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Homework answers / question archive / Georgia Military College PATHO HCR 240 Patho- Ch 3 -Quiz 1)group of older adult residents were commenting on how many cell functions decline with age

Georgia Military College PATHO HCR 240 Patho- Ch 3 -Quiz 1)group of older adult residents were commenting on how many cell functions decline with age


Georgia Military College


Patho- Ch 3 -Quiz

1)group of older adult residents were commenting on how many cell functions decline with age. One resident commented that many of his friends who lived under large electromagnetic towers seemed to experience aging at an accelerated rate in comparison with residents who lived nearby in lakefront housing. This observation is the basis for which theory on aging?


  1. What information should be included in the teaching plan of care for the parents of a child diagnosed with Tay- Sachs disease?


  1. A client with diabetes who is diagnosed with a gangrenous right heel ulcer presents with a wound that has no line of demarcation, is spreading rapidly, and has a foul odor. The health care worker recognizes these manifestations as:


  1. Which pathophysiologic process is most likely to result in metastatic calcification?


  1. A client has developed cell atrophy. The most likely cause would be:


  1. A client has an increased serum lactic acid level. The physician understands this is indicative of which disease process?


  1. Which change exemplifies physiologic hypertrophy?


  1. Mercury is a toxic substance, and the hazards of mercury-associated occupational and accidental exposures are well known. What is the primary source of mercury poisoning today?


  1. A client’s condition has resulted in a decrease in work demands of most cells in the body. Which change within the cell will likely result from this decrease in work?


  1. A nurse is caring for four clients. Which client is at greatest risk for high blood levels of lead?


  1. The client is found to have liver disease, resulting in the removal of a lobe of the liver. Adaptation to the reduced size of the liver leads to which phenomenon in the remaining liver cells?

Compensatory hyperplasia How do free radicals damage cells?



  1. A client presents for a scheduled Papanicolaou (Pap) test. What type of problem will the clinician examining the cell samples look for?


  1. The nurse is conducting a physical assessment of a homeless man during a night when the wind chill factor is

-10°F (-23°C). When assessing the man's fingers and toes for frostbite, the nurse looks for which type of cellular injury?


  1. The nurse is counseling a heavy smoker about the dangers of smoking. The nurse tells the smoker that due to persistent irritation of the lungs from carcinogens, columnar cells may turn into squamous cells as a method of adaptation known as:


  1. A client is attempting to perform isometric exercise daily. Which effects will the client expect from this repeated exercise?


  1. Which of the following would help a nurse best describe a finding of hypertrophy on a lab report?


  1. A client is admitted with an alteration in arterial blood gases. Cellular injury is most likely to result from which aspect of this abnormality?


  1. Which statement would a nurse tell a client that best describes a lab finding of metaplasia?


  1. Which child is at greatest risk of lead toxicity?


  1. Which statement is true in relation to lead exposure?


  1. Which situation causes hypertrophy?


  1. The provider explains to the client, who smokes, that cells in the trachea are substituted with cells that are better able to survive. This process is known as:


  1. Mechanical forces that produce tissue trauma would be classified as which type of cellular injury?


  1. Hypertrophy may occur as the result of normal physiologic or abnormal pathologic conditions. The increase in muscle mass associated with exercise is an example of physiologic hypertrophy. Pathologic hypertrophy occurs as the result of disease conditions and may be adaptive or compensatory. Examples of adaptive hypertrophy are the thickening of the urinary bladder from long-continued obstruction of urinary outflow and the myocardial hypertrophy that results from valvular heart disease or hypertension. What is compensatory hypertrophy?


  1. When confronted with a decrease in work demands or adverse environmental conditions, most cells are able to revert to a smaller size and a lower, more efficient level of functioning that is compatible with survival. This decrease in cell size is known as:


  1. The nurse is treating a client who has been immobilized for several months. As a result, he is experiencing bone thinning and weakening. The nurse is aware of the risk of lung, blood vessel, and renal tubule calcification due to:


  1. The nurse in an infectious-disease clinic will primarily treat injuries to tissues and cells caused by:


  1. Select the statement that best describes apoptosis.


  1. Despite the low levels of radiation used in contemporary radiologic imaging, a radiology technician wants to minimize personal exposure to ionizing radiation. What is the primary rationale for the technician's precautions about radiation exposure?


  1. A 70-year-old client is being treated for a recent hemorrhagic stroke that has left the client with deficits. These deficits are most likely the result of which mechanisms of cell injury?


  1. Which of the following describes how atrophied cells survive?


  1. A client’s lab report returns and a nurse is explaining to the client the significance of the changes. The nurse states that the finding is implicated as a precursor of cancer. Which finding was most likely on the lab report?


  1. Which cellular adaptation has the most potential to transform into cancer?


  1. Which statement is true regarding drug therapy and its effects on the body?


  1. A client is admitted with frostbite. What will the nurse tell the client about the changes that have occurred due to cold exposure?


