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Shortessayquestions-7points each)


Shortessayquestions-7points each). You shouldanswer10questionsof the 15 below. Write at least 2-3paragraphsfor each question,but as much as you deem necessary for a substantial response.This is not a formal essay, but writing in a clear, paragraph by paragraph, essay format will help you score higher.

Summative Essay,30 points:Write at least 4paragraphs,but as much as you deem necessary for a substantial response:See the Historical Perspective Assignmentin Canvas.Spend 15 minutes scanning and analyzing the two pages. Answer the followingprompt:“Humans are naughty, clearly. But, like the news, which is almost always bad, this does not tell the whole story.Humans are good too. That said, whatis new to you here when you seethe horrors of the past comparedgraphically?”Second,what, after this course, would you argue is the primaryhistorical consequenceor contributionof “Western Civilization”?


Final Exam for HIST 140 – Spr 2021 Please submit in Canvas by midnight Friday May 21: • • • • • Though footnotes are not required, use concrete examples from the readings, not the Internet, your family/friends, or your feelings/beliefs. J Refer to class texts to shape your answers, not the Internet. You will have from now until the due date to submit your answers. Turnitin will check your work for any plagiarism. DO NOT COPY AND PASTE Please use Microsoft Word and number your answers to avoid deductions. This is an opportunity for you to organize and synthesize information that you have learned in the course. All claims must be based upon evidence from readings, not opinion or feel-good, preconceived notions. Short essay questions - 7 points each). You should answer 10 questions of the 15 below. Write at least 2-3 paragraphs for each question, but as much as you deem necessary for a substantial response. This is not a formal essay, but writing in a clear, paragraph by paragraph, essay format will help you score higher. 1. What role did the environment, or geography, play in the characteristics of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia? 2. How did Hebrew thought shape Western civilization? 3. What differences can you discern between Platonic and Aristotelian thought? 4. How do you explain the spread of Christianity in the Roman Empire? 5. How did the Byzantine and Islamic civilizations differ from Europe? 6. What role did the Vikings play in the history of medieval Europe? 7. What impact did medieval universities have on European history? 8. What were the motivations of the crusaders? Who gained or lost? 9. What is the historical significance of the Black Death for European society? 10. What impact did the adversities of the 14th century have on Christian life? 11. What do you think is the historical significance of Renaissance humanism? 12. What were some causes and consequences of the Protestant Reformation? 13. What role do you think religion played compared to economics in Europeans motivation to ‘explore’ overseas after 1500? 14. What does the witchcraft craze tell us about European society in the early modern period? 15. What do you think is the historical significance of the Scientific Revolution? Summative Essay, 30 points: Write at least 4 paragraphs, but as much as you deem necessary for a substantial response: See the Historical Perspective Assignment in Canvas. Spend 15 minutes scanning and analyzing the two pages. Answer the following prompt: “Humans are naughty, clearly. But, like the news, which is almost always bad, this does not tell the whole story. Humans are good too. That said, what is new to you here when you see the horrors of the past compared graphically?” Second, what, after this course, would you argue is the primary historical consequence or contribution of “Western Civilization”? w ION COLONIAL REVOLT HUMAN SACRIFICE DYNASTIC DISPUTE WAR OF DOMINATION ETHNIC CLEANSING Ets ble, INTERNAL CLASH ity. Civil insurrections and rebellions are undertaken to overthrow colonial control. Ritualized killing is performed as an offering for the maintenance of societal and spiritual order. Two or more individuals vie over their right to become the successor to the throne in a monarchy. Fights for dominance among nations transform the power structure of an international system. A dominant group executes varying forms of violence or forced removal on other ethnic groups. Fighting inside a country ignites, often over ethnic, religious, linguistic, or political differences. RISE OF NATION-STATES AND