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Homework answers / question archive / Process of determining, analyzing and prioritizing needs, and in turn, identifying and implementing solution strategies to resolve high priority needs

Process of determining, analyzing and prioritizing needs, and in turn, identifying and implementing solution strategies to resolve high priority needs

Management

  1. Process of determining, analyzing and prioritizing needs, and in turn, identifying and implementing solution strategies to resolve high priority needs." 8 A needs assessment is meant to assist program planners in identifying a priority population, their specific needs, subgroups of the population with the greatest needs, the most significant problems facing the priority populations and subgroups, what is currently being done and/or what has been done in the past to effectively address their needs, etc. Needs assessment is generally viewed as the first step in health promotion program planning and depends on both secondary and primary data collection gathered through a variety of qualitative and quantitative methods.
  2. Reflect individuals' beliefs about whether important referent individuals, or people whose opinion they value, approve or disapprove of a particular behavior. Normative beliefs, along with an individual's motivation to comply with the opinions and values of the referent individuals, form a person's subjective norms. Normative beliefs and subjective norms are constructs of the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior.
  3. Individuals who are well respected in a community and can accurately represent the views of the priority population." They are typically demographically similar to the priority population, knowledgeable about community issues and concerns, early adopters of innovations, and capable of persuading others to engage in a particular behavior.
  4. Process through which organizations "innovate new goals, programs, technologies, and ideas" in order to improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness
  5. 1) Sensing unsatisfied demands on the system; 2) search for possible responses; 3) evaluation of alternatives; 4) decision to adopt a course of action; 5) initiation of action within the system; 6) implementation of the change; and 7) institutionalization of the change
  6. Assessment of the effects of a program on the ultimate objectives, including changes in health and social benefits or quality of life
  7. Anticipatory outcomes of a behavior," or what an individual perceives is the likely result of engaging in a specific behavior. Outcome expectations develop from previous experience, through observing others, hearing about specific behaviors or situations from others, or from emotional or physical responses to a behavior. Outcome expectations are a construct of the Social Cognitive Theory.
  8. Individual's beliefs about the negative consequences of or challenges associated with engaging in a particular health behavior. Perceived barriers can be physical, emotional, psychological, economic, etc. Typically, the perceived benefits of a behavior must outweigh the perceived barriers for a person to adopt that behavior. "Perceived barriers" is a key construct of the Health Belief Model.
  9. Individual's beliefs about the efficacy of a particular behavior in reducing the perceived threat associated with a particular disease or outcome. An individual would not be expected to adopt a specific health behavior without believing it would effectively reduce his perceived threat of disease. "Perceived benefits" is a key construct of the Health Belief Model.
  10. Belief whether the recommended action is effective in preventing or reducing risk for a health problem. It is important to note that ether low perceptions of self (self efficacy), or low perceptions of the recommended action (response efficacy) may lead to maladaptive behavior. For example, people may not feel confident that they can reduce their intake of fried foods (self efficacy) or they may not feel confident that reducing their intake of fried foods will lower their risk of heart attack (response efficacy). The implication for prevention is to ensure that health education supports both the belief in one's ability to change lifestyle behaviors as well as the belief that lifestyle changes are effective in reducing risks.

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