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Homework answers / question archive / People and Events Make History Venezuelan, Simon Bolivar remains the only political and government figure in Latin America and the Caribbean that I admire

People and Events Make History Venezuelan, Simon Bolivar remains the only political and government figure in Latin America and the Caribbean that I admire


People and Events Make History Venezuelan, Simon Bolivar remains the only political and government figure in Latin America and the Caribbean that I admire. In the readings and notes and information from other sources, by 1826, leaders in the independent nations in South and Central America and Haiti needed advice and suggestions from a person of the caliber of Bolivar. He astutely understood the intentions of U. S. Foreign Policy officials, specifically, and other foreigners such as Europeans (of course, the Chinese came much later) to dominate the politics and economies of Latin American and Caribbean countries. The early leaders and many others who followed them mostly ignored the advice and suggestions of Bolivar on how to conduct their countries’ affairs to benefit compatriots. Instead, too many of the leaders from the early 1800s to this day were/are corrupt and looting their countries financial resources became a habit. Human and economic development were neglected. Currently, many of these countries continue to be disaster zones and are in disarray. Migration by men, women, and children from Caribbean, South, and Central American countries to the U.S. and elsewhere is increasing because of corrupt actions of political leaders in their homelands. Many Latin American and Caribbean leaders cause their compatriots misery, sufferings, and deaths. For example, deceased Panamanian president Manuel Noriega and some current ones in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Mexico who assist or participate in illegal drug and gun activities, money laundering, kidnappings, murders, as well as ostentatious lifestyles from stealing government funds and financial assistance from the U.S. The leaders cause much harm to their communities and people. Obviously, only punishment for their malfeasance is not deterring their actions because more courts and jails are being built, but the leaders criminal activities continue. Many of you plan to attend law, business, and graduate school to pursue professional careers. The final assignment may assist you in critical thinking and identifying contributions you will be able to make to improve the quality of leadership in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Final Assignment: Students will discuss some ideas on how to nurture a different group of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) political leaders on the virtues of honesty, responsibility, and accountability. Students must include information that they consider will improve the behavior of LAC leaders and help to resolve the migration situation across the Southern border. The Final Assignment is not a RESEARCH PAPER and NO QUOTES ALLOWED. Explain your ideas in your own words. The exercise is meant to generate ideas on the contributions you can make to lessen situations of human sufferings, and to involve you in critical thinking. The Assignment must be three (3) paragraphs or one and one half (1&1/2) pages and based only on the readings and notes provided to students as well as information from the required textbook. Online Readings and Notes: US Foreign Policy Latin America & the Caribbean U.S. Foreign Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: The War on Drugs. One of the first legal measures, the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act, 1914 was enacted/passed to restrict the distribution and use of certain drugs in the United States. Similar Laws were passed in 1919,1920,1930,1933, 1935, 1937… By April 1968, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD) was established with the combining of several government departments into one agency in the Department of Justice. In 1973, the BNDD merged with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) In addition to laws/legislative measures, other actions were also taken to deal with the use of illegal narcotics and drugs as well as to prevent the trade in such substances by means of what became known as the War on Drugs. For example, in 1969, during the presidency of Richard Nixon, “Operation Intercept” began as an anti-drug foreign policy aimed at reducing the flow of cannabis entering the U.S from across the Mexican border. THE FOCUS OF THE OPERATION CENTERED ON TRANSPORTATION & THE CARTELS (Drugs and Guns) kidnappings The Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, was passed to reinforce similar measures enacted since 1914 and as noted above, The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) replaced the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs in 1973. The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) was established by the National Narcotics Leadership Act, 1988 and provided for a national anti-drug media campaign aimed at young persons. It was later known as the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The Drug-free Media Campaign Act, 1998 reinforced the activities of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media…to deal with illegal drugs and narcotics in the United States, in this case, particularly among young people. The War on Drugs… “Operation Just Cause” was a foreign policy exercise whereby the U.S. invaded Panama on December 20, 1989. U.S. troops numbering 25, 000 led the action to capture, arrest, and imprison Gen. Manuel Noriega, the, then, president of Panama. Gen. Noriega was an alleged double agent operating between the U.S. and Cuba and who caused the deaths of many persons throughout the region. Latin American and Caribbean leaders have options. Noriega had been assisting Contra groups in Nicaragua at the request of the U.S. and he used that situation as an opportunity to traffic in drugs; a practice Noriega had undertaken since the 1960s; but the U.S. conveniently had looked the other way. Officials at The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the former Bureau of Narcotics… had tried to interdict Noriega in 1971, but the CIA was against this move. Under the direction of George H.W. Bush, the CIA had given Noriega hundreds of thousands of dollars yearly for his “work” in Latin America. After the Sandinistas in Nicaragua shot down a CIA plane, documents from the plane exposed many of the CIA’s activities in Latin America. The CIA’s collaborations with Noriega became a public relations liability/embarrassment for the U.S. government and led to OPERATION JUST CAUSE…U.S. Military forces invaded Panama, killing many innocent civilians to apprehend Noriega, then DEA officials interdicted him on drug trafficking charges after he surrendered to U.S. soldiers on January 3, 1990. Following his trial in a Miami court, he was sentenced to forty-five (45) years in jail...Noriega He has since died. Students: To Identify Narcotic (Illegal) Drugs Laws passed since 1998… THE WAR ON DRUGS: THE MERIDA INITIATIVE/PLAN MEXICO &PLAN COLOMBIA. The War on Drugs: Mexico “The War on Drugs” is the campaign including military aid and intervention to identify and reduce the illegal drug/narcotics trade. The drug policies aim to discourage the