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Homework answers / question archive / Science and its Influence on Modernity Name: Course: Section: Date: 2 Abstract This article examines the relationship between science and modernism

Science and its Influence on Modernity Name: Course: Section: Date: 2 Abstract This article examines the relationship between science and modernism


Science and its Influence on Modernity Name: Course: Section: Date: 2 Abstract This article examines the relationship between science and modernism. By providing a brief history of modernism's advent and the characteristics associated with modernism, we hint at the reasons that led to modernism. The paper also explains that modernism and science have been considered the contrasts of each other. We then suggest that it is conceivable to see science as an open-minded inquest into the world we currently live in, as a subject that upheld the principles of insight and enlightenment. Through discussions made in this article, we argue that science as a significant discipline was a social fact that could not be ignored. The advancements made in science eventually had to happen as humanity sought better ways of living, and the belief in the universal nature of science reinforced the idea of a single path to modernity. Over time, nations have embraced science due to their modernization ideas, ranging from science teaching in school, people taking up science disciplines professionally. Science offers a different approach to how we usually perceive the world, which is widely addressed in this article. We study the evolution of science from the advent of the scientific revolution and how past events have influenced life today. The various aspects of modernism and science have been studied to understand how the two have always been interrelated and how one's evolution affects others. We also take an in-depth analysis of some of the scientific inventions that have happened over time, especially physics, medicine, and astronomy. Evidence gathered from these studies helps ascertain whether these scientific changes support the idea of modernity or go against it. Finally, this paper also addresses the challenges that have risen by integrating modernity into the current society. 3 Keywords: science, modernity, scientific inventions, advancement, enlightenment, the scientific revolution, challenges, tradition, technology. Introduction Research question: Do the developments that have been made in science support or go against the idea of modernism, and what challenges accrue from the culture of modernity? Modernity is perceived as a way in which various societies use technological innovations, knowledge advances, and organizational changes to improve on what has previously existed to change how people live (Pollack & Rosta, 2017). It is also generally agreed that modernity is a set of political, cultural, and economic relationships that significantly influence social life and the economy. The relationship is characterized by an emphasis on rationality and science over tradition and myths; this belief in progress, human mastery of nature, self-consciousness, and a strong reliance on the government and laws. Modernity is a historical concept that is incremental in its formation that is strongly associated with order and progress; however, the human experience of modernity can be unpredictable and unsettling. This is because modernity is a powerful force that is layered with contradictions and diversity that alternate between order and chaos. Modernity highlights progress, and over the years, that has precisely happened in science. The various changes that have occurred provide an outline on understanding theorization and developments in modernity. There have been developments in the scientific world that have greatly improved living standards. Science has had a significant cultural impact in the twentyfirst century, which has helped generate solutions for our daily lives while improving its quality. In other words, modernity is also considered a social problem resulting in social conditions and processes that are consequent to enlightenment, which makes the concept contested. The world is 4 at our fingertips courtesy of technology, which has advanced into various areas of our lives to increase the ease of information access. Science and modernity have influenced a plethora of advancements in transport and improved communication, and many more aspects of our lives today, but we must keep in mind its effects on society. Society is greatly reliant on technological advancements with no signs of shrinking its dependence on humans in modern society. A lot of aspects in life have changed due to science and technology becoming a societal norm. According to Anderson (2019), the theme of progress has been a critical component in the shaping of the scientific theory. The most powerful ideology upon which modernity is based on the belief that the society is engaging itself in innovations and developments makes the coming generations more advanced than those previously in existence (Ramet, 2018). However, it is essential to note that over the evolution of science, the concept of modernity has been supported and at times disputed. Concerns of modernity are amplified by when it comes to children since they are exposed to technological devices such as laptops, televisions, and other devices, which has changed how kids interact in society. Children can simply interact with their friends online and not have to meet them in person and engage in outdoor activities. Research done shows that time spent on screens can affect the children's ability to empathize and recognize human emotions. Technology has significantly made our lives easier but with these benefits arises potential cost with some scholars supporting it while others dispute the matter. Some scholars consider modernism development that will be very good and useful to society. In contrast, others think it is the beginning of the end with technological advances that will impact humanity negatively. 