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Homework answers / question archive / A) Write a short paragraph (around 5 lines each) outlining the significance of FOUR of the following themes we have discussed in class so far with regard to their relation to the course's focus on art, politics, and nationalism

A) Write a short paragraph (around 5 lines each) outlining the significance of FOUR of the following themes we have discussed in class so far with regard to their relation to the course's focus on art, politics, and nationalism


A) Write a short paragraph (around 5 lines each) outlining the significance of FOUR of the following themes we have discussed in class so far with regard to their relation to the course's focus on art, politics, and nationalism. 1) Hovsep Emin Hovsep Emin was a figurehead in the Armenian liberation movement during the 18th century. During his attempts, he seeked out the aid of Heraclius II, who was the King of Georgia at the time as well as the Catholicos of Echmiadzin. The American Revolution served as a model for him that influenced his strategy for Armenian liberation. He was also heavily guided from his won experiences gained from his time spent in the Military Academy of Woolrich. The sort of liberation he was seeking was in line with his education: he was after a movement of selfliberation. At the time in which he proposed his undertaking, Simeon Erevanci, who opposed Emin’s ideologies, convinced the Catholicos to back out of their aid to him. Because of this, his plans failed. 2) Mkhitar Sebastac‘i Mkhitar Sebastac‘i was an Armenian Catholic and early founder of the Mkhitarist Order. His aim in founding the Order was rooted in the unification of Armenians, especially under language. He additionally founded the Armenian Catholic Monastic Congregation at St. Lazarus. After learning languages throughout the Western world, he built what has become the network of Mkhitarist schools throughout the Middle East and Western Europe. His mission in unifying Armenians allowed him to advance the first printing press in Venice which furthered the ability for publications to spread rapidly throughout Armenia. Through their ideology and publications, the Mkhitars emphasized the importance of reason and rationality which were inspired by French models. 3)The varied significance of the figure Vartan Mamikonian in Armenian discourse • Mamikonian is an Armenian aristocratic of the 5th century CE • Armenian military commander who is venerated as a saint and martyr in the Armenian Apostolic Church • Mamikonian is involved in a war against Zoroastrian Persians who seek to impose their religion upon the Christian Armenians • This hostility between Armenians and Persians comes to a head in 451 where there is a battle of Avarayr • The armenian historical sources of that period present Mamikonian and his forces as being religious martyrs • However, here for the first time in armenian history, the figure of Mamikonian is presented as being a secular martyr, a patriot who is a martyr to the defense of his homeland; has been updated and desecualized and securalized in order to function as a symbol (Model) for the new type of Armenian patriot they seek to develop 4) Romantic Nationalism Romantic Nationalism highlights the period of literature, art, and music that reinforced the themes of nationalism within Armenia. Romantic Nationalism served as almost a counter to Neoclassicism, and it highlighted a newly-desired harmony with the natural world. Peshiktashlian was a notable writer during this period. He was Mkhitarist-educated and reinforced Mkhitarist ideals of unity. For example, his poem “We are Brothers” and “Death of the Brave Son” vividly describe these themes as he discusses the mourning of the motherland and the step forward together, with unity. We also observe nationalist themes in the Romantic art of Hovhannes Aivazovsky whose depiction of Armenian landscapes and monuments depicted the epic and monumental but also delicate and serene nature of the land. B) Passages for identification and comment Write notes on FOUR of the following passages citing the author and work and then dealing with such issues as context, speaker(s), addressee(s). Then elaborate the wider significance of the citation within the work as a whole in terms of thought, symbolism, etc., where appropriate relating those to the theoretical perspectives of Gellner, Smith, and Anderson. 1) Have you seen the village alone in the valley And the splendid gardens spread out round it And the golden ears of corn and calm brook— Have you heard the lark’s sweet songs? This comes from Hovannes Hovhannisian’s poem, Tell Me, Have You Seen My Homeland? Hovhannisian was of course a Romantic Nationalism poet and the lines within this poem reflect the themes. This period was marked by an emphasis in highlighting the beauty of nature and Hovhannisian does so with his description of the Amrneian landscape. The poem also describes nature in relation to human interaction (the village, famed corn) which emphasize the way in which the theme highlights harmony with nature. Hovhannisian’s poetry is full of similar themes; his creation of such beautiful imagery allow the reader to pay very close attention to the details of the Armenian landscape which contribute the identity of the land. As the idealism through romanticism reflects the natural beauty, this poem makes a large emphasis on the warm, good, and beautiful aspects of Armenian nature, removing the notions of the darker and colder times such as winter. Additionally, this poem was written in Moscow, where it has a darker and colder winter, which is seen in the poem as he references Armenian to the south, with a much more warm, happy, and beautiful surrounding. he scenery description appreciates the beauty of nature by appealing to the senses and focuses on the natural beauty of an isolated village instead of writing about a man made city. Hovhannisian further goes to state “And the golden ears of corn and calm brook--,” to further his depiction of little details within nature that are precious and worthy of capturing in a poem. In addition to describing the physical beauty of nature, Hovhannisian draws one’s attention to the sounds of nature as he states “Have you heard the lark’s sweet songs?” He highlights the spring season and appeals to more than one sense in order to create a beautiful image in the audiences’ head as they read about this village in nature and get a complete sensory depiction of the beauty of nature. 