production, distribution, and consumption of what governments and agencies of the United Nations identify as illegal psychoactive drugs. The Merida Initiative/Plan Mexico—a security cooperation agreement between the governments of the United States, Mexico, and other Central American countries that aims to combat the flow of narcotic/illegal drugs, human and gun trafficking, organized crime, money laundering, and other transnational crimes was approved June 30, 2008. As much as $1.4 billion U.S. was allocated for a three-year (2008-2010) commitment to the government of Mexico for military and law enforcement training, technical advice and equipment, and to strengthen their national justice system. To date, the Merida Initiative has largely failed because some Mexican leaders and their accomplices disregard the plan and participate in the illegal activities to enrich themselves, families, and friends. Students: Use the Internet to find out what is the current situation with the MERIDA Initiative/Plan Mexico? The War on Drugs: Colombia. By the early 20th century, implementation of U.S. Foreign Policy… “Dollar Diplomacy” enabled U.S. corporations such as the United Fruit Company to expand their agribusinesses by taking over the traditional land of the Indigenous people & exploiting them as workers; often with the collaboration of their political leaders/presidents, leaders of the opposition, and local business elites. In the case of Colombia, this led to the Banana Wars between freedom fighters/guerillas of The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-The People’s Army (FARC-EP), against rightwing paramilitary forces and the government’s militias. La Violencia was a violent period of civil war in Colombia that lasted for decades. Many peasants from rural areas of the country died or fled in fear. The War on Drugs& Plan Colombia was focused on the FARC, freedom fighting group/guerillas also referred to as TERRORISTS…Under Plan Colombia, the U.S. government provided Colombia with hundreds of millions of dollars yearly in military aid, training, and equipment to fight left-wing freedom fighters such as FARC-EP, for their involvement in drug production and trafficking to provide them with funds to buy arms and military equipment. Colombian government military forces also receive counter-insurgency training from U.S. military and law enforcement agencies such as WHINSET/School of the Americas. Aerial Herbicide Application-- the spraying of herbicides including glyphosate over the jungles and forests of Central and South America to destroy Coca plants, from which cocaine (a narcotic) is produced, was part of the drug eradication program; but this method also resulted in harmful health consequences for plant and animal life in the regions…recent negotiations and agreements have ended the warfare and a period of reconciliation has begun… Money laundering in Latin America and the Caribbean is also associated with drug trafficking and is a major concern of U.S. Foreign Policy. Some political leaders, including presidents and opposition leaders, businesspersons, and terrorist groups participate in several aspects of money laundering to hide their financial assets and ill-gotten gains. Even before the revelations of the Panama Papers (STUDENTS TO FIND OUT), an international tax evasion scheme. The Kleptocracy Initiative of the Hudson Institute along with the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), a multilateral anti-money laundering agency was investigating illegal financial activities involving Latin American and Caribbean countries…Antigua & Barbuda, Bahamas, Brazil, Cayman Islands, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela…; and worldwide. The U.S has reorganized banking and financial regulations in the region and financial institutions such as the Bank of America have closed in some Caribbean countries due to drug trafficking and money laundering; causing tremendous hardships for legitimate bank customers. U.S Foreign Policy: The War on Drugs… The Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs (INL) is an executive branch of the U.S. Department of State (DOS) since 1978; and reports to the Under Secretary for Civilian Security, Democracy, and Human Rights in the DOS. The mission of the INL is to develop policies and programs to combat international narcotics and crime. The INL plays an important role in the training of partner nations’ security forces and its programs support two of the State Department’s strategic goals: 1. Reducing the entry of illegal drugs into the United States and 2. Minimizing the impact of international crime on the U.S and its citizens. INL counter-narcotics and anticrime programs also fight against terrorism. It upgrades operations by foreign criminal justice systems and law enforcement agencies. The INL manages the State Department’s Narcotics Reward Program in close coordination with the Dept. of Justice, Dept. of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and other related agencies. INL is not a law enforcement agency; it only specializes in managing law enforcement training programs globally; including Latin America and the Caribbean. The Dept. of State’s International Narcotics Control Strategy Report (INCSR) due in Congress March 1 annually, is prepared in accordance with #489 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961. The INSCR is the U.S.’ government’s country-to-country two volume report that describes efforts to attack all aspects of the international drug trade, chemical control, money laundering, and financial crimes. U.S. Foreign Policy: The War on Terror and SURVEILLANCE LINKS AND CONNECTIONS The War on Drugs has not ended, but the War on Terror took center stage in a startling way with the 9/11 attacks in New York and the Pentagon. United States’ government officials felt that they had no other option but to increase Surveillance to prevent other such events from happening again. Similar Resources, Strategies, and Tactics including SURVEILLANCE being used in the WAR ON DRUGS is also used in the WAR ON TERROR. After the 9/11 terrorist attacks on two of the nation’s major cities, New York & Washington DC/the Pentagon/VA, and the airline crash in Pennsylvania the U.S. also increasingly focused its attention on terrorism and surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean. LAC condemned the attacks on the U.S. while the OAS endeavored to strengthen hemispheric cooperation. The State Department identified terrorist threats in Colombia, Peru, Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. Three groups in Colombia and two in Peru were identified as terrorist; and Cuba was viewed since 1982, as a state sponsor of terrorism. Although LAC have not been the central focus of the War on Terror, compared to other parts of the world, what some call domestic terrorism and others view as freedom struggles continued in Colombia and Peru (until recently?) As the War on Terrorism emerged after 9/11, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia’s War on Terror and other local freedom fighters/guerrilla continued their activities. The groups in Colombia included (FARC)*, the National Liberation Army (ELN),*with Communist ties; and the rightist paramilitary group, the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) were identified by the U.S. Department of State as Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTO):because