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Homework answers / question archive / University Of Arizona ATMO 170A Chapter 14 1)A city is located at sea level

University Of Arizona ATMO 170A Chapter 14 1)A city is located at sea level

Earth Science

University Of Arizona

ATMO 170A

Chapter 14

1)A city is located at sea level. From the ground to 200 m altitude the temperature decreases by 3°C. From 200 m to 400 m altitude the temperature remains constant. The mixing depth is how many meters thick?

a.            0

b.   200

c.             400

d.   600

 

2.            A decline in the health of forests in Germany has been attributed to       .

a.            erosion caused by excessive lumber cutting

b.            acid rain

c.             increased CO2 concentrations and global warming

d.            urbanization

 

3.            Air becomes unhealthy when the air quality index (AQI) exceeds             .

a.            1

b.            3

c.             10

d. 100

 

4.            Air pollutants are             airborne substances.

a.            exclusively solid

b.            exclusively gaseous

c.             exclusively liquid

d.            either solid, liquid, or gaseous

 

5.            Atmospheric stagnation is a condition normally brought on by    .

a.            Thunderstorms

b.            slow-moving anticyclones

c.             overcast skies

d.            tall buildings in a city

 

6.            Benzene, a known carcinogen, is an example of a             .

a.            sulfur oxide

b.            volatile organic compound

c.             nitrous oxide

d.            carbon oxide

 

7.            Collectively, particles of soot, smoke, dust, and pollen are called               .

a.            Hydrocarbons b.

c.             Carcinogens

d.            Haze

 

8.            During what time of day would you typically expect to see a fanning smoke plume?

a.            Noontime b.

c.             afternoon

d.            sunset

 

9.            Erosion of many limestone buildings, fountains, and sculptures is being caused largely by

                .

a.            acid rain

b.            ozone

c.             vibrations caused by automobile traffic

d.            urban heat island

 

10.          HFCs and HCFCs are        .

a.            the primary components of photochemical smog

b.            replacements for CFCs

c.             clean-burning fossil fuels

d.            cancer-causing chemicals produced by automobiles

 

11.          Human-induced pollution enters the atmosphere from both      .

a.            fixed and natural sources

b.            natural and secondary sources

c.             fixed and mobile sources

d.            natural and primary sources

 

12.          In the late 1970s, the United States banned the non-essential use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Why?

a.            CFCs are a primary component of photochemical smog.

b.            CFCs are toxic gases.

c.             CFCs reduce the ozone concentration in the stratosphere.

d.            CFCs react with water vapor to form acid rain.

 

13.          In which area would air pollution typically be higher?

a.            low-lying valley

b.            hillside

c.             top of mountain

d.            over the ocean

 

14.          Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) reacts with         in the atmosphere to form nitric acid (HNO3).

a.            Hydrogen

b.            water vapor

c.             ozone

 

d.            carbon dioxide

 

 

15.          On clear, cold winter nights, cities tend to cool   than rural areas and have            

minimum temperatures.

a.            more slowly; higher

b.            more quickly; higher

c.             more slowly; lower

d.            more quickly; lower

 

16.          One major way in which chlorofluorocarbons can enter the stratosphere is          .

a.            from the exhaust of high-altitude aircraft

b.            in an inversion

c.             in building thunderstorms that penetrate into the lower stratosphere

d.            from the rupture of radiosonde balloons

 

17.          Ozone in the stratosphere primarily forms over and is transferred to       by stratospheric winds.

a.            the tropics; Australia

b.            the tropics; the Antarctic

c.             North America; the Antarctic

d.            Europe; the Antarctic

 

18.          Photochemical smog      .

a.            only forms at night

b.            requires the presence of fog

c.             requires the presence of smoke

d.            requires ultraviolet radiation

 

19.          PM-2.5 is more harmful than PM-10 because      .

a.            the smaller particles can penetrate farther into the lungs

b.            the particles are usually liquid droplets

c.             PM-10 particles evaporate before you breathe them

d.            they contain radon

 

20.          Polar stratospheric clouds play a role in  .

a.            primary pollution

b.            ozone destruction

c.             photochemical smog

d.            acid rain formation

 