5 Supported: The scientific revolution in seventeenth-century Europe was the major event that set modernity rolling wheels. During that time, human beings lived a normal life. However, the desire for better living and a better understanding of the world led various scientists and intellectuals in Europe to further study the Earth and all therein. It is this desire, it is believed, that led to the developments witnessed in the subsequent years and spread throughout the rest of the world. Disputed: Some scholars in the field of science argue on the timelines of the onset of modernity. Was it the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century? Or was it the amalgamation between industrial advancements and science in the nineteenth century? Could it have begun during the twentieth century when there was an intellectual boom in sciences such as physics and later biology? Research Methods I began my research by doing an extensive analysis of articles, past and present, from well-trusted databases such as Google Scholar, WorldWide Science,, BioMed Central, and Education Resources Information Centre (ERIC). When searching in these databases, I used keywords such as "modernity," "scientific advancements," "astronomy," and "medicine" to narrow my research to a small focus. The articles I chose for this paper had to have been extensively reviewed by peers and other professionals in those areas and deemed worthy of the information I was seeking. This information has then been combined into my research by incorporating only the relevant bits to avoid bias and misinformation. Literature Review 6 This literature review will focus on the developments that have been made in the field of science and how these developments help us examine the link between science and modernism. We will take an interest in science advancements: advancements in medicine, physics, and astronomy studies. We also review the history of modernity to get a clearer picture of the driving forces towards this. History of Modernity In the early 1900s, a new revolutionary period that oversaw an intellectual boom in sciences emerged in Europe that changed how humans perceive things (Shapin, 2018). Scholars, scientists, and thinkers existing at that time began questioning the standard establishments leading to rebellion against the existing doctrines, whether it was in philosophy, science, arts, or even medicine. This period is claimed to have been the onset of modernity (Ramet, 2018). The modernists were so radical in their approach towards change that almost every pre-established order was questioned. More often than not, these 'intellectual anarchists' distorted western civilization and provided a pathway from the traditional ideas into a period of enlightenment (Zammitto, 2017). The onset of the modern era kicked off after the middle ages lasting through the early decades of the twentieth century when the postmodern era began, which we are currently in. Enlightenment philosophy marked the beginning of modernity with more focus on the people and high-value decision-making. The modern era started slightly after the medieval ages in the fourteenth century, which was marked by a wide span of urbanization, technological advances, and globalization. The invention of the movable type printing press in the early fifteenth century by Gutenbergs marked the beginning of the early modern period (Kraynak, 2019). This invention saw increased levels 7 of literacy among the European population, which led to educational reforms. The invention of the printing press significantly enabled the spread of knowledge which spared the renaissance and protestant reformations. In the early stages of modernism, capitalism spread, transportation improved, nations became more powerful, politics became more uncertified, and knowledge became widely accessible. Faith in science at this point slowly began to replace the previous authority of churches and kings. Significant changes in politics, society, and the economy marked the end of the eighteenth century and the start of the late modern age. Industrial changes in Europe, France, and America, was a clear indication that the world was undergoing massive changes. The industrial revolution had significant and far-reaching consequences that resulted in fundamental economic, social, and cultural changes. In the nineteenth century, several important inventions such as the steam engine and the railways, among others, led to innovations across other significant industries. These inventions meant that the production of goods increased significantly, with the most significant changes coming out of the industrial revolution era been social in nature ("Ruins of modernity," 2020). The economy was now based on manufacturing and not agricultural production, which meant that people moved to cities with the new laborious turning to consumer goods, which led to increased production, leading to increased wealth with inequalities between classes growing. In America and France, modernism and revolution were inspired by the desire for representative democracy and national sovereignty, leading to a secular society's rise, thus the Age of Reason. The postmodern age had an effect on various fields, from political science to philosophy and literature. Another way post-modernity