  1. Which assessment supports the finding of lead toxicity?


  1. Which situation causes atrophy?
    1. Disuse
    2. Denervation
    3. Decreased blood flow


  1. During a medication history review, the client states, "I am taking vitamin A, E, and C each day to mitigate the impact of cellular damage to my body." This is an example of which preventive mechanism to slow the aging process?


  1. The student is reviewing the aging process. One group of theories of aging involves the shortening of telomeres until a critical minimal length is attained and then senescence ensues. These theories are known as:


  1. The nurse explains to the hypertensive client that the increased workload required to pump blood against an elevated arterial pressure results in a progressive increase in left ventricular muscle mass. This is an example of:


  1. When performing an assessment on a school-aged child, the nurse notes that the mucous membranes along the gum margins have a noticeable blue-colored line. At this point, the nurse should ask the parents about possible:


  1. In a genetic disorder called xeroderma pigmentosum, an enzyme needed to repair sunlight-induced DNA damage is lacking. This autosomal recessive disorder is characterized by:


  1. Biologic agents differ from other injurious agents in that they are able to replicate and can continue to produce their injurious effects. How do Gram-negative bacteria cause harm to the cell?


  1. Many adaptive cellular responses alter the expression of “differentiation” genes. What can cells do because of this adaptive response?


  1. Which statement best identifies the functions of genes during an adaptive cellular response? You Selected:


  1. A public health nurse is conducting a wellness seminar in which a participant has asked how to minimize the potentially harmful effects of free radicals. What should the nurse recommend?


  1. A nurse practitioner is preparing to perform a client's Pap test and is answering the client's questions about the clinical rationale for the procedure. The nurse should describe what phenomenon?


  1. The obstetric nurse explains to the client that when she stops breast-feeding, her breast tissue will reduce in size. The nurse understands that this regression is due to which physiologic process?


  1. A client has been exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Which effect from the exposure is the nurse's primary concern?


  1. A client tells the nurse about taking vitamin E and vitamin C daily to prevent the uncontrolled formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Which term describes the client's rationale for taking these supplements?


  1. Parents of a 4-year-old child discovered the child has been chewing and swallowing imported toy figurines that have tested positive for lead. Which blood test should the care team prioritize?


  1. Which fact underlies the concept of cellular theories of senescence?


  1. A client has developed dystrophic calcification as a result of macroscopic deposition of calcium salts. The tissue that would be most affected would be:


  1. The radiologist is reviewing potential types of radiation therapy for a client. Select the type of radiation that directly breaks down chemical bonds in a cell.


  1. The nurse is caring for a client with compensatory hyperplasia. What is the most likely cause of the hyperplasia?


  1. The nurse is caring for a toddler brought into the emergency department for suspected lead toxicity. Which condition or sign is the cardinal indicator of lead toxicity?


  1. A nurse working with a pregnant woman explains that breast size increases as a result of which physiologic manifestation?


  1. A nurse is assessing a client who is a bodybuilder. The nurse documents the increased size of the client's muscle as resulting from:


  1. The nurse is teaching a client about genetic disorders. Which of the following contains the genetic code?


  1. A client is admitted with an electrical burn and a fractured arm. Which cause related to the burn likely is responsible for the fracture?


  1. A nurse is teaching a class on health promotion and includes information about the risk from ultraviolet radiation. Which concepts should be included in this class?
    1. Ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of skin cancer.
    2. Ultraviolet radiation damages DNA.


  1. Which intervention should a nurse stress when teaching clients how to avoid exposure to lead in their environment?
    1. Avoid flaking paint.
    2. Lead can contaminate soil.


    1. Root vegetables can contain more lead than other vegetables.


  1. A client with hyperparathyroidism has hypercalcemia. Which result is a likely consequence?


  1. The cardiologist examines a client's echocardiogram and determines that the client has aortic stenosis. The cardiologist explains that a frequent cause of this valve disease is:


  1. A client with a systemic infection feels cold & has a shaking chill. Which assessment finding will the nurse expect next?


  1. The ED nurse explains to the orientee that extremes of temperature can cause cell injury. The nurse knows that the orientee understands when he states:


  1. A client was stranded when his automobile broke down while traveling in the mountains. The client had to walk 15 miles to the nearest gas station, and the outside temperature was 20°F (-7°C). The client was at risk for:


  1. A client's ECG reveals that he is suffering from a myocardial infarction. Prompt interventions are chosen to minimize further myocardial harm. What damage is the care team trying to prevent?


  1. Microscopic examination of tissue samples from a deceased client's liver reveal that the hepatocytes contain pathologic vacuoles of fat. The nurse should understand what significance of this finding?


  1. The nurse is caring for a client with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who is questioning taking the acid reducing medication because it is “just a little heartburn.” What is the nurse’s best response?


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