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Homework answers / question archive / What two social challenges now facing Japan will have the most important impact on its future development? Choose from problems discussed in the the assigned chapters in the text and the following videos and explain why you think they are the most significant, citing your sources and replying once to a classmate

What two social challenges now facing Japan will have the most important impact on its future development? Choose from problems discussed in the the assigned chapters in the text and the following videos and explain why you think they are the most significant, citing your sources and replying once to a classmate


What two social challenges now facing Japan will have the most important impact on its future development? Choose from problems discussed in the the assigned chapters in the text and the following videos and explain why you think they are the most significant, citing your sources and replying once to a classmate.

(Repopulating a Japanese Town, 2019) (Links to an external site.) 

(What's Life Really Like for Women in Japan 2016) (Links to an external site.) 

(Immigrants Could Be the Solution to Japan's Population Crisis) (Links to an external site.) 

NYC x L NYC X * L K * (4 x 2 (4) Box Das X Jap: x PJap. x Top > » NYC 4: The Economic Miracle The coonomic mircle refers to the spectacular economic growth recorded by lapan during the 1950s and 1960s. Japan rude phoenix-like out of the ashes of war to build a world-class economy. This wils certainly not an anticipated or likely outcome. Most of Japan's large cities had heen reduced to rubble and its industrial capacity had been decimated by sustained serial hombing. Adequate housing was in short supply, food was scarce and these problems were aggravated by the return of same 7 million Japanese troops and civilians scattered around Asia. Japan was a nation without capical, raw materials or friends. What went richt! The Development State Gosci shido. Administrative guidance. A reference to the informal manner in which bureaucrats wielä their bread regulatory and discretion-nrypowersco ensure corporaire compliance with government goals and policies. Implicit is the threat to use those powers in a manner harmful to those who do not comply. Johnson 1982) argues that the key factor in explaining Japan's economic miracle was the not-so-invisible hands of state-sponsored development (Doc. 4, pp. 123-6). According to Johnson, the Ministry for Internation. Trade and Industry (MITI) played the main part in orchesimtini, cronomic growth by channelline low-cost loans and ocher support to targeted sectors of the economy. This process of picking winners was not infallible, but was often very effective in nurturing the towth of industrica in promising are:15. Ara time when capital was scarce and foreign exchange was stricely controlled. MITI sponsorship had a significant impact. In addition, MITI had a key inic in brokering technology licensing deals with US corporations on attractive terms, thus sparing Japanese firms the time and cost of research and development. The government also helped by encouraging cartels to avoid cxcessive comperition and by supporting a variety of protectionist practices that helped reserve the domestic market for domestic producers. MITI and other ininistries often exercised conerol through Doszi shido. This informal approach amounted to strong suggestions about desired actions, policies or results and it was in the best interests of the recipient of such advice to comply or risk facing the troubles chat powerful burcauerats could cause. Favourable Factors W The media dubbed Japan's rapid recovery from the war and high growth between 1955 and 1973 as the commomic miracle', but scholars have taken issue with chis char.ctcrization. This is not to diminish the success, but rather to place that success in historical context. In examining the factors favouring postuar cconomic growth in Japan it is important to bear in mind that Japan was an industrialized nation before the war and already possessed advanced technological knowledge. Thus, even though the nation was devastated by the war. Japan's cconomic recovery was relatively quick because it had a reservair of experienced policy-makers, businessmen and scicntific experts to draw an. Instinitions and policies mattered a great deal because Japan had little margin for error in its stritened circum ces. During the war the bureaucracy ained exer:ordinary powers to mobilize the nation's scarce resources in order to deploy them most effectively. Under what is known as the 1940 system, the Japanese economy was tightly managed and planned by the hurdaucrats who wielded their powers to maximize Japan's industrial capacity. Under the American Occupation, many of these same bureaucrats continued to exercise power because the Americans ruled indirecrly through the Japanese bureaucracy. Johnson argues that the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers SCAP) kent this wartime economic system largely intact, conferring extensive regulatory