differs from the modern era because it questioned theories of totality that claimed to explain everything at once, such as Marxism, rationalism, fascism, rationalism, etc. These gave birth to totalitarian regimes in the twentieth century, such 8 as Hitler in Germany and Stalin in Russia. Diversity of human experiences was a significant feature of the postmodern era. In the West, the first half of the twentieth century in terms of modernity meant that there were new formats for thought, innovative ways of thinking and writing, the emergence of new art formats, incorporating women into male-dominated fields, and new areas of inquiry (Witoszek & Midttun, 2018). Assembly lines by Industrialists such as Henry Ford significantly influenced the modern world with the advent of photography, altering ays on inhabiting the environment for everyone. Technology is truly the distinctive feature of modernity; although theories on technology and modernity have significantly made strides in recent years, they still remain disconnected regardless of the apparent overlap. Modernism has fostered a new age of experimentation where modernists felt an increased alienation from the Victorian convention, optimism, and morality. New ideas in philosophy, phycology, and political policies triggered the search for new expression modes. At the beginning of the twentieth century, people had abandoned past conventions and styles favoring forms that were essential for the functional concerns at hand. Some scholars see modernism advancing into the twenty-first century, while others see it developing into late modernism. Postmodern movement into architecture and art in the late 1980s began establishing its position through several intermediary formats. Modernism encompasses a large variety of cultural trends. Modernism significantly stresses on experimentation, freedom of expression, primitivism, and radicalism and disregards conventional expectations. In his studies, Anderson (2019) notes that through the ideologies of these revolutionary minds, innovations such as electricity, automobiles, the incandescent light bulb, the combustion engine, radios, among other things, came to exist. The technological advancements ignited an 9 urge for more discoveries and innovations, giving rise to civilization. These innovations fastened the pace through which people perceived life and gave human beings optimism of creating an earthly paradise. Human beings were suddenly energized by all scientific and technological advancements, removing any limits through which they would traverse to ensure their lives are better than before (Ramet, 2018). Modernism took root and has since been deeply ingrained into the earthly cultures, and innovations have not stopped there. This has been a continuous process with no end in sight. Medicine The history of medicine is very complex and extensive. Modern conventional medical practices sometimes referred to as allopathic medicine, involve the use of drugs and surgery, often supported by lifestyle adjustments and counseling. Other complementary and alternative medicine types such as acupuncture, meditation, and traditional Chinese herbal medicine exist. Modern medicine started to emerge during the industrial revolution of the eighteenth century with rapid economic growth in Europe and America (Corbert et al., 2018). The rapid growth of cities in the nineteenth century saw public health measures developed to improve sanitary measures. The mid-twentieth century also marked significant new biological treatments such as the use of antibiotics. These advancements, coupled with developments in genetics, chemistry, and radiography, spearheaded modern medicine. Medicine became more professionalized in the twentieth century, with more opportunities opening up for women to work as nurses. The onset of the scientific revolution saw an overhaul in medicine and healthcare, which has seen significant innovations and advancements, such as the invention of the hypodermic needle mid1800s, penicillin in 1922, and the onset of organ transplant surgeries in 1954 (Castaglioni, 2019). 10 It is also true that innovations in the field of medicine have, according to Mao & Mooney (2015), increased an average human's life expectancy by almost 25%. This development is a significant milestone. Humans have learned the various approaches to virtually every disease that would have otherwise been hard to treat pre-modernity period. Even the highly contagious infections spread through contact and non-contact means can now be effectively managed because of pathology knowledge. Since the advent of modernity, human beings have learned to map DNA and carry out surgeries and corrective procedures. Other diseases, such as smallpox, have been entirely eradicated by systems put in place against such infections (Metzgar et al., 2015). Organs can now be transplanted, patients with respiratory conditions can be supported through invented machines, et cetera. A study done by Corbett et al. (2018) states that the advent of the digital age has been one of the most useful in revolutionizing medicine and healthcare in modern history. Computer technology has opened new and more advanced avenues of diagnosing, treating, and monitoring the progress of various conditions and diseases in medicine. Through these technologies, the lives of millions, if not billions of people, have been saved over the past half-century. From healthcare delivery, community outreach, patient record keeping, complex medical research, advancements in computer technologies have made healthcare more effective and efficient (Fleming, 2017). The use of computer-driven medical advancements has made it