2) And our fathers’ bones erupted in loud applause, For the Armenians’ fire in not snuffed out. And so many victims were jubilant For the revenge we took in a stream of blood. Masis broke into a smile, Mother. Ready to give their life to native land. Armenians Fire not snuffed out…Armenian victory has secured the wellbeing of Armenian community to live for another day. Emphasis on territorially overtime is emphasized by reference to“fathers bone” indicative of many generations of Armenians that have lived and died on that territory, evoking solidarity with the community to preserve the integrity of Zeytun. Those are the dead who fell victims in the conflict before are portrayed as being jubilant at the current victory he too now prepares to join them in the earth maintaining continuity with them. Pan-Armenian significance in the appeal to Mount Ararat. Masis broke into a smile(appeal to Mount Araratà which is portrayed as breaking into a smile) is obviously several hundred miles to the Northeast ofZeytun but is selected as the highest point in the armenian plateau that all look up to. Parallelism with Zeytun’s mountaineous terrain, and the mountain is referred to by its Armenian designation where national and internal, not the foreign and international significance of its designation by the term ‘Ararat.’ The final verse underscores the wider implications of the young mans actions in giving absolute value to patriotism as he has valuearized the communal and collective over the individual and personal. He is facing death before fulfilling his goals of love and marriage. Here to its likely the poem is reliant on Abovian’s model “Wounds of Armenia” also sacrifices love for his betrowed to love of country as he dies on the fortress of Yerevan with Russian troops. Despite the mother’s grief and her son’s impending death the poet has emphasized the tone of rejoicing throughout to underline the valorization of the collective victory. Similarily, the work is permeated by references to bright light sunlight (achkd luys) with hearts kindled by fire and spark, the armenian’s fire is not snuffed out and the ubiquity of the color red, assoc with fire, light and blood, therefore life. These images evoke the Armenians powerful pre-Christian Zoroastrian past assoc with veneration of the sun and maintaining the everlasting fire of the fire temple. Nationalism creates community through appeal to shared symbols, images, and ideas that cement individuals into a joint collective. The “other” is depicted as a foreign and alien other, and this facet of the poem targets the behavior of the Turkish opponents as aggressors, they fell upon us. In addition to contrasting Armenian humanity with the representation of their adversaries as “they roared like a monster.” The poem then reifies them suggesting their assoc with a subhuman sphere. 3) But I, who am Armenian, My own Armenians know; I want no stranger bridegroom; A widowed stream I flow. The Tears of Arax by Rap’ayel Patikanian is the source of these lines. This poem also takes on themes of Romantic Nationalism. In this poem, Patikanian refers to two rivers that are part of the Armenian landscape. One of these rivers is the river, Kur. Kur represents a natural border between Armenia and Azerbaijan and is symbolically enslaved by Russian rule. The second river contrasts Kur and is completely free from this Russian ‘enslavement’. Arax flows from Mt. Ararat, a sacred point. In that sense, the water of Arax is pure and free from enslavement. It serves as a objective for the Armenian people and inspires a sense of nationalism that is characteristic of the art and literature of the time. Smith’s western approach of nationalism is captured by Patikanian’s mentioning of the diversity within the land. This demonstrates the ability for unification by accepting the diversities under a symbolic structure, in this case, the rivers structure themselves under the nation, Armenia. The poem unifies the Armenian population even with the diaspora and creates an “Other” such as the Turks and Persians as Patkanian calls the otars on Armenian land “godless, barbarous people.” This poem demonstrates Smith’s Western approach of nationalism as he unifies the people through Romantic Nationalism. Because of the diaspora and the otars on Armenian land, there are differences between the ethnic group. It is much like Ruritania with the diversity within Armenian culture. Patkanian uses the Armenian landscaping and romanticism to bring an emphasis on unity as they all come from the same place and ethnicity, as they need a nation to have national things. By focusing on the landscape of Ararat and Arax, the Armenian people can relate and unify. 4) Give me thy hand, and take my hand. Why should we pull apart? We have been separated long By unkind fates and storms. This quote is from Mkrtich Peshiktashlian’s poem We Are Brothers. This was a reflection of the Romantic Nationalistic era and the turn for man to be in harmony with nature. With the emphasis on nature, there is a clear romantic lens in his poetry. He offers the insight of an azg as a nation, azghakits as co-national, and azgakan as a relative, so it can be concluded that azg means family. This creates a sense of nationalism as he tries to bring the Armenian community together as he addresses them. With the line “Give me your hand, and take my hand,” he offers a sense of mutuality to give and take. This emphasizes the lack of difference between the two and a sense of equality within the Armenian community. Further, he expands to say “Why should we pull apart?” to question why there is a division among Armenians due to different religions such as Apostolic and Catholics pulling each other apart. He questions why people try to divide when in the end they are all Armenian. Next, he goes to say “We have been separated long” referencing to how the East was under the Russian Empire control while the West was under Ottoman control. Peshiktashlian was pushing towards actively working on unity within the Armenian people. Overall, his work echoes Smith’s Eastern model approach. He emphasizes on ethnic identity without a geographical division as seen when he attempts to show that they have been “separated long by unkindly fates and storms.” Gellner’s model can fit into the Eastern approach of Smith as well with the emphasis on the absence of a state and a rising sense of nationalism through a shared culture. This creates an “us” and “them” dynamic to allow national unity with us and prevent them from separating the community. Ultimately, this poem calls for unity within the nation as they have been divided by their land but are still a part of the same community of the Armenian culture.

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