nowers on the economic ministries. Through this power over the allocution of resources, the government directed the course and pace of national economic recovery. The men who had maxitnized Japan's scarce resources durinst the war were well prepared for their role in orchestrarins che miracle. Bureaucratic continuity favoured ranid growth because of the accumulated institutionnl expertise in implementing economic policies under adverse conditions. It also helped that corporate Japan had also worked within this system and knew the rones, In addition, SCAP had a critical and positive rolc in creating favourable conditions for growth. Japanese reparations were minimized and carly plans to strip Japan of its remaining industrial plant and equipment were sempped in invour of promotina Japanese growth in accordance with Cold War nims. There was no equivalene to the Marshall Plan chnc had jump-started cconomia recovery in Europe because there was little support for using Americnn tnxpayers' money to support Japan. Instead, the United States stabilized Japanese kovemment finnndes nnd fixed the exchange mic at a low level (360 ¥= So favournble for exports. The land reform played a critical part in boostino food production and crenting a growing middle class of consumers for the as Sany and lond?. products of Jananese industry Cohen. rgy). The Americans also succeeded in loosening the dominance of the stibus, permitting the emergence of some of Japan s leading companies, such Yoshida Shigeru (1974-1967): The second most influential postwar politician after Kikuci Tanakn, he twice served as prime minister (1946-47) 1646-1). I le surudringly enncted liberal Occupationem reforns and resisted US pressures to rearms, arguing thac Japan's precarious nic situation precluded newivina milimary brous. The war procurements by the American military during the Korean War (1950-53) are often eredited with pulling Japan out of a dire posowuar necession and putting the coonomy aun asteen growth trajectory. Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida referred to this carimated $5 billion windfall as a xift from the ends beduse austerity mensuru nnosed by the United Smres in 1940, known as the Dodge Line, had drastically shrunk domestic demand and chrontened to stifle recovery. War on the peninsula provided a muchneeded stimulus Dodge Line: Joseph Dodge, a Detroit-based banker, was brought in by SCAP and recommended tight fiscal discipline and monetary contraction in 1949 to rein in hyperinflation. Il called for a balanced national budget, more cfficient tax collection and job cuts in the public sector. I lis policies omed inflation, bur sent the economy intoa recessionary callspin. Check in with our community and inin the dinou Jap: x . x PJap. x C Top x S Vie x Das X (4) x @ (4) X NYC XL KEM X NYOX LNYC X Yoshida Shigeru IS-3-1967): The second most influential postwar politician affer Kakuci Tanaka, he tried served as printe minister (1946-17, 1941-14). Ile grudgingly enacted liberal Oturation cra reforms and resisted US pressures to renruz, araling thic Japan's precarious devenuenic situation precluded raviving odlicnry forces. The war procurements by the American milimry during the Kinrean War (1950-59) are often credited with rolling her but di a dire postwar recession and putting the economy on a steep growth trajectory. Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida referred to this estimated S3 billion windtall as a gift from the pau" Heenuse austerity measures imposed by the United States in 1940, known as the Dodge Line, had drastically shrunk domestic demand and thronteaed to stifle recovery. War on the peninsula provided a much-neededoimulus. Dodge Line: Joseph Dodge, a Detroit-based banker, was brought in by SCAP and recommended right fiscal discipline tria monetary contraction in 1949 03 rein in hyperinflation. Ile alled for a balanced narinnal hudret, more eficient tax collection and job cuts in the priblic sector. I lis policies camca inflation bene che cronomy inton necessidairy milapin. Unhindered access to the US market and technology also played a key part in Japan's growth spurt. The us market provide a crucial economies of scale while licensing of US techndleg on tanumhle terms Sived Japanese companis enormous research and development expensc5. US commies were inclined to license their technolon because the business opening environmcar in lapin wis niet nourable for foreign firms. Restrictions on land ownership, foncien exchana 150 rorit repatriation, in addition a low consumer demand, discouraged angst foreign finns from cheablishing operations in Japan, an outcome that was consistent with the governantis protectionis inclinations. In addition, the US government was cages to promote Japan's carmic success in order to further its Cold War aims and had a role in expedicing the travel rechy Direcrare din chellicifiche is also true that Japanse insure qui sera adert recent technoku isalinmations than their foreign counterparts. Technology that was developed into mais pidly disseminated on the plant florin laun's factories as the surse