possible to map brain activity via MRI, do stem cell research, decode the human genome, use targeted therapies in cancer treatment, and even use hormone replacement therapy in hormone-deficient patients (Lambin et al., 2017). It has even been possible to reduce invasive surgery by adopting non-invasive surgical techniques (Mao & Mooney, 2015). Scientists have made rapid progress in identifying and preventing illnesses with more information on how bacteria and viruses work. 11 Digital technology has helped transform unstable healthcare situations into more stable ones by providing cheaper and faster solutions to medical queries. Technology has increased more potential ways of offering improved patient care in the healthcare community (Roman-Belmonte et al., 2018). Patients, courtesy of modernity and technological advancements, now have access to some of the best diagnostic tools (Fernández Pérez et al., 2017). There exist less invasive procedures compared to previous years resulting in less painful procedures and quicker healing. Radio Frequency identification RFID is modern technology that has helped improve patient care by disclosing information about a patient's vitals and temperature. Modernity in medicine has experienced digitality that has taken healthcare delivery to the next level. Modernity has seen significant developments in the medical field, such as robotic surgery, which minimizes invasiveness, wireless brain sensors that can be implanted in the brain, dissolve when no longer needed, 3-D printing of prosthetics, artificial organs, and telehealth. In a digital world, most people prefer digitally led services instead of face-to-face appointments with doctors that are time-consuming (Milan et al., 2017). Advancements in technology have also made it possible for more people to access healthcare through mobile clinics. Modernism has also seen more medical inventions happen in recent years, such as pacemakers connected to the heart to remedy the issue of disconnection between patients and their cardiac treatment. Physics Physics essentially involves the study of matter, energy, and their interactions (Davidovits, 2019). Knowledge acquired from the study of physics has been employed in making various innovations such as the automobile and the construction of modern architecture. Modern physics developed in the early twentieth century, with notable branches of physics being general 12 relativity, specific relativity, and quantum physics. These have greatly improved the way people live in the modern world. Through his theory on gravity first published over one hundred years ago, Albert Einstein provided an avenue through which many scholars began questioning the existence of unexplained forces of energy (Anderson, 2016). Other areas such as the Big Bang's cosmology, nuclear bombs, black holes, nuclear magnetic resonance, the beginning of microelectronics, and telecommunications were relatively unknown. Still, the evolution of physics has made understanding these phenomena more tenable (Satish, 2016). However, more needs to be done to understand the forces behind some of these phenomena completely. One hundred years ago, no one could at the slightest have anticipated modern physics, and likely no one did. Still, the strides the world has taken in understanding natural phenomena have been tremendous. Electricity and nuclear physics marked modern physics with their application happening in our everyday lives. The application of modern physics is observable in new inventions such as the microwave, keyless cars, and medical diagnostics such as X-rays that help us understand how the body works ("Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Physics has been crucial in increasing man's knowledge of how the world functions and epitomes rationalism, bringing into context observations and experiments such as space exploration. Humans try to discover new life outside Earth. Together with other sciences, physics has greatly influenced material aspects of the way we live today (Gudmundsson et al., 2020). Elon Musk, a physics entrepreneur, can be considered a significant influence in modern physics with designs and innovations that further push humanity's abilities. His inventions include space X, commercial space exploration, and tesla cars that are electric and environmentally friendly. Advancement in aspects of physics has significantly revolutionized the way things are done, primarily in the production industry (Maamoun, 2021). Manufacturing has increased, fostering 13 the culture of consumerism. Physics has also been applied in the agricultural sector to replace labor that shifted to urban areas. Astronomy Astronomy is an ancient, multidisciplinary field that bears a representative of all the other sciences. This field has also seen many renowned scientists in history base their scientific contributions, including Copernicus and Galileo. Through the Copernicus model, they shifted the Earth from the center of the galaxy. Kepler then furthered this by studying and documenting the sun's orbiting bodies (Willis, 2017). Astronomy did not make any significant advancements in medieval Europe. In the seventeenth century, the birth and expansion of Islam led to the flourishing of Jewish and Arabic cultures that preserved and the astronomical ideas of the Greeks, such as studying the stars (Morrison, 2019). Copernicus initiated an intellectual revolution such as the displacement of the Earth from the universe. Galileo Galilei pioneered many of the modern scientist concepts such as experimentation, observation, and measuring hypotheses through qualitative measures carefully. Galileo made significant contributions in the field