COLONIALISM 1650-1914 In an era of industrial development and the rise of nation-states, it was Europeans, predominantly the British with their strong army and navy, who were able to expand their political control across the globe. Diamond size shows scale of deaths PEAKS OF BRUTALITY 1. World War II 66 M (1939-1945) 68 Date 81 66 42 91 Rank out of 100 in death tolls Estimated deaths in millions 86 87 75 57 65 32. Peter the Great 3M (1682-1725) 85 poleonic Brs 4M 92-1815) 90 41 50 63 92 74 23. Aurangzeb 4.6 M (1658-1707) 21. Mahdi Revolt 5.5 M (1881-1898) 6. Taiping Rebellion 20 M (1850-1864) This rendering of history's most lethal periods highlights the 100 deadliest events of the past 2,500 years, based on work by researcher and author Matthew White. In 1945 WWII became the bloodiest war in recorded history. Death tolls, especially those further back in time, are best estimates. Statistics can't fully reflect the devastation and suffering of war. But they illustrate how humankind has been prone to surges of violence throughout the ages, motivated by many of the same timeless drivers. 15. Congo Free State 10 M (1885-1908) 1. World War II 66 M (1939-1945) Main drivers of violence-the conquest of Europe, the tyranny of Adolf Hitler, and ethnic cleansing horrors of the Holocaust- combined in deadly unison to result in the most destructive war in recorded human history. Nearly 70 percent of those killed were civilians; in World War I, military deaths far outnumbered those of noncombatants. MEDIEVAL AGE 476-1450 RISE OF NATION- STATES AND COLONIALISM 1650-1914 4. Famines in British India 27 M (1769-1770, 1876-1879, 1896-1900) Repeated droughts and famines were intensified by laissez-faire economics and colonial exploitation by the British government. guest of ericas 15 M ing 1492) ANCIENT WORLD 500 B.C.-A.D. 476 RENAISSANCE AND AGE OF EXPLORATION 1450-1650 MODERN AGE 1914-today 7. Joseph Stalin 20 M (1928-1953) Punitive famine accounted for at least six million deaths. Over four million dled in forced labor camps, ALBERTO LUCAS LOPEZ AND KAYA LEE BERNE, NGM STAFF 3. Mao Zedong 40 M (1949-1976) The Communist regime tried to remake the oldest and largest society on Earth. Millions died in political purges, and tens of millions died in famines caused by mismanaged agricultural reforms. The Holocaust killed six million Jews and several million other minorities. SOURCES: MATTHEW WHITE THE GREAT BIG BOOK OF HORRIBLE THINGS BEN KIERNAN YALE UNIVERSITY PETER BRECKE GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 12. World War I 15 M (1914-1918) -50 arge 36 24. Vietnam War 4.2 M (1959-1975) 27. Second Congo War 3.8 M 52 (1998-2002) 56 16. Russian Civil War 9M (1918-1920) 88 89 51 35. Sudan War 2.6 M (since 1955) 38 99 53 100 About a million Armenian Christians were killed by the Young Turk regime 33. North Korea 3 M (since 1948) 76 20. Chinese Civil War 7 M (1927-1937 1945-1949) 39 79 77 69 34. Korean War 3M (1950-1953) 89 43 -1721) 398) 39) 78 60 03 70 7. 132-135) P0-2003) -479 B.C.) B.C.) MODERN AGE 1914-today After some of the largest battles of all time, a rise in smaller conflicts played out by paramilitary groups using guerrilla and counterinsurgency tactics ensues. Information becomes a weapon "NOT INCLUDED IN ORIGINAL SOURCE DATA "DEATH TOLL UPDATED WITH MOST RECENT ESTIMATE 3) ROOTS OF VIOLENCE COLONIAL EXPLOITATION WAR OF CONQUEST DESPOT OR TYRANT COLLAPSED STATE RELIGIOUS CONFLICT COLOI Brutal events often have myriad, overlapping causes, Here, up to three drivers of violence (organized by color) have been selected for each incident depicted below. The primary objective of a country or nation is to gain control of other countries for territorial expansion. A corrupt ruler uses absolute power to advance personal aims through oppressive means. Religious motivations are often a key driver, one that typically results in larger acts of violence. Disputes and mass disorder lead to government collapse; regions are divided among warlords. Lives are lost as a region has its resources, and often its people, extracted by an external entity Civil ins are und colonia MEDIEVAL AGE 476-1450 Guns, gunpowder, and artillery transformed warfare by the 1300s. The "gunpowder age" began in East Asia and spread to Europe, drastically changing military technology and political structures. RISE In an e was El navy, 48 13. An Lushan Rebellion 13 M (755-763) 59 49 37 68 55 17. Fall of the Yuan Dynasty 7.5 M (1340-1370) 98 BO. 66 29. Hundred Years' War 3.5 M (1337-1453) Crusades 3 M (1095-1291) 82 26. Napoleonic Wars 4M (1792-1815) 14. Xin Dynasty 10 M (9-24) 9. Timur 17 M (1370-1405) The last of the Mongol conquerors violently swept through Central Asia, killing millions. 