their goal of her mening DDTitve ind overtaking the W&t. In this resear the war der station proved an opportunity as Japan had to rebuild most of its industrial clintond calipin-nt frain smatch. Thusi Jananese industrial plants were, on avan mere modern and had mare advanced technology than was the case in the United Sraces where there was coluency in Newtinje arreplacint, ascing facilitics of production lines. The air thuis inadverte ile nada kay mile in modernizing Japxin's factories. Ilich leels of literis among the Japanese and a good educational system helped make this possible. The mani de ei channel and dissemination of new technologies in Iachoties necessitated constiime job airing and opamding of skills, 1 task mnde casier by widespread litcracy anonslamaals blue-collar workers. It also held the workers come to enjoy relatively secure employment and did not feel threatened by the intraduction of new technologies. The spread of an implicit lifetime employment systein after the Scoond World War facilirared saree aceepping of laboures mund technologies that were resisted and became a focal point of unrest in Licher industrialized ihrions. Japan also bentired from having new frontiers at home and abroad. Rebuilding the economy and developin: the ninterland of Japan proved a powerful stimulus, as did the musik migration of young Japanese from those hinterlands to urban areas. This migration sparked damand for housing, transportation and consumer goods. Overstas, suddenly, by the 1960s. Japanese consumer electronics hegan to take world markets by scorm. These markets represented 1 new frontier char Japanese miporters, most mezbly in autos and electronics, have been successiullo caprine ever since. Comarlanean also hencficct from the Adincon sih savings inre of the Japanese incople. In che mid-1950s the savinis race of families was absur 12. Aslindnes muse over the course of the mince 50 did their sayings, averaging af diisinasable income by 1974, more than quadruple the American rite Allinsen. 1997100. . People savcd because they were accustomed to: frugality and until Ighi there was no mandatory medical insurance or social security system and social welfare programmes were limited. In ad-lition, lard and housing was relatively expensive and in puruit at the ubiquitous My Ilome Dremnot whing one's own house chere has been n strong tendency to save. There are other reasons why Japanese tend w have a high živings nate, but the Consequence is a large paal of capital that is almost all saved in bank or postal savings accounts. Even in the Inte soyas, less than or of Japanese owned stocks or bonds. Covernment policy kept interest mtex on bank iccounts lou, meaning that corporate homowers could also borrow 11: low thies. Thus, the high savings rare ind a government decision m favour producers over cansunrs by keeping interest rares low suve Jarnacse firins 1 competirive core in terms of the east and capital. In eananding and muxternizing prediction facilities and adopting new technclogies, this proved an important factor in the sides of lapan Inc Nako: The seriority system inac has determined unges and promotions, but is nou no longer sacrosanct is firms shifrgowards i mire merituriented suscem. The 50-called three jewels of the Japanese employment system - lifetime craplayment, seniority sanes and enterprise unions are often cited as important factors in propalline economic growth. Lifetime employment and the naniko waze system Sorked to the murtul havaninge of workers and employers, Markers mained job ceurity and steady ware increases whil-employers cultivated the lovalty, commitment and skills of their workers. Iin-house training programmes onle handeleshnginsid senso iftirins could count on keepin, their skilled employees, and in this regard the lifetime emplayment system succeeded. Job security also facilitired the introduction of new khour alvima, productivitseenhancing technologies because unions and workers did not feel threntened by innowanion: The seniority wie system also wis bised on con mic logic. Linder this system soung workers are paid relatively little in exchange for the promise that once they reach a ceruilin level of seniority they will be rewarded for their Irsyalty with relatively high wages. Thus, inicial wales are usuanlly nigged below worker productivity, but evenrunlly rise to exceed worker productivity. This system is also been to suit the life-cycle income reds of werkers boosting Weaizes when they reach their Inrties ar sa cimd when wearinus family related exhcases usually risc. Pur employers. this system made sense herause in the riterinath of wir, when conical was stairce, thic revalence of new workers meant chacune delays weng kenelow. This conferred a ainmnericive ad unnaic on Japanese firmas, ar leist urrtil the 196 pramid of the workforce in the late games shifted other is older imore expensiveland laks minductivewirkers who were also relatively less adepe with the proliferating new technderies, Enterprise unions helped ensure 1 minimum of labour nurmoil. In the lare iguos and crcly chos Japan cxpcrichcoa crind of Innense