of their alleged involvement in massacres, assassinations, political kidnappings, displacements and social dislocations, illegal drugs &weapons distributions, trafficking in humans and kidnappings, and money laundering. In Peru’s case, The Shining Path Freedom Fighters are identified as terrorists by the U.S.DOS. After the Latin American Revolutionary War against Spain, with independence and Criollos, the new leaders in power were brutal and discrimination against the Indigenous people in Peru continued. In recent decades, The Shining Path (a leftist/ Maoist/communist organization) fought against Peruvian leaders and business elites who took advantage of and discriminated against them. The Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) in Peru was also on the DOS list as a terrorist organization. Indigenous people in Latin America have a long history of fighting both Spanish and Criollos because of advantages taken of them… In 1996, MRTA seized the Japanese embassy and held hostages…U.S. intervened eventually... U.S. Foreign Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean varies as situations change. In the case of Cuba, the DOS, during President Obama’s administration made efforts to normalize diplomatic/foreign relations between the U.S. and that country, it (Cuba) was identified as a state sponsoring terrorism. Reasons included Cuba’s medical and military assistance to freedom fighters in South Africa, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, and Angola when needed. Cuba was also opposed to the U.S.–led coalition against Iraq/Afghanistan and the War on Terrorism, but had endorsed the twelve international counter terrorism conventions. (The Trump administration has reversed President Obama’s policies to Cuba…TO CONTINUE HOSTILE RELATIONS. Note that Cuba’s ongoing sanctuary to U.S. fugitives from justice such as Assata Shakur, formerly JoAnne Chesimard of the Black Panther Party…Operations carried with the Spanish Basque freedom fighters/terrorists, and until recently FARC and ELN members were among the reasons for the U.S. including Cuba as a state sponsor of terrorism. Surveillance To ensure the success of its Foreign Policies, the U.S. government upgrades or establishes new agencies or departments and enacts/passes appropriate laws. As already noted, in the case of the War on Drugs and the War on Terror, the effectiveness of the two operations relies on SURVEILLANCE. The U.S. Foreign Intelligence Act of 1978 (FISA) established the United States Foreign Intelligence Court (FISC), a federal court to examine requests by U.S. federal law enforcement agencies for surveillance warrants against suspected foreign intelligence agents in the U.S. In 1948, The National Security Agency (NSA) was established. In addition, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) established since 9/11, oversees the operations of seventeen (17) related surveillance agencies. The Department of State— Diplomatic Security Office, Office of Antiterrorism Assistance—provides Anti-Terrorism Assistance including training and equipment to Latin American countries (a) to help them improve their airport security, (b) to deal with hostage situations, (c) to implement bomb detections and deactivating measures(d) and to provide financing to fight against terrorism. Since 9/11, Al Qaeda activities in LAC included attempts to recruit personnel in Honduras and threats of attacks on that country, if it continued to send military personnel to fight for the U.S. In the Middle East and some LAC--Mexico, Honduras, Haiti, Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela “Middle Easterners” were arrested with “fake passports and other documents” SURVEILLANCE is a reality, BUT PRIVACY VS SECURITY IS REAL In June 2013, Edward Snowden, a U.S. citizen employed by a private contractor to collect certain telephone data for NSA, leaked the information to a foreign media, London’s Guardian newspaper. Note that the “U.S. is a country of laws” and that in 2011, the government had gained permission from the FISA Court to permit NSA’s surveillance. Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 2008, had provided the legal authority for the collection of the data. Under the law… “Communications with Americans could be picked up without a court first determining that there is probable cause that the persons conversing were terrorists, spies, or “foreign powers.” Under the Patriot Act, the FBI can require businesses to provide records as long as the agency has reasonable evidence that the information is relevant to an authorized investigation into “international terrorism or foreign intelligence activities.” Although PRIVACY Vs. Security was challenged in court; on July 19, 2013, the FISA Court renewed the permission for NSA to collect Verizon customer records. NOTE THAT some blamed the failure of intelligence agencies in not picking up/intercepting the intentions of the ISIS terrorists globally, directly to the success of these court challenges…ISIS use technology and surveillance as well Brazil was a focus of the NSA Surveillance program. The Brazilian government threatened to bring the matter to the UN and other international organizations and planned to propose rules and procedures regarding internet governance in order to stop the mass surveillance program. On September 24, 2013, the then, Brazilian president, Dilma Rousseff in her address to the United Nations General Assembly criticized the “US intelligence gathering methods in general, but specifically of Brazilian citizens, corporations, and government officials.” Until recently, with its increasingly prominent role as the strongest economic nation in Latin America, Brazil has generally sought to cooperate with the U.S. on specific issues of mutual interests…More recently; Rousseff has been impeached, removed from the presidency of Brazil, and faces corruption charges along with her predecessor in office, Luis Ignacio DaSilva who was serving a twelve year jail sentence, but was freed before serving all of the jail time. Ironically, members of the opposition political party including the speaker of the House were arrested and charged with malfeasance/corruption/thieving. Yet, he (the speaker) also acted as president of the country. Similar situations of corruption are engulfing Peru, Chile, Guatemala, Mexico, Colombia, Honduras, and Guyana… Katitza Rodriguez (2011) in “The Politics of Surveillance: The Erosion of Privacy in Latin America” noted, “many countries in LAC are not overly concerned with the right to privacy.” Rodriguez observed that LAC governments and intelligence agencies utilize illegal surveillance of communications and have committed many violations. Frequently, politicians, advocates for justice, political activists, judges, human rights organizations and personnel are spied on in these countries without being aware. Furthermore, Rodriguez claimed that there is little or no transparency or accountability by these governments into their surveillance systems. (Rodriguez, 1) Department of History RECENT Developments: Immigration, China in Latin American and Caribbean countries, Cuba, Venezuela to the end of Spring 2021. In relation to U.S. Immigration Laws and U.S. Foreign Policy: “Build the Wall,” and Military forces against unarmed civilians, alligators & snakes in Southern border rivers, cages for infants and young children, aluminum sheets for adults, and