6. Taip Rebel (1850- 19. Decline and Fall of the Western Roman Empire 7 M (395-476) 83 8. Mideast Slave Trade 18.5 M (7th-19th centuries) Demand for labor escalated the slave trade along Africa's east coast and in the Sahara, 25. Three Kingdoms of China 4.1 M (189-280) 28. Gladiatorial Games 3.5 M (264 B.C. A.D. 435) 97 5. Fall of the Ming Dynasty 25 M (1635-1662) A cultural peak of Chinese civilization, this dynasty was also beset by corruption and lawlessness, opening China to conquest by neighboring Manchu. 46 71 40 47 2. Genghis Khan 40 M (1206-1227) The charismatic leader united Mongol tribes of nomadic horsemen and brutally conquered nations all across Central Asia, founding the Mongol Empire in 1206. It's estimated that over 10 percent of the world's population was annihilated. 58 84 61 96 94 10, Atlantic Slave Trade 16 M (1452-1807) Deaths occurred in Africa, at sea, and during the slaves' first year in the Americas. 11. Conquest of the Americas 15 M (beginning 1492) 45 ANCIENT WORLD 500 B.C.-A.D. 476 Wealth was agricultural or took the form of tangible goods, making war an efficient way to acquire resources. War could drain agrarian workforces and hamper cultivation, causing massive death tolls. 54 18. Thirty Years' War 7.5 M (1618-1648) 73 22. The Time of Troubles 5M (1598-1613) 31. French Wars of Religion 3 M (1562-1598) INDEX OF THE ATROCITIES (with deaths under 2.5 million) Incidents with the same estimated death toll are listed in order by date of occurrence. RENAISSANCE AND EXPLORATION 1450-1650 Advanced shipbuilding techniques and the creation of large standing armies contributed to western Europe's rise as a world power as it sought fortune in the New World. 36. Expulsion of Germans from Eastern Europe 2.1 M (1945-1947) 37. Fang La Rebellion 2 M (1120-1122) 38. Mengistu Haile 2 M (1974-1991) 39. Democratic Kampuchea 1.67 M (1975-1979) 40. Age of Warring States 1.5 M (475B.C.-221B.C.) 41. Seven Years War 1.5 M (1756-1763) 42. Shaka 1.5 M (1816-1828) 43. Bangladesh Genocide 1.5 M (1971) 44. Soviet-Afghan War 1.5 M (1979-1992) 45. Aztec human sacrifice 1.2 M (1440-1521) 46. Qin Shi Huang Di 1M (221B.C.-210 B.C.) 47. Roman slave wars 1M (134 B.C.-71 B.C.) 48. Maya Collapse 1M (790-909) 49. Albigensian Crusade 1M (1208-1229) 50. Panthay Rebellion 1M (1855-1873) 51. Mexican Revolution 1M (1910-1920) 52. Biafran War 1M (1966-1970) 53. Rwandan Genocide 0.94 M (1994) 54. Burma-Siam Wars 0.9 M (1550-1605) 55. Hulagu Khan's campaign 0.8 M (1255-1260) 56. Mozambican Civil War 0.8 M (1975-1992) 57. French conquest of Algeria 0.78 M (1830-1847) 58. Second Punic War 0.77 M (218 B.C.-202 B.C.) 59. Justinian's Western Wars 0.75 M (527-565) 60. Italo-Ethiopian War 0.75 M (1935-1941) 61. Gallic War 0.7 M (58 B.C.-51 B.C.) 62. Chinese conquest of Vietnam 0.7 M (1407-1428) 63. War of the Spanish Succession 0.7 M (1701-1713) 64. Iran-Iraq War 0.7 M (1980-1988) 65. American Civil War 0.69 M (1861-1865) 66. Hui Rebellion 0.64 M (1862-1873) 67. Goguryeo-Sui Wars 0.6 M (598,612) 68. Sino-Dzungar War 0.6 M (1755-1757) 69. Algerian War 0.52 M (1954-1962) 70. Syrian Civil War 0.51 M* (2011-today) 71. Alexander the Great 0.5 M (336 B.C.-325 B.C.) 72. Bahmani-Vijayanagara War 0.5 M (1366) 73. Russo-Tatar War 0.5 M (1570-1572) 74. War of the Austrian Succession 0.5 M (1740-1748) 75. Russo-Turkish War 0.5 M (1877-1878) 76. Partition of India 0.5 M (1947) 77. Indonesian Purge 0.5 M** (1965-1966) 78. Angolan Civil War 0.5 M (1975-1994) 79. Ugandan Bush War 0.5 M (1979-1986) 80, Somalian chaos 0.5 M (1991-today) 81. War of the Triple Alliance 0.48 M (1864-1870) 82. Franco-Prussian War 0.43 M (1870-1871) 83. First Punic War 0.4M (264 B.C.-241 B.C.) 84. Third Mithridatic War 0.4M (73 B.C.-63 B.C.) 85. Cromwell's invasion of Ireland 0.4M (1649-1652) 86. Haitian Slave Revolt 0.4 M (1791-1803) 87. Mexican War of Independence 0.4M (1810-1821) 88. Greco-Turkish War 0.4M (1919-1922) 89. French Indochina War 0.39 M (1945-1954) 90. Great Turkish War 0.38 M (1682-1699) 91. Great Northern War 0.37 M(1700-1721) 92. Cuban Revolution 0.36 M (1895-1898) 93. Spanish Civil War 0.36 M (1936-1939) 94. Roman-Jewish Wars 0.35 M (66-74. 132-135 95. Sanctions against Iraq 0.35 M (1990-2003) 96. Second Persian War 0.3 M (480 BC-479B.C) 97. War of the Allies 0.3 M (91B.C.-88 BC.) 98. Crimean War 0.3 M (1854-1856) 99. Idi Amin 0.3 M (1971-1979)

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