Inhour condict that is difficule to reconcilc with perceptions that harmony is a tradicional characteristic of employment relacions in Janin. Ridical unians frequently crafted in work stoonases strikes and factory takeovers while employers struck back with che normal array of union-busting mehsures, often with the complicity of government oficials and rhe help dit manistero Icin, 1990. hutine, 1999: Thkemac, 2002). In the end, the firms prevailed, weeding our activists and unminj the labour mawernent by establishing in-house union. This created a forum for due comptnmisch input information sharing and confidence-building measures that helped forge close bonds between workers and managers. The rehcivelischee of bitter labour disputes and the cooperative spirit engendered in the workplace have contributed to lapan's cconomic succesa, It is also clear thar low spending on social security and defende favoured recowery because there was little diversion and scared funds into such prorrommes. The governmene relied on this United States to provide military security and on companies to offer job security. There was an inclination to pide the burden of social scaurity on the family tapping into Confucian values of filial piety and traditions that placed great importance on the family uflir. The needs of the retired, and and infirin were considered the duty of the family with minimal government nacismnde. It was only in the late 1970s charlaban initiaoed extensive social welfare noliciesi. Jap: x PJap. x Top 5 vies | Das X ES (4) X 30 LIKEV X NYOR NYC X LNYC X Q One of the great achievements of rapid monomic krowth in Jairin has been in limiting income disparities but it has been uneven, marticularly in terms of the employment conditions, job 5eclurity and wages offered by small and nadium-sized businesses and subcontractors Japan's top corporations, such as Sony, Ilondii. Toyota and Troshiha, represent the most modern and advanced firms. The system of implicit lifetime employmencand the other sinjuisites of full-time employment are venerally limited to slich moderni, large corporations and erwer less than 3% of the workforce. The majority of Jamhese workers are not employed at these CONTACons and do not thigy the same 12 OH-ulrity and wares as their counterkurs in the dominant corpmtions. During business dawneurns, small and medium-sisza firms, many of which are subcontractors of cabally renere med finishyatt workers, cut back on arcrrim-, trim bonuses which can raich some five months of annual salary) and make other such adjustments. When assessing the success of large companies like Toxin, it is important to hear in mind that the paris-producing subcontracbars are dexendent and vulnerable. They are often asked to shoulder many of the cuthick and costs hereditated by slack business. In clicet insulating the core Forkorte from the vicissitudes af the business cycle. Click a highing BSB a son Non-regular workers: Various careteries of workers who are not regular, full-time workers. This include Barc-time, contract, temporaryland dispatched whilers Many of these workers work long hours, sometimes more than forry hours a week, but by hiring then, under claese different conditians the aim onu have money bunt contributing to social insurance benches mying low varsind no bonuses, bonuses tan equal five months of salary for full-time workers. These wuikersare al contingent workers, meaning the van be fired if the finendecides ir does not need their services. Jab protection for regular workers is relatively strong in Japan. Younger Erkers and women are disatorrionately represented in the ranks or nonegular TIS. Since the logos, che rrotatical non-egular workers, those working on fixed term contrers Without job security, seniarity wire increases is atherbcriclits, has increased dramatically. As of 2004, non-regular workers acount for 4.1% of the workforcc, up from 20% in 1992 and 10.13 in ross. Between 1952 and 2016, the number of fat - Markers declined by a million while the number at tan-regular workers Teased by 3.087 million. These marginalized workers played aperitthen sole in the economini miracle ander time have become a more significant segment of Tarzan's labour market that helps explain wiècning disparities. Growth As Ideology The income doubliar plan announced by Prime Minister Ikeda in 1960 symbolizes the commitment of the macrnment tornou that all costs. This tacoling of Ontin hecame the militang and unifying idecipy of the dominant LDP. It was an enormously moular programme that penental a unified vision and was made possible by sustained overnment intervention. The stimulus af massive public works associated with the 1904 Tokyo Olympic Games spurced frowth bevon:1 ambitious targets while che success of these Games was taken as confirmation that Japan had recovered from the war and rc-entered the communicy of nations. I lowever, as discussed in Charter n. the handy sears of double-digie crowth broushe Japan both the beaches and costs of a mature connomaroviding a reminder that the sun als ac?s. The Setting Sun During the 1978s the fomunes of the Jarancse