of mechanics action of forces on bodies and motion study (Attridge, 2019). Galileo also studies how objects accelerate, change direction or speed; formulate newfound laws in precise mathematical terms that make future experiments possible. Ideas from Copernicus and Galileo began the revolution in how we conceptualize the cosmos (Xia et al.,2019). These have significantly contributed to advancements made regarding the study of the cosmos and space exploration as humans search for alternative sources of life. Another famous scholar who was inspired by observations in astronomy is Sir Isaac Newton. Even in the field of economy, 14 astronomy was as necessary due to its role in navigation. It is through the expeditions by Captain Cook that the "Transit of Venus" was observed. Similarly, Charles Darwin's voyage guided by astronomical studies was influential in documenting flora and fauna from the Pacific islands and Australia (Fleming, 2017). This early interest in astronomy led people to think about changes in time and seasons and develop methods to predict these variants' changes. This was made possible through the universe's cycles, the sun's movement around the sky, and the planets' predictability (Borowitz & Battat, 2016). Over the years, astronomy's broad appeal has evolved, with humanity still expanding their knowledge about the sun, stars, and sky and what lies beyond that. This has led to many exciting discoveries, with SpaceX and NASA taking a leading role in building large constellations of communication satellites in space (Adhikari, 2019). A lot of funding has gone into building these space satellites, and information related to Earth from the satellites will go a long way in making discoveries in astronomy. Space exploration has also led to the search for new life on other planets. This evolutionary achievement has recently seen NASA's Perseverance Rover docking on planet Mars (Creech, 2020). This period of progress is an exciting time in the field of astronomy as more developments are projected to continue happening, with SpaceX projecting the commencement of space tourism soon and NASA reinvigorating their plans to take humans to the moon (Borowitz & Battat, 2016). Astronomy's essential role in space exploration can now be seen as a "spin-off benefit" from investment in vital astronomy research. Discussion 15 For a long time, science has always been linked with modernity. However, after the beginning of the twentieth century, people began appreciating that the modern world's existence had a lot to do with modern science and the innovations made due to science (Anderson, 2016). It is believed that the scientific revolution began in Europe before spreading to other parts of the universe. The principle of science being a precursor to the modern world was expounded by Herbert Butterfield. According to Fleming (2017), Herbert argued that modernity was born in the period that signified the scientific revolution's onset. Herbert further argues that he had first to understand science to understand modern society - as a phenomenon. These conclusions are corroborated by Edmund Husserl and his followers, who add that the advent of the scientific revolution began in Europe before spreading to other parts of the world (Shapin, 2018). Many other renowned scholars from the political, social, and economic fields share the same sentiments. Science is a natural, multifaceted, and historical phenomenon in that it happens in five very distinctive media, technological, biological, linguistics, social and historical. Science never used to exist before modernity. In the West, science from the earlier era has distinctively evolved onwards, distinguishing it from the earlier forms of science activities (Wu et al., 2019). Over time modernity has become a model for not only the West but also its former colonies. The structure of modernity can be considered multidimensional, which Giddens argues that it has four institutional aspects: capitalism, industrialism, military power, and administrative power. The development of modernity can be accredited to both internal and external forces. For example, modernity in Europe was influenced by their colonies that provided raw materials and a new market for their products. This has made modernity a result of both internal and external forces. Modern societies are increasingly being characterized by their complexities, with 16 consumerism giving rise to new lifestyles that erode tradition. Power is a crucial constituent of modernity, with all social relations being characterized by power presence. Modernity is explained with reference to technology by the technological society During the early years, science was a unified discipline, but other disciplines such as physics, astronomy, and biology arose due to the scholars' differences in opinions and interests (Pollack & Rosta, 2017). Belief in the universal nature of science reinforced the idea of a single path to modernity. Ironically, the belief in science being universal turned out to be rather diverse. This is seen, for example, in the early UNESCO, which puts science in the center of its innovative modern culture, and making it the basis of rigorous modernization of the world like never seen before (Fleming, 2017). Over time, nations have embraced science due to their modernization ideas, ranging from science teaching in school, people taking up science disciplines professionally. This begs the question: Do the changes instituted in science, especially in physics, medicine, and astronomy after the famed scientific revolution in the early twentieth century, support the idea of modernity? It goes without saying-science has been the primary