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Homework answers / question archive / University Of Arizona ATMO 170A Chapter 14 1)A city is located at sea level

University Of Arizona ATMO 170A Chapter 14 1)A city is located at sea level

Earth Science

University Of Arizona


Chapter 14

1)A city is located at sea level. From the ground to 200 m altitude the temperature decreases by 3°C. From 200 m to 400 m altitude the temperature remains constant. The mixing depth is how many meters thick?

a.            0

b.   200

c.             400

d.   600


2.            A decline in the health of forests in Germany has been attributed to       .

a.            erosion caused by excessive lumber cutting

b.            acid rain

c.             increased CO2 concentrations and global warming

d.            urbanization


3.            Air becomes unhealthy when the air quality index (AQI) exceeds             .

a.            1

b.            3

c.             10

d. 100


4.            Air pollutants are             airborne substances.

a.            exclusively solid

b.            exclusively gaseous

c.             exclusively liquid

d.            either solid, liquid, or gaseous


5.            Atmospheric stagnation is a condition normally brought on by    .

a.            Thunderstorms

b.            slow-moving anticyclones

c.             overcast skies

d.            tall buildings in a city


6.            Benzene, a known carcinogen, is an example of a             .

a.            sulfur oxide

b.            volatile organic compound

c.             nitrous oxide

d.            carbon oxide


7.            Collectively, particles of soot, smoke, dust, and pollen are called               .

a.            Hydrocarbons b.

c.             Carcinogens

d.            Haze


8.            During what time of day would you typically expect to see a fanning smoke plume?

a.            Noontime b.

c.             afternoon

d.            sunset


9.            Erosion of many limestone buildings, fountains, and sculptures is being caused largely by


a.            acid rain

b.            ozone

c.             vibrations caused by automobile traffic

d.            urban heat island


10.          HFCs and HCFCs are        .

a.            the primary components of photochemical smog

b.            replacements for CFCs

c.             clean-burning fossil fuels

d.            cancer-causing chemicals produced by automobiles


11.          Human-induced pollution enters the atmosphere from both      .

a.            fixed and natural sources

b.            natural and secondary sources

c.             fixed and mobile sources

d.            natural and primary sources


12.          In the late 1970s, the United States banned the non-essential use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Why?

a.            CFCs are a primary component of photochemical smog.

b.            CFCs are toxic gases.

c.             CFCs reduce the ozone concentration in the stratosphere.

d.            CFCs react with water vapor to form acid rain.


13.          In which area would air pollution typically be higher?

a.            low-lying valley

b.            hillside

c.             top of mountain

d.            over the ocean


14.          Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) reacts with         in the atmosphere to form nitric acid (HNO3).

a.            Hydrogen

b.            water vapor

c.             ozone


d.            carbon dioxide



15.          On clear, cold winter nights, cities tend to cool   than rural areas and have            

minimum temperatures.

a.            more slowly; higher

b.            more quickly; higher

c.             more slowly; lower

d.            more quickly; lower


16.          One major way in which chlorofluorocarbons can enter the stratosphere is          .

a.            from the exhaust of high-altitude aircraft

b.            in an inversion

c.             in building thunderstorms that penetrate into the lower stratosphere

