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Homework answers / question archive / Southern Connecticut State University CHE 121 Chapter 8 Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood QUESTION 1) According to Erikson, a child who feels comfortable trying new things, without excessive guilt or fear, is said to have acquired the virtue of   will

Southern Connecticut State University CHE 121 Chapter 8 Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood QUESTION 1) According to Erikson, a child who feels comfortable trying new things, without excessive guilt or fear, is said to have acquired the virtue of   will

Psychology

Southern Connecticut State University

CHE 121

Chapter 8 Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood

QUESTION 1)

According to Erikson, a child who feels comfortable trying new things, without excessive guilt or fear, is said to have acquired the virtue of

 

will. hope. trust. purpose.

 

QUESTION 2

According to Erikson, the conflict between young children’s urge to pursue goals and their moral judgments about those urges is

 

initiative versus guilt.

autonomy versus shame and doubt. industry versus inferiority.

identity versus role confusion.

 

QUESTION 3

According to Erikson, which of the following is the central issue of early childhood?

 

Trust versus mistrust

Autonomy versus shame and doubt Initiative versus guilt

Identity versus role confusion

 

According to Kohlberg, children learn their gender through

 

identification with the same-sex parent.

imitation of adult models, reinforcement for acceptable behaviors, and punishment for socially inappropriate behaviors.

their own active mental classification and organization of behavior to be consistent with that cognitive image.

maturation and hormonal changes due to puberty.

 

QUESTION 5

According to Sandra Bem’s gender-schema theory, how do children adopt gender-appropriate behavior?

 

Through identification with their same-sex parent after resolution of sexual conflict As a result of imitation and reinforcement

As a by-product of achieving gender constancy

By following society’s behaviors that are matched to their gender

 

QUESTION 6

According to research on children’s understanding of emotions, when 4-year-olds do something that has been forbidden by their parents, they feel shame

 

whether or not their parents see them perform the forbidden act. only if their parents see them perform the forbidden act.

only if their parents punish them for performing the forbidden act. never, even if their parents saw them perform the forbidden act.

 

QUESTION 7

According to research on gender differences, differences in activity levels between boys and girls begins

 

prior to birth. at age 2.

between ages 3 and 5.

There are no observed differences in activity levels between boys and girls.

 

According to research, the most influential individual in a child’s life in terms of influencing gender-typing is

 

the father. the mother. a sister.

a brother.

 

QUESTION 9

According to social cognitive theory,

 

parents are the only source of reinforcement of children’s behavior. parents and peers in combination influence socialization.

children only learn socialization after they begin school.

socialization is a complex system involving parents, peers, and other agents.

 

QUESTION 10

According to the evolutionary theory of gender differences, men and women have       

adaptations designed to be sensitive to environmental input.

 

physical cognitive emotional spiritual

 

QUESTION 11

According to the text, which of the following is a reason for the difficulty that 3-year-olds have in understanding their own emotions?

 

They do not recognize that they can experience different emotions at the same time. They only experience strong emotions when others around them show emotions.

They don’t realize that anyone besides them actually has emotions.

They do not understand that emotions depend on innate, temperamental factors.

 

QUESTION 12

According to the text, which of the following statements regarding solitary play is TRUE?

 

Children in the 1920s exhibited more solitary play than children do today. Solitary play seems associated with independence and maturity.

Children who engage in solitary play are at high risk for social problems.

Children who engage in solitary play are less mature than children who engage only in social play.

 

According to traditional social learning theory, children acquire gender roles by observing models. Children then

 

pick models that are powerful and nurturing. always pick the same-sex parent.

avoid patterning themselves after peers. focus only on indirect teaching by parents.

 

QUESTION 14

According to your text, if young Quinn sees his mother smiling, he is most likely to believe

 

she lost the ten pounds she was trying to lose. she is glad he is doing well in school.

she got the new purse she wanted. she likes his new haircut.

 

QUESTION 15

According to your text, which technique is most effective to discipline a child?

 

Corporal punishment Inductive reasoning Power assertion Withdrawal of love

 

QUESTION 16

Factors that have consistently been related to prosocial behavior include

 

gender of the child. parents’ income. age of the child.

social status of the family.

 

QUESTION 17

Fears develop during early childhood because young children

 

are developing inner conflicts and anxieties. have trouble separating reality from fantasy.

are learning that there are many things to be afraid of. All of these

 

Fears in early childhood are

 

abnormal and indicate child abuse. more common in boys than girls. likely to eventually disappear.

symptoms of a deeper psychological problem.

 

QUESTION 19

Feeling both angry and relieved at the same time is an example of

 

conflicting emotions. confusing cognitions. unregulated emotions. self-esteem.

 

QUESTION 20

Freud referred to the adoption of the characteristics, values, and behaviors of the parent of the same sex as

 

gender identity. gender-typing. identification. androgyny.

 

QUESTION 21

Gender differences are believed to be influenced by

 

hormones. parents. the media. All of these

 

QUESTION 22

Gender refers to

 

role-learning.

what it means to be male or female. identification with parents.

friendship patterns between males and females.

 

Gender stereotypes are

 

preconceived generalizations about male and female behavior often a result of gender conservation and identity.

based on myths about sex differences.

valuable methods of maintaining social stability.

 

QUESTION 24

Generalizing from the text, an important characteristic of young children who are popular with their peers is their

 

tendency to stay on the sidelines and watch other children socialize. ability to control the expression of anger.

possession of more toys and other material goods than less popular children. tendency to report the misdeeds of others to an adult.

 

QUESTION 25

In socializing children, parents generally

 

treat boys and girls about the same until age 2 or 3.

give girls more latitude than boys with regard to gender roles. show less tolerance for “tomboys” than for “sissies.”

have little influence on gender-role development.

 

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