forced sterilizations of women…Current events and situations also facing migrants from Caribbean countries force us to recognize the role of EUGENICS: the pseudo-scientific belief that some groups of humans are superior to others. Scholars note This false concept/belief was utilized in the framing of the United States Immigration Laws, 1924. By the early 1930s, as Hitler and the Nazis rose to power in Germany, racial theories and eugenics influenced Hitler, other German leaders, and their supporters to persecute and kill millions of Jewish people along with Eastern Europeans, Africans, mixed races, and the physically challenged because they were viewed as degenerates who defiled and weakened Germany; causing the country to lose WW1. Therefore, it was felt that purging the society of them in gas chambers, sterilization, and so on would help restore Germany to its preWorld War 1 power and supremacy. Millions of Jewish people and others were castrated…and killed in the gas chambers of the HOLOCAUST. Germans who were of a particular “racial profile,” did not feel threatened or were afraid to speak up, remained silent. As the situation unfolded and worsened, many Jewish people fled Germany by sea. Several major countries including the United States ignored the plight of the Jewish people and failed to take action against Hitler and the other German leaders’ acts of genocide. Unbelievably, when a boatload of fleeing German Jews arrived at a port in Florida, U.S. officials used the Immigration Laws, 1924 to turn back the Jewish people seeking refuge here from the horrors of Germany of the 1930s1940s. Many of them and their families perished in the HOLOCAUST along with others who could not escape. Do yourself a favor sometime and visit the Holocaust Museum in Washington, DC. There is a Holocaust Museum in Manhattan, not too far from John Jay College. See Sonia Shah, The Next Great Migration: The Beauty and Terror of Life on the Move (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2020) During the period of intense conflict (the Cold War era, 1945-1990s) between the Western block of nations—the U.S. and allies versus the Soviet Union/Russia and the Eastern block of nations government leaders in the then, East Germany a part of the Soviet Union group and a Communist country “Built a Wall” to control its citizens freedom to flee communism and the economic hardships, political torment, and loss of freedoms they were enduring. In their efforts to gain freedom many thousands fleeing East Germans trying to escape over the Berlin Wall were shot and killed by the East German military. For humanity’s sake, the Republican president of the U.S. Ronald Reagan, a former Democrat used his power to demand “Break Down the Wall.” On 9 November 1989, the Berlin Wall came tumbling down. The order was carried out because the United States had the resources to take action against East Germany and would have done so.What is different in our current movement-over-the-border-crisis? Why the United States government cannot deal with the root-cause of the migration surge by addressing the misdeeds of Central American political leaders/presidents, their allies, and the cartels operating across Latin America and the Caribbean? The U.S. has the power and resources to take action, but why not. Why isn’t the U.S. invading, occupying, and driving from power the leaders of South and Central American countries whose illegal actions are worsening the immigration crisis at the Southern Border. What is happening in Venezuela? Venezuelans are forced to migrate legally and illegally to countries throughout the hemisphere, including the United States. Currently, special Immigration Laws are benefiting Venezuelans who arrive in the United States, illegally. Globally, immigration laws are enacted for security and protection and the United States is a country of laws. We must also note that, the United Nations was established after W11 to maintain peace and security, advocate for human rights, and other policies similar to the U.S. The UN is also providing support/assistance through The United Nations International Organization for Migration (IOM) to migrants from South and Central America as well as the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) David G. Gutierrez, “An Historic Overview of Latino Immigration and Demographic Transformation of the United States,” Students to obtain a copy of Gutierrez’s article above, (JSTOR) read it, and make notes. Also use the web site below and obtain a copy of U.S. Immigration Laws. Immigration has always been a feature of U.S. Foreign Policy. The Naturalization Act, 1790 established the rules for naturalized citizenship—See Article 1 Section 8 of the Constitution—at that time there were no restrictions on immigration, but Citizenship was limited to white persons. The Page Act of 1875 was the initial legislation to restrict immigration into the U.S. The Naturalization Act of 1906 made English a requirement for citizenship, and established the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization Services. Remember that the U.S government establishes departments, agencies, and bureaus as changing situations require. The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 restricted annual immigration from any country to 3% of the number of people from that country living in the U.S. in 1910. Non-quota nations (immigration not restricted) included Great Britain, France, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark… Mexico that shares a border with the U.S. was also a non-quota nation. The act of 1921 also limited Southern and Eastern Europeans and especially Jews. Africans, Asians, and Arabs were severely restricted from entering the U.S. also. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1924 that followed continued to limit (reinforced quotas) based on the countries of origins of the would-be immigrant. Under the provisions of The National Origins Formula total annual immigration was limited to 150,000…Laborers from Asia were excluded, but exceptions were made for professionals, clergy, and students to obtain visas. As Hitler and the Nazis killed Jewish people and others during the Holocaust in Germany, Jews aboard ships trying to enter New York and other port cities in the U.S. could not enter the country based on the 1924 Immigration Act. According to available information, some of the returnees perished in the HOLOCAUST in Germany. Visit the Holocaust Museum in Washington, DC. There is also a Holocaust Museum in Manhattan, not too far from John Jay College. In 1943, the Chinese Exclusion Repeal Act allowed Chinese already in the U.S. to become naturalized citizens…There were a number of Immigration Acts from the 1940s that had mixed =negative and positive impacts on immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean… Reasons or factors for migration from Latin America and the Caribbean to the U.S. “Push and Pull” factors—Push=Political destabilization, economic depressions, social unrests, upheavals, and Civil Wars in LA countries cause their nationals to migrate to the U.S. and elsewhere. Trade policies and agreements between the U.S and countries in the region also influence migration, for example, expansion of agribusinesses and the loss of land and livelihoods by Latin Americans. In the Caribbean/West Indies factors such as overpopulation, natural disasters (hurricanes/earthquakes), lack