driving force towards modernity. Many scientific inventions in physics, astronomy, medicine, and other disciplines have gone a long way towards solving most of the problems humanity has faced over the years. The automobile and airplane, borne out of ideas amalgamated in science, have changed travel and the nature of the cities and towns we live in (Wellmer, 2018). These means of transportation have speeded up the movement of people and goods from place to place. In about 22 hours, it is now 17 possible to move from one end of the Earth to another. This idea was unimaginable before these inventions. It is also clear that knowledge on disease and infections has exponentially grown over the decades due to technological advancements in the field of medicine (Lambin et al., 2017). With this knowledge comes new approaches to disease prevention and treatment. Humankind has even been able to eradicate infectious diseases such as smallpox that had seen the loss of lives in the past (Metzger et al., 2015). Another latest example of a disease outbreak that would have seen the loss of more lives than has happened is the novel coronavirus which has ravaged every part of the world. Through increased knowledge on disease prevention, measures have been put in place to curb its spread, including manufacturing a covid vaccine expected to revolutionize how the disease is managed. Today, the system through which research and development lead to new medical products has evolved than it was in the nineteenth century. The roles bestowed on the scientists and researchers have been added to the power of technological innovations and scientific research (Davidovits, 2018). For sure, disease management has evolved with advancements into modernity. The incorporation of technology has also revolutionized the diagnosis of diseases in medicine. Computer imaging has made understanding human bodies' internal functioning possible, with imaging modalities such as CT scanning, MRI, and X-ray playing a significant role in it (Lambin et al., 2017). Staging of cancers and identifying metastases has been possible, bone deformities can be identified to the exact location, and even brain deformities can be easily identified (He et al., 2019). Computerized technology has also made surgery progressive, and it 18 is now possible to monitor the patient's vitals and easily access internal organs through noninvasive techniques. Newer developments are also integrating robotic technology into surgery (He et al., 2019). This is evolutionary, and it provides human beings with better ways of tackling the disease. Space exploration has also led humankind to new heights in astronomy. There are reinvigorated efforts by huge companies such as NASA and SpaceX to revolutionize how man perceives space, and these are among the most exciting times in astronomy (Adhikari, 2019). Through technological advancements that have been seen in astronomy, human beings have gone a step further. The recent docking of NASA rovers to Mars in an attempt to search for life beyond Earth has been lauded as visionary (Creech, 2020). Modernity has made it possible to explore space further, and over the coming years, these advancements will see space tourism become a thing. The continuous search for new insights into science has seen the development of nimbler, tougher, and stable structures than seen before. Knowledge amalgamated from computer and information technology science has seen the computer and other forms of communication, such as optic fibers, bring new, interactive modes of work and more capable machinery (Pollack & Rosta, 2017). These new devices and inventions have seen a high spread of knowledge in the modern world. Accumulation of scientific knowledge and new technologies has transformed human life. Technologies have helped provide many- though not all-people with standards of warmth, cleanliness, nutrition, medical care, transportation, and enlightenment, far beyond those who lived centuries ago. Therefore, it is safe to say that science has played a crucial role in achieving modernity throughout the world. 19 However, modernity is not without its challenges. As man attempts to emerge into a new, modern world that celebrates his achievements and innovations in multiple levels such as economy, science, politics, and technology, he overlooks some challenges that make the results he is after less appealing. Modernity has also seen a shift of power from the people to the governments, with power shifting from democratic leaders to certain military, scientific and military elites. Challenges of modernity deal with a perplexing issue such as economic globalization, the prospect of ecological collapse, and mass society. We will discuss a few: 1. Secularization- This has been one of the greatest undoing of modernity since its inception. Before, people had faith in the influence of divine beings in the way Earth functioned. Secularization has been the most significant marker of modernity with the loss of faith and belief in divine forces. Humans have put more energy into the understanding of nature through the use of reason. Modernity has killed God with less focus on the supernatural as problems that are more human have been worked out in laboratories (Rider et al., 2018). Prayers and offering sacrifices were a form of worship, and it is through these activities, human beings believed their prayers would be answered. Omens and worship of gods were observed, but this culture began fading and being eliminated after the onset of modernity. The onset of modernism systematically challenged all these religious beliefs, practices and institutions, while changing them for reason and science (Asmolov, 2016). As Max Weber termed it, modernity caused a "disenchantment of the world and its beliefs." Now, man believes that he can influence their lives through the innovations he makes in the different disciplines, which has led 20 to a loss of faith in God's divinity, and a large chunk of the population share that thought. Man believes that he can shape his future through laboratories, not prayers, prophecies, and revelations. 