21.          Pollution is most severe in urban areas when a  .

a.            cold upper-level low moves into a region

b.            cold front passes through the area

c.             large slow-moving anticyclone moves into an area

d.            storm system begins developing to the west

 

22.          Prior to the 1950s, the smoke in London smog came primarily from          .

a.            exhaust from diesel engines

b.            trash fires

c.             factories in Eastern Europe

d.            coal combustion

 

23.          Rain with a pH of 4.5 would be considered           .

a.            Acidic

b.            Alkaline

c.             Neutral

d.            Polluted

 

24.          Since the 1970s, the overall trend in emissions of primary pollutants in the United States has

                .

a.            Increased

b.            been variable

c.             remained the same

d.            declined

 

25.          Strong winds tend to lower pollutant concentrations through a process called    .

a.            Inversion

b.            Conversion

c.             Dispersion

d.            convection

26.          The legislation that empowers the U.S. Federal government to set emissions standards that each state is required to enforce is called       .

a.            Greenpeace

b.            The Clean Air Act

c.             The Clean Program

d.            CLEAN

 

27.          The main component of photochemical smog is .

a.            Ozone

b.            carbon monoxide

c.             sulfur dioxide

d.            chlorofluorocarbons

 

28.          The urban heat island is typically strongest           .

a.            at noontime

b.            at night

c.             in the late morning

d.            in the afternoon

 

 

29.          Ultraviolet radiation levels have                over the United States since the 1980s.

a.            Declined

b.            Increased

 

c.             stayed the same

d.            been variable

 

30.          Under which of the following conditions would air pollution over a city typically be highest?

 

a.            on a rainy night

b.            on a clear, calm night

c.             on a rainy day

d.            in the afternoon

 

31.          Which chemical destroys ozone in the stratosphere?

a.            carbon monoxide

b.            chlorine

c.             sulfur dioxide

d.            nitric acid

 

32.          Which condition typically contributes to major air pollution episodes lasting several days or longer?

a.            a radiation inversion

b.            a subsidence inversion

c.             persistent winds

d.            overcast skies

 

33.          Which condition would act to prevent a high concentration buildup of pollutants near the surface?

a.            A radiation inversion

b.            A strong subsidence inversion

c.             A large, slow-moving anticyclone

d.            A deep mixing layer

 

34.          Which gas is a major source of indoor pollution?

a.            carbon dioxide

b.            radon

c.             nitrous oxide

d.            sulfuric acid

 

35.          Which gas is an example of a volatile organic compound, or hydrocarbon?

a.            sulfur dioxide

b.            carbon dioxide

c.             methane

d.            ozone

 

 

36.          Which gas will replace oxygen in blood hemoglobin and thereby reduce the transport of oxygen to the brain?

a.            sulfur dioxide (SO2)

b.            carbon monoxide (CO)

 

c.             carbon dioxide (CO2)

d.            methane (CH4)

 

37.          Which pollutant is formed during the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels?

a.            sulfur dioxide (SO2)

b.            carbon monoxide (CO)

c.             carbon dioxide (CO2)

d.            volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

 

38.          Which substance is considered a primary pollutant?

a.            sulfuric acid

b.            carbonic acid

c.             particulate matter

d.            nitric acid

 

39.          Which substance is the most abundant primary air pollutant in the United States?

a.            sulfur oxide

b.            any volatile organic compound

c.             nitrogen oxide

d.            carbon monoxide

 

40.          Which toxic gas is an important component in London-type smog?

a.            ozone (O3)

b.            sulfur dioxide (SO2)       

c.             radon (Rn)

d.            carbon monoxide (CO)

 

41.          Carbon monoxide (CO) has a strong pungent odor that warns of its presence before concentrations can build to dangerous levels.

a.            True

b.            False

 

42.          Dry haze scatters more sunlight than wet haze and causes a more noticeable drop in visibility.

a.            True

b.            False

 

43.          Indoor air pollution can sometimes be more unhealthy than outdoor air pollution.

 

 

a.            True

b.            False

 

44.          Particles with diameters less than one micrometer can remain suspended in the atmosphere for several weeks.

a.            True

b.            False

 

 

45.          The Arctic stratosphere is normally too cold to allow formation of the clouds that help activate ozone-destroying chlorine.

a.            True

b.            False

 

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