of employment, even for the skilled and professionals as well as political unrests in the countries/islands are major causes for migration. Pull=Magnets or “pull” factors that encourage migration to the U.S. include economic, educational, financial & social opportunities, RELATIVE STABILITY. In the U.S., immigrants are sometimes welcomed to serve in the military or to work in specific industries, for example, the hotel industry, construction, and agriculture for particular periods (Bracero Program), but at other periods, they are unwelcome. (SUCH AS NOW) In addition, the outsourcing/sending of work from the U.S. to LAC enables nationals of those countries to save their money and later emigrate to the U.S. (Students should find out about the BRACERO PROGRAM) The Immigration Nationality Act of 1965 eliminated (got rid of) quotas based on national origin…Mexican immigrants were restricted entering the U.S. for the first time. The following year, the Cuban Refugee Adjustment Act of 1966 also known as (Wet feet, Dry feet) gave Cubans legal status, but this law was not extended to or applied to Haitians (political vs. economic refugees) … The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 granted a path to citizenship to illegal immigrants who had entered the U.S. prior to 1982… The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 adjusted the asylum law, immigration detention, criminal-based immigration, and other measures relating to immigration reform… The Real ID Act of 2005 added more restrictions to political asylum and increased enforcement mechanisms... George W. Bush signed into law HR 7311, William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 that granted rights and protection to undocumented and unaccompanied children from countries that do not have a border with the U.S who entered. As a result, deportation measures against children from Central American (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua) countries became difficult and expensive as was the case in the border crisis of 2014. By the time of the economic crisis of 2008, it was felt that immigration had leveled off with some immigrants returning to their home countries (Mexico) and discouraging others from coming. Remember, as situations change, the U.S. government establishes agencies, bureaus, and departments to address related matters. After 9/11, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was established on 2 November 2002 by the Homeland Security Act 2002. As part of U.S. Foreign Policy, the DHS administers Border Security and Enforcement Improvements aimed at strengthening enforcement along the U.S.-Mexican Border (Southern Border) through Border Patrol Agents…and building a wall along the entire 2,000-mile border? In 2010, the year that an earthquake devastated Haiti, Haitians were granted temporary protected status to live and work in the U.S. In 2016, Hurricane Matthew made their situations worse. This waiver was due to expire 22 July 2017…but extended at times. By February 2017, Customs and Border Protection reported a 36% drop in crossings across the Southern border compared to the year before due to the policies of the Trump administration. However, crossings across the Southern border have since increased during the President Biden’s administration from 2021. See Michael D. Shear in Biden Plan Gives 11 Million A Path to U.S. Citizenship: Day 1 Effort to Expand Safeguards Faces a Battle With Republicans,” The New York Times, 20 January 2012, A 1, 13. Students to obtain information on DACA and the current status/situation The 2014 US Immigration Border Crisis…2019…and Beyond…Involved tens of thousands of Central American families crossing the Southern border through Mexico into the U.S. and presented a U.S. Foreign Policy dilemma. Despite all of the financial aid and assistance that the U.S. gives to Central American countries to prevent ILLEGAL immigration into the U.S.; to assist with natural and environmental disasters; to manage/eliminate drug cartels, gang violence, for security, and to prevent guns and human trafficking, kidnappings, and money-laundering…some presidents and governors of Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Mexico are corrupt, accept financial assistance from the U.S to control these illegal activities and also accepts bribes from the drug cartels and do not take action when the cartels’ leaders and drug gangs etc. commit acts of violence, kill, and destabilize entire communities; forcing the residents to flee and migrate, especially to the U.S. Recently, Rafael Callejas, former president of Honduras charged with corruption; Francisco Flores, former president of El Salvador on corruption charges; Alfonso Portillo, former president of Guatemala currently on money laundering charges…“Mexican Ex-Governor, Accused of Graft, was Captured After Six Months...Javier Duarte from the state of Vera Cruz…Tomas Yarrington, former governor of the state of Tamaulipas is being sought by Mexican and American prosecutors on money-laundering and racketeering charges-- was caught in Italy…former governor, Cesar Duarte of Chihuahua state, Mexico accused of embezzlement was hiding somewhere in the U.S. ”New York Times, 17 April 2017, A4. Remember Kleptocratic/Kleptocracy Initiative of the Hudson Institute and the Panama Papers for LAC leaders identified as scamps, thieves, and culprits; as well as web sites for “Corrupt Latin American Leaders”? such as Anastasio Somoza Garcia, Nicaragua; Alberto Fujimori, Peru; Antonio Guzman Blanco, Venezuela; Porfirio Diaz, Mexico; Fulgencio Batista, Cuba, Manuel Ortega, Panama… CRIME in LAC countries also flourishes because of corrupt leaders and influences U.S. Foreign policies in the region. To reiterate, financial aid and assistance to LAC countries is a U.S. Foreign Policy aimed to develop the economies of those countries so that they would at some point not depend on foreign aid. And their citizens would have no reason to get caught up in the horrors of mass migration. While the leaders of LAC countries still accept U.S.’ financial and other foreign assistance; some of those leaders also want to exclude the U.S. from at least one of their organizations while inviting Chinese leaders to attend their meetings—Many Latin American and Caribbean countries are agreeing to China’s involvement in the region…wanting it all ways? BUT, if the funds and assistance that the U.S. provides are misappropriated by corrupt LAC leaders: should the leaders not be held accountable? Should those leaders not have responsibilities for the well-being of their citizens? Instead, in many quarters, only the U.S. is blamed for all that is negative in Latin American and Caribbean countries. During the Obama presidency, inaction and an obstructionist policy by Republican representatives in the U.S. Congress on Immigration Reform caused the president to pass executive orders to address U.S. Foreign Policy on immigration…the President’s action faced legal/court challenges--local, state and Supreme Court—and has resulted in the lack of implementation of policies to address the increasing immigration crisis on the Southern Border during the Trump and early Biden administrations…The corruption of some Latin American leaders leading to unemployment, lack of security, and underdevelopment has worsened the situation and also led to more Latin Americans trying to enter the United States. U.S. Foreign