2. Cost of living- Perhaps the most challenging result of the inventions that have been made is making the cost of living skyrocket (Kenny, 2016). Coming up with innovations to make life easier and progress towards modernity is an expensive undertaking that requires many resources pumped into these projects. To use the car, one has to buy or pay to rent, same to the use of medicines manufactured to treat disease, technology developed, and everything else invented as humankind progresses towards modernity. It is almost ironic that, as the innovations meant to simplify man's life multiply, so does the cost of using them. Eventually, this has led to an increase in living costs, which shows no sign of slowing down. This has put a significant burden on those who cannot afford these products. With the continued inventions that might soon become necessities, people will be expected to spend more on technological devices to make life easier. With the current global pandemic of Covid 19, a culture of working from home has been solidified, but this is a costly approach since one will need devices such as the internet, a smartphone, and a computer. The cost of living has significantly been affected by modernity as people aspire to improve their living standards. Purchase and maintenance of these technologies put a cost burden on the owners. Technology is costly, making it inaccessible to some people that might need it, especially in Africa and Asia. 3. Erosion of culture – Karl Marx was a proponent of the modernization theory, and in his works, he claimed that economically developed countries showed the future to the 21 less developed societies (Anderson, 2016). This highlights how, in the process of change and advancement to modernity, societies imitated those ahead in achieving modernity. A good example is Africa. In the pursuit of modernity, most African societies have lost their cultural identity. Before, these practices were passed down from one generation to the next, but that has changed. Generations have adopted western world practices instead of attaining modernity, seeing a loss of traditional African practices (Sater, 2016). The cultural identity of many Africans has been affected by modernity, with most of this new learning happening from watching television programs that depict western culture. A significant number of Africans no longer dress as African way, putting many Africans at crossroads (Mesui et al., 2019). Many young Africans are growing up with a clear understanding of their culture or the western culture. 4. Cybercrime – One of the drivers to the modern world was making technological advancements that would spur changes that make life easier. This vision has been possible through the exponential growth of internet interconnectedness in the world (Davidovits, 2018). However, it has seen the development of cyber-attack situations that are often disastrous. By using malware that targets even the most secure servers, maintaining cybersecurity continues to be a challenge. The increased dependence on computer networks and information technology solutions by infrastructures in the society have contributed to continuous cyber-attacks that have seen companies lose billions of money and vast amounts of data in the process (Kenny, 2016). Organized syndicates worldwide are making billions of dollars from businesses by carrying out coordinated cyber-attacks. Some attackers focus on sealing and selling secure data and 22 identifiable information that they use to disrupt operations. Regardless of the sophisticated attacks, agencies still support the digital transformation to keep up with changes and demands. Modernization has resulted in the evolution of modern financial crime cells made up of a variety of people from coders to inside people that corporate to install malware. With more people adopting the use of technology and more people venturing into the information technology field, cybercrime becomes a crucial problem that needs to be addressed (Van de Weijer et al., 2018). Very soon, people will be able to have modern technology such as self-driving cars and stand the risk of being hacked and misused. The internet has also made it easier for illegal business transactions to be carried out through the dark web, such as arms deals, sales of drugs, and human trafficking. Cybercrime has become more advanced with the rising concern of information privacy, as revealed by Snowden. More desires to be done to ensure the cybersecurity systems used by institutions and organizations are safe from online cyberattacks. 