian

b)  grounding

c)  focal

d)  Gestalt




105) When we organize patterns in order to perceive an entire stimulus rather than just its parts, we are using _____ principle of perception.

a)  the holistic

b)  Wundt's

c)  the Gestalt

d)  the closure




106) Children who group individuals together who live in the same neighborhood would be using the Gestalt principle of __________________.

a)  continuity

b)  closure

c)  proximity

d)  similarity




107) The Gestalt principle of contiguity has to do with _______.

a) time

b) space

c) unification

d) closure




108)  _____ is the perceptual organization principle that says people tend to perceive a finished unit even if there are gaps in it.

a)  Closure

b)  Proximity

c)  Similarity

d)  Contiguity




109) In a(n) _____, the discrepancy between figure and ground is too vague, and you may have difficulty perceiving which is figure and which is ground.

a)  illusion

b)  reversible figure

c)  optical illusion

d)  hallucination




110) As a flock of Canadian geese flies overhead in its familiar “V” formation, the geese are seen as _____ and the sky as _____.

a) continuity; closure

b) a sensation; perception

c) figure; ground

d) ground; figure




111) “Impossible figures” are stimuli that appear to make sense but are found to be impossible. These figures ____.

a)  define the correspondence between sensation and perception

b)  help scientists understand perceptual principles

c)  outline how to organize elements into a coherent whole

d)  define the difference between monocular and binocular cues




112) _____ is your ability to judge distance and perceive three-dimensional space.

a) Spatial perception

b) Visual-spatial perception

c) Depth perception

d) Spatial-depth perception




113) A binocular cue is one that requires _____ to perceive depth or distance.

a)  binoculars

b)  farsightedness

c)  two eyes

d)  retinal disparity




114) If you can perceive depth or distance with only one eye, this means you are _____.

a)  using a monocular cue

b)  myopic

c)  using convergence

d)  unidimensional




115) Lena  has vision in only one eye and can no longer use _____ as a cue for  perceiving  the distance from her car in the parking lot to the entrance of the mall.

a)  accommodation

b)  retinal disparity

c)  motion parallax

d)  aerial perspective




116) _____ refers to a binocular cue that comes from the separation of the eyes, which causes different images to fall on each retina.

a) Stereoscopic vision

b) Convergence

c) Retinal disparity

d) Binocular disparity




117) The convergence of your eyes is a binocular cue based on _____.

a)  your brain’s ability to converge signals from eyes into a signal image

b)  the amount of muscular strain required to turn your eyes inward when focusing on closer objects

c)  brain development formed from the visual cortex

d)  adaptation and accommodation of the visual cortex




118) Research with the “visual cliff” suggests that some depth perception is inborn because _____.

a)  babies in all species learn depth perception through experience

b)  human and animal infants hesitate or show fear at the edge of the “cliff”

c)  2-month-old babies show no fear on the edge of the “cliff” but 6-month-old babies do

d)  it is genetically inherited from the parents




119) A monocular cue that relies on the muscles that adjust the shape of the lens of the eye and sends neural impulses to the brain is called __________.

a)  convergence

b)  retinal disparity

c)  retinal parity

d)  accommodation




120) A monocular cue for depth that artists cannot use in their paintings is _____.

a)  interposition

b)  accommodation

c)  linear perspective

d)  aerial perspective




121) Which is an example of a monocular cue for depth perception?

a)  interposition

b)  visual cliff

c)  convergence

d)  retinal disparity




122) Interposition is the monocular cue that is based on _____.

a) the distinctiveness or blurriness of objects at different distances

b) the appearance of convergence at the horizon

c) the obscuring of a distant object by an object that is closer

d) the apparent small size of a distant object compared to closer objects




123) The tendency for the environment to be perceived as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input is called _____.

a)  perceptual constancy

b)  the constancy of expectation

c)  an illusory correlation

d)  Gestalt’s primary principle




124)  While riding in a car, you notice that telephone poles near you are passing by very quickly, whereas telephone poles in the distance are passing by much more slowly. This is an example of ____________.

a)  motion parallax

b)  relative parallax

c)  speed perception

d)  perception parallax




125) The monocular cue of ____________ leads us to perceive the more detailed flowers in a painting as being closer than the flowers with less detail.

a)  size consistency

b)  height in plane

c)  interposition

d)  aerial perspective




126) A young child would not yet have developed the principle of ____________ if she thinks her daddy is getting smaller and smaller as he walks away from her.

a)  size consistency

b)  perceptual differences

c)  optical illusions

d)  retinal disparity




127) When you see a partially opened door, you know that the door is rectangular even though the image being detected by your retina is a trapezoid. This is an example of the perceptual principle called _____.

a)  geometrical perceptual consistency

b)  optical constancy

c)  shape constancy

d)  form consistency




128)  _____________ results when  we perceive the color of an object as being relatively constant even though the wavelength of light reaching the eye retina may vary due to lighting conditions.

a)  Brightness constancy.

b)  Color constancy

c)  Shape constancy

d)  Wavelength consistency




129) In the Ames room, people appear to grow larger or smaller as they walk from one side of the room to the other because _________________.