Policy and Recent Developments: U.S. President Barack Obama &Cuban President Raul Castro Remember Latin American Leaders Have Options and sometimes they are back where they should have Started with Simon Bolivar… We already examined U.S. Foreign Policy with Cuba since the Spanish American War, 18951898 to the post-revolution events since1959 including the Cold War, Operation Mongoose, Operation Ortsac, the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuba’s expulsion from the OAS, trade, travel and financial restrictions imposed on Cuba by the U.S., the Mariel Boatlift, preferential immigration and other services extended to Cubans by the U.S. and the Cuba government. Activities of Radio & Television Marti & propaganda, surveillance and spying against Cuba, as well as aircraft disasters such as the Cubana Air Disaster, 1973, in the Caribbean Sea off Barbados, the dead included 57 Cubans, 11 Guyanese, and 7 North Koreans, many of them students. Note that Cuba provides (ed) military and medical assistance in other areas of the world including Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. But in the world of Foreign Affairs, the opposite is also true. Cuba commits all kinds of clandestine and overt acts against the U.S. as well. Julie Hirschfield Davis and Randal C. Archibold in, “Obama Meets Cuban Leader, Making History. Private Panama Talks. Raul Castro Wants U.S. to Remove Havana From Terror List.” The New York Times, April 12, 2015, 1, 8, focused on U.S. President Barack Obama and his Cuban counterpart historic discussions that was the first between the two countries’ leaders in fifty years. Hirschfield Davis and Archibold noted that Obama & Castro met at the Convention Center in Panama City, Panama during the 7thSummit of the Americas in April 2015. (Davis & Archibold, 1) According to the authors, President Obama’s action to normalize relations with Cuba was an effort to overturn failed U.S. foreign policies. In turn, President Castro had noted that although the U.S. and Cuba had a long and complicated history, he welcomed President Obama’s initiative. (Davis &Archibold, 8) In addition, the writers stated that the meeting was an important step for the U.S. president who wanted to decrease tensions between the two countries and to get rid of a generations-old dispute that has also affected relations with other countries in the region. (Davis& Archibold, 8) LATIN AMERICAN LEADERS HAVE OPTIONS: At the Summit of the Americas meeting held in his country in 2012, President Juan Manuel Santos of Colombia had demanded in his closing remarks that Cuba must be included in future meetings. Threatening that they would not attend another summit if Cuba could not Argentina, Bolivia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Colombia, and the leaders of some other Latin American and Caribbean countries had pointed out that the time for the blackballing of Cuba had come and gone…As a result, the meeting in Panama was the first one in the twenty-year history of the Summit that Cuba had attended… Davis and Archibold observed in the above article that in President Obama’s remarks, he expressed his disinterest in continuing battles that began before he was born, and especially since the Cold War had ended for decades. The U.S. President pointed out that “we are caught in a time-warp going back to the 1900s, and gunboat diplomacy, and Yanquis go home, and this, that, and the other.”(Davis & Archibold, 8) President Obama welcomed the opportunity to get rid of what had become a dysfunctional subtext of the meeting for generations of American presidents and his remarks resulted in “an unusual round of salutes and congratulations.”(Davis & Archibold, 8) The authors of the article noted that “President Obama is going to leave a legacy in the way he is supporting Hispanics in the U.S.” by means of his executive orders on Immigration Reform.” (Davis & Archibold, 2015) At the meeting in Panama, President Castro spoke in warm tones about President Obama for his reconciliation efforts; praised and called him brave but; Raul Castro also outlined his displeasure with the U.S. history of hemispheric injustices. (Davis & Archibold, 8) During the Trump administration, the situation has been uneasy. In the case of China in Latin America and the Caribbean, students should contact the reference assistant at John Jay Library (virtual0 and obtain a copy of Kirk Semple’s article, “China Quietly Extends Reach in Caribbean, Unsettling Washington: U.S. Alerts Allies In Region to Risks.” The New York Times, International Section, 9 November 2020, A6. STUDENTS: Use a Dictionary to assist you with unfamiliar words. The last U.S. Foreign Policy before the outbreak of WWII was The Good Neighbor Policy, an Isolationist Foreign Policy. This policy is a reminder that as events occurred and situations changed, the United States adjusted its foreign policies accordingly. This policy followed the Roosevelt Corollary/Monroe Doctrine, 1904 and Dollar Diplomacy, 1912. New United States bureaucracies and agencies were periodically established as well to support America’s foreign policies in Latin America and the Caribbean during World War 11 (1939-1945) and the Cold War era (1945-1990s). In 1939, within five years of the Good Neighbor Policy, 1934, WWII broke out. Similar to WW 1, WW11 began as a European (and colonies)/Asian conflict; the U.S. was later directly drawn into the war; and was largely responsible for the victory of the side on which it fought…the Allies… After WWII ended similarities with WWI continued. The U.S. provided the resources, that is, financial/economic, scientific/technological, human, & military to rebuild countries that were destroyed by the war. In addition, similar to the danger of Hitler after WWI, a new global threat, Russia/the Soviet Union emerged after WWII. Note that it is always of the highest priority that the United States foreign policies, plans and programs have successful outcomes; and the U.S. is “dead serious” about the implementation and application of its foreign policies. Therefore, specific agencies/bureaucracies were also established during this period in order to support U.S. foreign policies and to ensure “benefits for the American people and the international community.” The U.S. periodically established Bureaucracies and Agencies to support its foreign policies in Latin America, the Caribbean, and elsewhere. The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): During June 1942, in the midst of WW II, (1939-1945) the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was established as an American Intelligence Agency. The OSS closed during October 1945, after the war ended. At first the OSS functions were transferred to the U.S. State and War Departments until the establishment of another bureaucracy/agency, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Remember at strategic times the United States establishes agencies/bureaucracies as regional, hemispheric, and global situations change. Congress established The CIA with the enactment of the National Security Act, 1947, as the Cold War developed. The Cold War was the ideological warfare between the U.S. and its allies against the Soviet Union and its allies to influence countries around the world. The CIA is one of the principal intelligence gathering agencies of the United States Federal Government. The CIA’s headquarters is located in