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Homework answers / question archive / Example (made up), Question 1: Explain how ELISA test detects either pathogens or antibodies to pathogens in the blood

Example (made up), Question 1: Explain how ELISA test detects either pathogens or antibodies to pathogens in the blood


Example (made up), Question 1: Explain how ELISA test detects either pathogens or antibodies to pathogens in the blood. Response: ELISA can be used as a direct test, or indirect test. A direct test uses bound antibodies made in the lab to the pathogen being tested for, and if the person is infected, the pathogen pieces (antigen) in their blood (serum) , when mixed with the antibodies, will stick there and form the reaction. The indirect test works in the opposite way--it uses bound antigen to test for antibodies in the person's blood sample (serum) to form a reaction. Source: Perchez, M. (2020, April 20). Review of Diagnostic tests for Microbiology, Simply Explained. Journal of Microbiology Educators 4(1), 1-10. Question 1 (Q001) Scenario Tim is a 40-year-old sustainable farmer who works daily in his farm fields. After a long day getting his fields ready for planting, he comes in and falls into bed, exhausted. The next morning as he's taking a shower, he feels a small lump on the back of his leg, behind his knee. Since he can't really see it, he dries off and asks his wife to look at it. Initially she thinks it looks like a scab, but upon closer inspection she notices it has legs! She runs for the tweezers and pulls the tick off, and then notices that he actually has three more ticks embedded higher up on the back of his thigh. Signs and Symptoms Tim had been bitten by ticks and treated for Lyme disease before, so he decided to wait to see if a rash developed. After checking the spots daily for a week and not seeing anything other than a small, red, raised area around a few of the tick bite sites, he stopped worrying. About 10 days later, Tim developed a fever and started to have bouts of extreme fatigue that were not alleviated by resting or sleep. The fatigue got to the point that he couldn't get out of bed. When he started to act disoriented and confused, his wife drove him to the hospital. Testing Blood was drawn and sent to the hematology, clinical chemistry, and microbiology laboratories. What symptoms would indicate that Tim's disease could be due to an infection involving the central nervous system? Flag question: Question 2 Question 2 (Q002) In the differential cell count, the hematology technologist who looked at Tim's blood noted a high proportion of "reactive" lymphocytes, and also saw abnormalities (see arrow) in several neutrophils. What is the significance of these findings in the peripheral blood smear? Flag question: Question 3 Question 3 (Q003) While his attending physician struggled to figure out what was wrong, Tim became unresponsive. Additional samples were sent to serology to assess his exposure to viruses known to cause encephalitis, specifically West Nile Virus (WNV), Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus (EEE), and Powassen Virus (POW), as well as tests for other tick-borne diseases common to his area. Serology Test Results: WNV, EEE, and POW—negative Lyme disease serology—equivocal Babesia microti and B. duncanii—negative Ehrlichia monocytogenes—negative Anaplasma phagocytophilium—positive Discuss the results of the collective laboratory tests— are the serology test results consistent with what the hematologist observed in the stained blood smear? Flag question: Question 4 Question 4 (Q004) Do you think Tim has Lyme disease? Flag question: Question 5 Question 5 (Q005) Diagnosis Tim was diagnosed with anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilium. Is it necessary for the hospital to report Tim's case of anaplasmosis to the CDC for disease surveillance? Why? Flag question: Question 6 Question 6 (Q006) Over the next two months, seven other people with Tim's symptoms were admitted to the same regional hospital. Six tested positive for anaplasmosis and were successfully treated, but the seventh person died before a diagnosis could be reached. She subsequently was found to be positive for Anaplasma. In the previous year, there had been no cases of anaplasmosis diagnosed at the hospital. What epidemiological term(s) apply to this scenario? (what is the outbreak pattern?) Flag question: Question 7 Question 7 (Q007) Treatment Once it was affirmed that Tim was infected with Anaplasma, treatment with IV ceftriaxone was immediately started via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). After 2 days on the antibiotic he was alert but still overwhelmingly fatigued. After a week he was feeling well enough to be released from the hospital, but visited an infusion center daily for the rest of the month. He was also given oral doxycycline. By the end of the year, a total of 26 cases of anaplasmosis were diagnosed at the hospital, which was the only medical facility in Tim's county of residence. The county population (from census data) that year was 6,982 people. What is the incidence of anaplasmosis in Tim's county? Flag question: Question 8 Question 8 (Q008) Is this also the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Tim's county? Why? Flag question: Question 9 Question 9 (Q009) Additional Considerations Do you think that the reported incidence for anaplasmosis accurately reflects the burden of this disease for residents in the county? Why? Flag question: Question 10 Question 10 (Q010) The incidence and prevalence of tick-borne borne diseases in general are increasing worldwide. What abiotic and biotic factors may be contributing to this increase? Flag question: Question 11 Question 11 List of resources used. Please include your textbook/e-book with page numbers consulted, and lab manual if used. Reference class notes (if used) as name of lecturer, semester date, approximate title of lecture. There are no required number of sources, but do include ALL used. Not citing resources when used, is a violation of Academic Integrity standards in the Student Code of Conduct and may result in point deduction.

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