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You will prepare and submit a term paper on The Psychosexual Stages of Development

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You will prepare and submit a term paper on The Psychosexual Stages of Development. Your paper should be a minimum of 1000 words in length. In the oral stage, a child gets satisfaction and pleasure through mouth, tongue, and lips. Toilet training plays a significant role in delivering pleasure and satisfaction to a child in the anal stage. The third is the phallic stage when sexual organs become a focal point for both genders. This is also a stage for the development of the Oedipus complex in which sexual attraction is developed for the opposite gender. The Latency or Puberty is the fourth stage in which the Oedipus complex is resolved through repressing the open expressions of sex. though the dominant area of gratification is still the genital area. The Genital Stage (Puberty onwards) where primary interest turns towards the opposite sex. However, the individual understands the social taboos and try to play within the social norms (see the website). Erikson (29-34) development theory identifies eight stages of human development. In the Trust-Mistrust stage, trust is defined as an essential trust in others and one's own self, which is important and has lasting effects throughout life. Toddlers try to control the environment by doing small things for themselves such as holding the feeder in the stage of autonomy-shame and doubt, which brings a sense of autonomy if they are successful. During the Initiative-guilt stage, children take initiatives and feel guilty if they are discouraged. Comparison with peers becomes important in the Industry-inferiority stage and negative evaluation of one's own self is damaging. In the Ego Identity-Ego diffusion phase, the adolescence tries to integrate many roles such as a sibling, student, athlete, worker into a self-image and leads to dissatisfaction if develops a feeling that they are not capable to fulfill the role. The next phase is Intimacy-Isolation in which one learns to develop meaningful relationships with others and draw satisfaction and encouragement. Generativity-Stagnation is a phase of adulthood in which one seeks satisfaction in productivity in career, family and societal work. One feels satisfied in the stage of Integrity-Despair if one feels that he has reasonable accomplishments in the past. Jean Piaget (see website) gives four periods of development. The Sensorimotor period has six stages including the development of reflexes, habits, coordination between vision and prehension, and beginning of creativity. Pre-Operatory thoughts, Pre-Operational stage, and Sensorimotor are stages of the Preoperational period in which a child starts from learning to represent objects by images and words to developing language skills. The Concrete Operational period is the period of cognitive development where a child learns to sort objects in shape and colors, identifies sets of objects, considers multiple aspects to solve a problem, learns complex reversible aspects such as mathematics, understands and develops ability to arrange unrelated arrangments of numbers, quality, and numbers in a meaningful way and leaves egocentrism. In a formal operational period, a child develops the ability to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available.

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