Langley, VA. Employees of the CIA also operate from U.S. embassies and many other locations around the world. The CIA is the only independent U.S. intelligence agency and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The three main functions of the CIA are: gathering information on foreign governments, corporations, and individuals; analyzing that information, along with intelligence gathered by other U.S. intelligence agencies, in order to provide national security intelligence assessment to senior U.S. policymakers; and, upon the request of the U.S. president; carrying out or overseeing covert activities and some tactical operations by its own employees, by members of the U.S. military, or by other partners. It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. The Cold War Era (After 1945-Early 1990s) & U. S. Foreign Policy in LAC Countries. U.S. Foreign Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean center on democracy, multiparty states, free and fair elections, peace and security, capitalism, free trade & free market economies. But at the end of WW11, ideological and political differences arose between the Western bloc of nations--the United States, Canada, Western European nations, Latin America and Caribbean countries, Asian & African countries, Australia, New Zealand, & Pacific Ocean islands versus the Eastern bloc of nations--Russia/Soviet Union, Eastern European nations & their supporters( China broke from the group and advanced its own brand of Communism later) these nations believed in socialism/Marxism/Leninism/communism that resulted in the Cold War which was an ideological warfare to gain supremacy and influence globally by either bloc of nations. Students to find out: What Marxism is… and Leninism is…. Socialism is the belief that the profits of a society/country should be equally shared among all the people of a country. Communism is the effort to create a classless and moneyless social order structured upon (everyone) common ownership of the means of production (labor, money, land), as well as a social, political, and economic ideology to maintain this social order by government control of all institutions and private property…circumscribed populations. The Cold War significantly influenced the history of the second half of the twentieth century due to the intense rivalry between the “socialist world” (socialist states ruled by communist parties) and the “Western world” (democratic countries with capitalist economies) Note that both capitalism and communism resulted in OPPRESSIVE situations as well as success and benefits. Unlike the communist, in capitalist countries such as the United States there are efforts at transparency, accountability, to limit political/government excesses, and to obtain economic balance (fair/equal wages, price controls, tax benefits, and social programs) In terms of U.S. Foreign Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean CUBA AS A MAJOR FACTOR in the Cold War in the Western Hemisphere… After Cuba’s victory over Spain with U.S. intervention and assistance, the United States became dominant in that country’s affairs. By the constitutional provisions of the Platt Amendment of 1901, and Cuba’s political leaders’ agreement, the U.S. had the right to intervene in that country’s affairs… U.S. businesspersons and corporations could expand their business enterprises and control the country’s economy. Cuba, the largest island in the Caribbean Sea and the most populous, was viewed, as an enormous consumer market to sell U.S. products and the source of cheap sugar, tobacco, fruits etc.…and a place for U.S. $investments at a time of the Roosevelt Corollary=policing powers and Dollar Diplomacy= “the business of America is business.” Cuba’s Prime ministers from Tomas Estrada to Fulgencio Batista agreed with U.S. foreign policy…because of what was in it for them…and they were corrupt…The brothers Castro: Ramon, Fidel, and Raul considered Cuba an unequal society…with wealth and prosperity for some, but inequality, discrimination, and oppression for too many. The Castros were joined by Dr.Ernesto “Che” Guevara from Argentina and other revolutionaries to overthrow the government… led to the Cuban Revolution of 1959. *Note Fidel Castro’s embrace of the Soviet Union and use of Revenge--killings and incarceration against political opponents COMPARED TO Nelson Mandela of South Africa/Peace and Reconciliation Committee of Investigation after the ending of Apartheid. Significance and Impact of U.S. Foreign Policy in Latin America during the Cold War and beyond. The Cold War Era and the Cuban Revolution: Application of the Monroe Doctrine. After the 1959 revolution, and by 1961, Cuba was a socialist/communist country. The US viewed Cuba as a threat “in its backyard” and engaged in a Cold War with that country. Cuba became a dictatorship and nationalized/took over U.S., Cuban, and foreign properties. The government in control of all institutions, freedom of speech restricted, and a one-party state emerged…mass migration…to the U.S. and elsewhere followed. Response: U.S. sanctioned trade embargoes/restrictions to undermine Cuba’s economy and to isolate that country, but Canada, Mexico, Spain and some other countries in Latin America, the Caribbean, and elsewhere disregarded…Other U.S. plans aimed at destabilizing or overthrowing the Cuban government were implemented… Events after the Cuban Revolution: The Bay of Pigs Incident, The Cuban Project/Operation Mongoose, the Cuban Missile Crisis, Mass Migration, U.S. Immigration policies/Mariel Boatlift…Cubans as political refugees vs. Haitians as economic refugees… STUDENTS TO READ THE TEXTBOOK AND MAKE NOTES ON THE ABOVE EVENTS Another example whereby the United States demonstrated that it is “dead serious” about its foreign policy in Latin America and the Caribbean was the INVASION and OCCUPATION OF GRENADA, a West Indian/Caribbean island BY THE USA under OPERATION URGENT FURY, the invasion of that island indicated that the United States was “dead serious” about its foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere and would not tolerate another Cuba in “its backyard.” The U.S invaded and militarily occupied the Caribbean island of Grenada in 1983, killed Maurice Bishop, the prime minister and overthrew the left-leaning government that had come to power through a military coup. The government’s ideologies were based on socialism/Marxism/communism. The Bishop regime had seized power by its overthrow of a democratically elected government. RESPONSE: Mixed response to the U.S. invasion by Caribbean nations: Some nations were not supportive of U.S.’ actions but, the, then prime minister of Dominica, Eugenia Charles was one of the main Caribbean supporters along with Tom Adams of Barbados, and George Price of Belize. The U.S invasion took place during the presidency of Ronald Reagan who insisted, “Grenada did not have the right to be Communist influenced” The invasion of Grenada was an application of U.S. Foreign Policies--the Monroe Doctrine AND the Roosevelt Corollary. Grenada had allowed the construction of an airport in the country by the Soviets that was unacceptable to the United States. In the case of Grenada, the U.S. did not tolerate another communist country in the Western hemisphere, especially “in its backyard.” U.S FOREIGN POLICY: THE COLD WAR ERA U.S. bureaucracies…facilitated/assisted its foreign policy in Latin America