economy dimmed for a variety of reasons. The ideology of growth was na: langer as compelling and the cryingamental costs of the 'miracle" stirred a popular backlash acainst unfeitered development More importantly, Jaran wis rocked by the rapid surje in vil priecs orchestrated by OPEC in tore. The oil price rise fuelled inilation, raised production costs, sparked industrial cuthick: and caused recession in the economics of Japan's trading partners. This jote ta the Japanesc economy was precedc? by the decision of che lnited States contandon thic Tac Brotton Woods system of fixed exchange rates in 1970 which ludico in angreciation in the value athen. Theven had been pored at 300 to the US dollar since the Darumation and this relativelelow ale helped stimulate demand for Japan's exprees. As a result of the US decisioned the value of the ven rose mato to the dollar in 1971 and since then there has beenan extended rise in the value of the ven. Tot lapan, the results were mixed. Imported natural nesmurues hecime cheaper in vend terms, thus helping firms lower production costs and therefore expo DICES, I haver, the ven's appreciation raised the cost of Jamnec products in ouerscas mirkers, Oil shock The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Gountrics (OPEC instituted an oil embargo in 1989 in protest of us support for Israel in the hom Kippur War. This led to substantál incre 1528 in global oil price from 8: i barre tu Stan barrel. Aside from the Israel anele OPEC sought It offsee the decline in their real income due to the devalurinn af chú US dollar after it toil prices are peenied in the US dolduri As a consequence of rapid growth in 105=s and ighos, Japan in the topios had become a nature daunamy. I had already taped into the dynamism of the contestigandi versuris new franticrs' mentioned abwe and in the absence of fresh frontiers suns unable to suistain such high levels with. In kddition to confronting the limitsisi siroch Johan was experiencing heightened comparirion in export markets for heavy industrial produces such as sted and shipbuilding. Regional rivals such as Korea and Triwan had an edge on lahour cases and were quickly climbing the technolopical ladder, closing the gap with Japin. The gwerment sponsored a political sollition to this cronomie moblem by switching from a policy o nicking innens no a policy favouring recession Cartels with subsidies and tax breaks for 'auinset" industries Kica, baht. This approach proteired jobs, but postponed the restrueniring the connamy hnd made Japan a high-ons coonomy, farding domestic exporters to rely on relatively expensive dumnestic imput: Thiaminant thar Jamans landing companies carried its lasing companies. In the wake of the sharp appreciation of the yen in igés, this situation became even less viable, forcing caparring companies coloser omdagrion duris by Racing production in Cities bffshore. In toimid the hubris of the bubble economy, when the Japanese économic jugernaut seemed unstoppable and comment on spoke ofax Ninnonica Ammouda Tenis Sets, MT Japan Will Nor Be Number One (1959) seemed poorly rimed. Since then, his analysis has proved prescientiabatic the schor have belemmered Jaran since the 1000s IDac. 5, pp. 126-7| Continue assignment (there are 4 more parts) Chack in with our community and inin the discussions in our forums 1, Top X + G Vie x P Japx 1? Japa x x Das X ??? ?, ? (4) X ? (4) X ?? L KEIX NYC X © LNYC X NYC X All sommer GOVT/POL OF CHINA AND JAPAN > Japan in Transformation, 1945-2010 Clicka tighlight ?????????? hal ply and tradits th:? ? ???T? 1I???????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??:15 ????: T????, «???? ???? ? ? ??? ???? ?? ?1-? ?? ? ? ? ? ????? ???????? 11 41 51=Latic It was caly in the late 1ozas thar lapan initiaced extensive sedint efTe policies, ????? Was also furth??` ?? ???????? 11-????? (???????11 ?: ???: ???? ??????ri MILE The rics: ?? ( ??T?-????????? ? ? ???????, ?? ???rtur : ????????? ??? ?? TOEc-dependent Dation like Japan. This meint that the burning energy requirements of Japanese industry did not have much of an immer win the costs piction. In nddition, the world connomy in peneral experienced relatively robust growth, creating and markets for Japanese exports. It was important that Japan enjoyed tree husss turithe US marked and that there was an improving global trading environment in which levels of protectionism were declining significantly and extensively under the auspices of the General Meement on Trades and Theis GATT) which was launched in 1948. With US support, Janan jaired membership to QATT in 10ls. Adversarial Trade Some commencions arque chin as Japan tapped into export markets, it kept its own marker i Tyrnotected. This unrconnotin boccernendo sidraciones international issu: immediately; nastly keenuse the United States chose to overlook such problems Lincoln, 1904: Prestito1990. I wiss me until the integrees that man first been a fun Sigridicart rate ????? ??h the United States Fel ??? It the Anscritir1 ????TIc11` ??s clircuts airlict W?? ?? ? ?-???? ?? 111-? ????? ::???