5. Evolution of war – It is safe to say that war makes states, and states make war. In a literal sense, the beginning and end of world wars I and II during the twentieth century led to a reorganization of world powers. This reorganization largely depended upon the military power possessed by these nations (Ramet, 2018). Many countries have then moved to a nuclear age to keep this status as leading world powers that have seen the governments amass huge nuclear power stores in readiness for any eventualities. This evolution makes the onset of another major war dreaded and for the right reasons. The fear is due to the depth of nuclear power, war machinery, and many nations might possess military in the present-day (Zammitto, 2017). Technological inventions will 23 make war even worse, with technology shaping warfare. Technology has been the key source in military innovations and drives changes in combat more than any other aspect. Warfare is significantly defined by technology, with air combat to have even been available before the twentieth century. Over the past decade, information warfare has become a key concern in the twenty-first century, with information and its dissemination in the digital era becoming vital and strategic resources. Information warfare is basically an attack on control and command systems, cyberwar, operational security, and electronic warfare. Hacking warfare, physiological warfare, and information warfare. There has been a diversification into biological warfare that adds to the evolution and preparedness for war. With the current military advancements, a war in the twenty-first century can only be considered catastrophic, and it might lead to human aniellation. The catastrophic effects that might arise from the use of these weapons can only be imagined. Modernism raises a very crucial concern on what nation can do with their current and sophisticated weapons if warfare ever broke out between them 6. Intimacy in family and friendships. In modern society, intimacy and family have significantly been transformed, with sexuality now separated from reproduction. Marriage and legitimacy no longer bond sexuality. Love and sexual attraction have become the driving forces for contracting marriages, with marriage ceasing to perform its traditional economic function. According to Giddens, children have now become financial burdens rather than economic benefits since their rights are now enshrined in law with parents obliged to take care of their children regardless of their living condition still they are or legal age. 24 As marriage becomes more of a commitment to stabilize fragile relationships, it has ceased to be an exclusively heterosexual affair. Same-sex marriage and cohabitation have become viable alternatives (Crockett, 2017). Pure relationships in the West have given people the freedom of who to love but are very unstable compared to the past. 7. Tradition Tradition in the West has not been immune to the globalization effect brought about by modernity. Traditional history provided a framework for action to people with recent modernity, making tradition more obsolete (Zamudio-Taylor, 2019). People no longer feel obliged to consider tradition as people invent and choose their own identities, which has diluted identity and unity. Modernity has rendered many traditions obsolete. 8. Class differences and emergence of social groups Modernization has had adverse effects on the development of social life. In addition to the economic gap created by modernism, social inequalities have also emerged with creating divided social classes (Epstein, 2017). The poor tend not to interact with the poor who have less access to modern facilities. This has also resulted in increased criminal activities as people try to bridge the social gap experienced in the twenty-first century. 9. Health Issues People in the consumerism age have become more ill and fat, as they tend to exercise less with the invention of scooters and electric bikes that make movement more accessible and more convenient. It is frustrating realizing that humans are becoming more fragile with the continued modernity. More mental health issues have been reported in teenagers, such as depression that is accredited to technological advances 25 such as social media. Most teenagers have access to the internet, which has created an avenue for cyberbullying, which has been proven to push people to suicidal points (Gunawan et al., 2020). Adolescents are the most vulnerable group suffering from the adverse effects of modernization. For instance, the development of individualism where kids do not socially interact with people anymore. Youth morality has also been significantly affected by modernity with more access to the internet, which exposes them to-rated information easily. Conclusion The scientific revolution that was ongoing in the nineteenth century in Europe was a major driving force towards modernity that has now spread to all parts of the world (Anderson, 2016). Humankind has continuously strived to look for newer and better ways to make their lives easy and, in the process, spurred numerous changes in the field of science. In perspective, revolutionists in physics, astronomy, and medicine have played a vital role in the innovations now seen in these fields. Modernity has seen new, innovative ways of fighting disease developed. The increase in knowledge on disease and infections has led to eradicating otherwise life-threatening infections, with millions of lives being saved ((Wellmer, 2018). Studies in physics have acted as a precursor for inventions that the modern world enjoys now, including computerized technology that has been essential in many disciplines. Through this research, automobiles and aeroplanes have been developed to revolutionize transport and movement around the world. It has also led to the invention of space crafts, rockets, and rovers, which have made space exploration possible. With the continued curiosity by human beings comes more innovations that further propel humanity towards a modern society that is self-sufficient and sustaining. Despite the challenges facing this desire to achieve modernity than previously 26 imagined, the changes in science over the last decades have provided a giant leap towards attaining modernity (Pollack & Rosta, 2017). 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