a)  retinal disparity occurs

b)  accommodation cannot be determined without movement by the people

c)  people’s expectations that the room is square in shape are violated

d)  there are no reference cues to judge the height of people




130) Research suggests that humans can distinguish between _____ different hues.

a)  1 million

b)  7 million

c)  20 million

d)  100 million




131) The theory of color vision that says color perception results from mixing three distinct color systems is called the _____.

a)  tricolor theory

b)  trichromatic theory

c)  tripigment theory

d)  opponent-process theory




132) Which colors are our cones sensitive to, according to the trichromatic theory?

a) Yellow, blue, and green

b) Yellow, red, and green

c) Blue, green, and red

d) Yellow, blue, and red




133) The theory of color vision that is based on three systems of color opposites is called the _____ theory.

a)  opponent-process

b)  trichromatic

c)  paired-process

d)  opposing-pairs




134) The color aftereffects phenomenon predicts that, after staring at a bright red rectangle for a period of time, you will see a _____ when you look away at a white background.

a)  yellow rectangle

b)  white circle

c)  green rectangle

d)  blue square




135) Someone who can differentiate only between the colors of black and white would be classified as a ______.

a)  trichromat

b)  dichromat

c)  monochromat

d)  phicromat




136) Someone who can perceive only two colors would be classified as a _________.

a)  trichromat

b)  dichromat

c)  monochromat

d)  phicromat




137) Most people can perceive three different colors and would be classified as ________.

a)  trichromats

b)  dichromats

c)  monochromats

d)  phicromats




138) The final stage of perception is called _____.

a)  interpretation

b)  conclusions

c)  dissemination

d)  closure




139) _____ is the readiness to perceive in a particular manner, based on expectations.

a) Perceptual affinity

b) Perceptual set

c) Expectancy theory

d) Reference framing




140) You get a phone call around lunchtime and, expecting the caller to be your husband, you answer “Hi, honey”—but instead it is your boss calling. This is an example of ______________.

a)  perceptual adaptation

b)  extrasensory perception

c)  perceptual set

d)  subliminal perception




141) The picture of the woman that switches between a young woman looking over her shoulder and an old woman consists of stable ____ but discrepant ____.

a)  perceptual data; interpretations

b)  perceptions; sensations

c)  sensory data; interpretations

d)  interpretations; perceptions




142) You have been talking with someone online and would like to send a picture of yourself. Since you want to be considered attractive, which of the following factors explains why you should send a picture of yourself alone rather than one that includes your gorgeous roommate standing next to you?

a)  personal motivation

b)  expectation

c)  frame of reference

d)  referential perception




143) Yuor ablity to raed thsi sntenece desipte its mnay mssipllengis is deu to ____.

a)  bottom-up processing

b)  integration

c)  top-down processing

d)  cognitive flexibility




144) Information processing that begins with raw sensory data and ends with analysis in the brain is called _____.

a)  top-down

b)  bottom-up

c)  horizontal

d)  higher-order




145) Your friend Max is working on a jigsaw puzzle and does not recognize the picture in the puzzle until the last piece of the puzzle is in its place. This is an example of ____________________.

a)  top-down

b)  bottom-up

c)  vertical

d)  horizontal




146) Even though you have not placed every piece of a jigsaw puzzle in its correct location, you recognize the puzzle’s overall scene. This is an example of _________________.

a)  top-down

b)  bottom-up

c)  vertical

d)  horizontal




147) Extrasensory perception is defined in your text as _____.

a)  the alleged ability to perceive things that go beyond the known senses

b)  the sixth sense in addition to smell, taste, touch, sight, hearing

c)  perceptual abilities that enhance the known senses

d)  psychic detection of sensory information not perceived by most individuals




148) Which of the following is a major criticism of research on extrasensory perception?

a)  Data have been falsified in some cases.

b)  Control groups aren’t used correctly.

c)  There is lack of replicability.

d)  There are too few subjects willing to participate.




149) Why do so many people believe in extrasensory perception (ESP), despite evidence to the contrary?

a)  Genetics affect their perceptions.

b)  They selectively attend to supportive data.

c)  Emotional responses are ignored.

d)  Belief in ESP is based on critical thinking.




150) Candice is riding with her friends on the twisting and winding roads through the Alps.  Candice is likely to experience motion sickness because _____.

a) random movements cause perceptual conflicts between her visual and vestibular systems

b) expected movements in the mountains cause perceptual conflicts between her auditory and kinesthetic systems

c) random movements cause her to yodel

d) expected movements cause her perception to be conflicted and her sense of sight and her vestibular systems are off.




151) Children who sing the alphabet song and mistake the letters L, M, N, O, P for the word "elamenopee" are displaying what principle of perceptual form organization?

a) continuity

b) closure

c) proximity

d) similarity




152) While traveling through Kansas by train, you notice that you can see individual stalks and details of the wheat near the train tracks, but in the distance, the wheat stalks blend together into a smooth blanket of yellow.  This is an example of the _____ cue for depth perception.

a) interposition

b) aerial perspective

c) linear perspective

d) texture gradient





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