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???????? ???: ?: ????ity, alliance Forsberg, 2006. In addition to maintaining cordial bilateral relations, the United States suhtled further in lar inspired otujenitis anathinapan linen the bulwark of the "free world in Asin Schöller. 14. Inicially through tariffs and the serice cantrol of the foreign excham that was need torlinchas ingests the characterech for setrlemene af international transicians), the Ravernment was able to reserve the domestic market for domestic brichiderek ancienneer vrouwen Kinirea acestei bestic producers could ?THuar Lorial- ? ?hantes.rulustrial Article at nite fixing A Crc toimited b) the sourn- ???: ??????? ?????:???1 1 1 1idunt u tur? ??...??????? ???` «??????t.nline Ins, the business graursd copether in the larre Industrial conglomerates - keittiskt - and be inc29ernment of Clinitenciare nenetraciones Japat banned to internative ressurs to lewer tariff barriers. Erities areut that ir fell back on pon-tariff barriers thar had the saune stilling impact on mort. These proantor cmndent pracrious pron sechsful in protecting the damestic market and spurring exports P'rascowitz, 1990). Japuncse exporters could subsidize experts from parere Hemed in the domesticingarkersberenices neeru enery higher than he hire du r- un himnarket ths hetirme an etFXMr platform subsidized hi Jrans's Protectionism benefited comprare labain at the expense of consumers who faced high prices. This is thought were observers the representative lancer Mantern in which prodiusers have ben seštemidically focused over consumers in Japan. In terms of various regulations, low interest raresLivers reedive muli neturras. Lernorarins hattowithe price fiind correls. product liabiliny, land use, infrastructure development, coc, ic is argued that the gavernment has routinely side with Jaman in the return inriche Lenefits bestowed on morcorare lapan. Jarance workers received ja seurity: a steadily improving standard of living and a shared sense of national success! A Dual Economy. One of the great achievements ofinpid onomic growth in Japan has been in limiting income disparities, but ir has been uneven. marcicularly in rerna if the employment conditions, job h?????? ???? ?, ?? ??ferta b = and dir- sud ???????ssue armed s???????cials. Jann's tonn enr??????????, ???? - ?????? ?????, ??????: ?:-??., ??? ??? «?? ??? ??? ard idvanced írnis. The aystem of implicit lifetime employihenitarid the other perquisites of full-time employment are generally limited or such inwaern, laru argousutions and cover less change 5 he W Orlera The nuilt- ? ?????? ???: - ret e In loud at th??? : Traricin: hrd In that cnny the In 1991 ev urit, e h???? ?? ?? rar in the trant ??Lists. ???? ???HH A:H nurs - Il -??? :?:-?: ????, ????? «1 whli are sucuartriart"TE cit lobal Teri ?????? (? ?? ????????: ??? ?, ?? ?? ire, trii which ein imich some five months hit Annual salarm and landke piher such adjustments. When assessing the success of lame companies like this is the tant to hear in mind that the parts-producing subcontricters are dependent and villnerable. They are often asked to shoulder many of the cutbracks lihoats necesiTULENTBYIsle business in effect insulating the core ?????? ?? ?? visitsits=> : ??-??: Ele. Non-regular pickers: Thri: us sats e nerkats hnarc treau-ic nekture. This 11:clulus met tival: to:, rur ?? ??????? ?r?:cs. Many others Worbus ??? ??????? TigtinentErlan 10 H 5 ??: ?? ?? ?? ?: ??? the statu? ??? ???????, ???????? ?? ??? ? ? ? ? ??????-? ? ?????? ???????: ????, 1?, ??? ??- ???? : ??RCH, Th== C.AS `using that the Eurb er=Thu? ? ? ? ?rsur uni ? ?? ?????? ?? ? ? ???????????: 25 11 «??? ??????:?d their survices. U? ?r teerin en utuTS-???? ? ?????? ????????????? ?c: 10, 11 ???? ??: ????????????????, IL: ? ???? ??? ?????? (lcTE . Sin the IggCs, the perc???? ?? ?cli-regular waters, rhurd 11 -? 11-rinutes li???? ? ???? ?????? ???????:: ?????? ?? ?? ?????????? 1 of zool, non-regular workers account for 34.18 of the workforce up for oine and thos, Bercenia and 60, the number of all time voorkeus dedined by milliou, while the number of non-regular workers increased b5.17 million. These mirnlife workers and the role in the comic unimate and Animal het hy ? ? ????? segment of Japan's labour market chut helps explain widening disparities Growth As Ideology The income doubling plan announced by Prime Minister Ikeda in topo symbolizes the commitment of the barvernment to prawch ac all cats. This idolof Nism became the mobilizing and unifying ideology of the dominanr LDP. It was an enormously ular programme chat generated a unified vision and is minder possible by sustained overnmene intervention. The stimulus of massive public works associated with the ro?a Tokyo Olympic Games spurred growth beyana ambicious carrers while tho success of those Games wing taken as conirmition that Japan had recovered from the war and re-entered the community of pacions. I lowever, as discussed in Chan the heady years of double-dirte growth brought Jaran both the benefits and Check in with our community and join the discussions in our forums

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