d.            from the rupture of radiosonde balloons


17.          Ozone in the stratosphere primarily forms over and is transferred to       by stratospheric winds.

a.            the tropics; Australia

b.            the tropics; the Antarctic

c.             North America; the Antarctic

d.            Europe; the Antarctic


18.          Photochemical smog      .

a.            only forms at night

b.            requires the presence of fog

c.             requires the presence of smoke

d.            requires ultraviolet radiation


19.          PM-2.5 is more harmful than PM-10 because      .

a.            the smaller particles can penetrate farther into the lungs

b.            the particles are usually liquid droplets

c.             PM-10 particles evaporate before you breathe them

d.            they contain radon


20.          Polar stratospheric clouds play a role in  .

a.            primary pollution

b.            ozone destruction

c.             photochemical smog

d.            acid rain formation


21.          Pollution is most severe in urban areas when a  .

a.            cold upper-level low moves into a region

b.            cold front passes through the area

c.             large slow-moving anticyclone moves into an area

d.            storm system begins developing to the west


22.          Prior to the 1950s, the smoke in London smog came primarily from          .

a.            exhaust from diesel engines

b.            trash fires

c.             factories in Eastern Europe

d.            coal combustion


23.          Rain with a pH of 4.5 would be considered           .

a.            Acidic

b.            Alkaline

c.             Neutral

d.            Polluted


24.          Since the 1970s, the overall trend in emissions of primary pollutants in the United States has


a.            Increased

b.            been variable

c.             remained the same

d.            declined


25.          Strong winds tend to lower pollutant concentrations through a process called    .

a.            Inversion

b.            Conversion

c.             Dispersion

d.            convection

26.          The legislation that empowers the U.S. Federal government to set emissions standards that each state is required to enforce is called       .

a.            Greenpeace

b.            The Clean Air Act

c.             The Clean Program

d.            CLEAN


27.          The main component of photochemical smog is .

a.            Ozone

b.            carbon monoxide

c.             sulfur dioxide

d.            chlorofluorocarbons


28.          The urban heat island is typically strongest           .

a.            at noontime

b.            at night

c.             in the late morning

d.            in the afternoon



29.          Ultraviolet radiation levels have                over the United States since the 1980s.

a.            Declined

b.            Increased


c.             stayed the same

d.            been variable


30.          Under which of the following conditions would air pollution over a city typically be highest?


a.            on a rainy night

b.            on a clear, calm night

c.             on a rainy day

d.            in the afternoon


31.          Which chemical destroys ozone in the stratosphere?

a.            carbon monoxide

b.            chlorine

c.             sulfur dioxide

d.            nitric acid


32.          Which condition typically contributes to major air pollution episodes lasting several days or longer?

a.            a radiation inversion

b.            a subsidence inversion

c.             persistent winds

d.            overcast skies


33.          Which condition would act to prevent a high concentration buildup of pollutants near the surface?

a.            A radiation inversion

b.            A strong subsidence inversion

c.             A large, slow-moving anticyclone

d.            A deep mixing layer


34.          Which gas is a major source of indoor pollution?

a.            carbon dioxide

b.            radon

c.             nitrous oxide

d.            sulfuric acid


35.          Which gas is an example of a volatile organic compound, or hydrocarbon?

a.            sulfur dioxide

b.            carbon dioxide

c.             methane

d.            ozone



36.          Which gas will replace oxygen in blood hemoglobin and thereby reduce the transport of oxygen to the brain?

a.            sulfur dioxide (SO2)

b.            carbon monoxide (CO)


c.             carbon dioxide (CO2)

d.            methane (CH4)


37.          Which pollutant is formed during the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels?

a.            sulfur dioxide (SO2)

b.            carbon monoxide (CO)

c.             carbon dioxide (CO2)

d.            volatile organic compounds (VOCs)


38.          Which substance is considered a primary pollutant?

a.            sulfuric acid

b.            carbonic acid

c.             particulate matter

d.            nitric acid


39.          Which substance is the most abundant primary air pollutant in the United States?

a.            sulfur oxide

b.            any volatile organic compound

c.             nitrogen oxide

d.            carbon monoxide


40.          Which toxic gas is an important component in London-type smog?

a.            ozone (O3)

b.            sulfur dioxide (SO2)       

c.             radon (Rn)

d.            carbon monoxide (CO)


41.          Carbon monoxide (CO) has a strong pungent odor that warns of its presence before concentrations can build to dangerous levels.

a.            True

b.            False


42.          Dry haze scatters more sunlight than wet haze and causes a more noticeable drop in visibility.

a.            True

b.            False


43.          Indoor air pollution can sometimes be more unhealthy than outdoor air pollution.



a.            True

b.            False


44.          Particles with diameters less than one micrometer can remain suspended in the atmosphere for several weeks.

a.            True

b.            False



45.          The Arctic stratosphere is normally too cold to allow formation of the clouds that help activate ozone-destroying chlorine.

a.            True

b.            False


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