and the Caribbean during the Cold War era (1945-1990s) in order to keep out or limit socialism/communism in the Western Hemisphere; prevent the coming of dictators… and to ensure capitalism, free market economies, peace and security, democracy, multi-party states, & free and fair elections…because of American government officials’ beliefs that these factors were in “the best interests” of the United States and the global community. Therefore, U.S. Congress established agencies/bureaucracies/&institutions to ensure successful outcomes of their foreign policies, for example. THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE INSTITUTE FOR SECURITY COOPERATION (WHINSEC) alias the U.S. ARMY SCHOOL OF THE AMERICAS is a United States Department of Defense Institute located at Fort Benning, Georgia that provides military training for government personnel from Latin American countries. Established in 1946, in 1961 it was also assigned the specific task of teaching “anti-communist counter-insurgency training,” a role that it would fulfill for the rest of the Cold War AND the War on Drugs…as the Cold War ended by the early 1990s. U S Foreign Policy shifted its main focus from “anti-communism” to the War on Drugs, with narco-guerillas replacing communists as the targets in LAC countries. WHINSEC’s (School of the Americas) provides professional education and training to selected personnel of nations of the Western Hemisphere on democratic principles including fostering mutual knowledge, transparency?, confidence, cooperation among participating nations, promoting democratic values, respect for human rights, and knowledge and understanding of United States customs and traditions…Guest lecturers and experts from U.S. and international governments participate…non-government, human rights, law enforcement, academic institutions, and inter-agency departments also share their best practices for improved security& cooperation between participating nations in the hemisphere MOTTO of WHINSEC: Freedom, Peace and Fraternity. RESPONSE OF Latin American leaders: Colombia has sent the largest number of trainees to date. In 2004, Venezuela discontinued the training of its soldiers at WHINSEC after a long period of chilled relations between the U.S. and that country. On March 26, 2006, the late president of Argentina, Nestor Kirchner, ceased sending its soldiers for training at WHINSEC.(Find out if this situation has changed) The government of Uruguay or Ecuador does not participate. During his presidency, Bolivia’ Evo Morales decided not to send military or police officers to WHINSEC. In 2012, former President Rafael Correa of Ecuador withdrew all troops from the military school claiming that it was linked to human rights violations. Previously, in 2007, Oscar Arias, president of Costa Rica, decided to stop sending its police for training at WHINSEC. Arias later reversed the decision because such training was needed for counter-narcotics operations. Costa Rica has no military, but has sent app. 2,600 police officers to the school. Criticisms and Reforms By 2000, the School of the Americas was under increasing criticism in the U.S. for training graduates who later participated in undemocratic governments, and committed grave human rights abuses…the dirty war in the Southern Cone/Argentina and the Civil War years in Central America—are examples of Latin American countries where the armed forces ruled or had extraordinary government influence and carried out serious human rights violations. Consequently, the U.S. Congress took action that reformed WHINSEC’s human rights training program, but still ensured that the training was much more rigorous than any other U.S. military institution. In the United States there should be TRANSPARENCY, OVERSIGHT, and FEDERAL LAWS to PROTECT WHISTLEBLOWERS who are PATRIOTS. BUT, the question remains—what are the responsibilities of Latin American leaders who mostly attend Ivy League Universities in the U.S. and send their military personnel for training at WHINSEC. Why do the nations continue to send their military personnel for training at WHINSEC, if graduates of the school commit so many atrocities on their return home…REASONS: Keeping their political leaders and themselves in power = self-interest, maintaining the status quo, preserving extravagant life styles = life of excesses, consumerism, and materialism that is “Profits over People” Nevertheless, we must remember that WHINSEC/the School of the Americas and other U.S institutions/organizations such as the Department of State, the FBI, and CIA functioned during the Cold War to ensure hemispheric stability and to promote international trade, and economic development. WE MUST ALSO NOTE: Readings on the History of Russia point out that continuous conflict; horrendous treatment of the working class/peasantry during monarchial rule; ASSASINATIONS and GENOCIDE continued after the Revolution of 1917, into the modern industrialization era to the coming of the Soviet Union and its ideologies utilizing persuasion and force world-wide to ensure supremacy of SOCIALISM/MARXISM/COMMUNISM. This will enable you to have a better understanding of why the U.S. had no intention of allowing European/foreign ideologies into the hemisphere to challenge its dominance. History is Living: In 2008 Joseph M. Gilbert and Daniela Spenser, eds., published In From the Cold: Latin America’s New Encounter with the Cold War, not only were primary sources from the archives of countries in the Americas and Europe utilized but, more importantly for the first time, primary sources from Soviet archives/ Russia/Poland… were incorporated in a study. Primary Sources obtained from Soviet Archives (Russia, Poland…) after its 1990/1991collapse; available at the Hoover Institute, Sanford University, Palo Alto, CA were used. The editors of the book and the articles in the publication made clear that in order to present balanced accounts of Soviet and U.S. and its Western allies’ activities in Latin America information from the above sources must ALSO be incorporated. WAR IS HELL In addition to establishing agencies and institutions to ensure the success of its foreign policies in the Western Hemisphere, the U.S. also carried out a number of exercises: OPERATION Mongoose was the effort to?…OPERATION URGENT FURY…? OPERATION CONDOR evolved during the Cold War and was viewed by many as a campaign of political repression and terror involving U.S. intelligence operations and assassinations of supporters of Communism. Operation Condor was officially embraced & implemented in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships of some Latin American countries. The program aimed to get rid of communism or Soviet influence and ideas, and to suppress active or potential opposition movements against participating governments…Condor’s chief members were the governments of Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil. The U.S. provided technical support and supplied military aid to the participants until 1978, and again after 1981. Ecuador and Peru joined later…The program was developed following a series of government coup d’états/overthrows by military groups…in Paraguay, 1954; Brazil 1964; Bolivia, 1971; Chile, 1973; and was in place by the coup in Argentina March 24, 1976….Operation Condor was a convenient U.S. mode of operation during the Cold War.

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