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Homework answers / question archive / California State University, Long Beach ENGLISH 101 Chapter 14 European Cultural and Religious Transformations 1)In the three centuries prior to the 14th century, Europe experienced A) religious upheaval

California State University, Long Beach ENGLISH 101 Chapter 14 European Cultural and Religious Transformations 1)In the three centuries prior to the 14th century, Europe experienced A) religious upheaval


California State University, Long Beach


Chapter 14 European Cultural and Religious Transformations

1)In the three centuries prior to the 14th century, Europe experienced A) religious upheaval.

B) famine. C) improved agricultural production. D) population decline.

E) an increase in arable land.


    1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with Bubonic Plague? A) originated in Europe and spread throughout Asia and Northern Africa

B) also known as the Black Death C) an infectious disease carried by bacteria D) devastated cities

E) brought social and cultural upheaval


    1. Results of the Bubonic Plague included A) improved sanitation.

B) anti-Semitism. C) The Hundred Years? War. D) the enforcement of traditional social patterns.

E) all of the above.


    1. Beneficiaries of the Plague ultimately included all of the following EXCEPT A) the Catholic Church.

B) rural workers. C) land owners. D) urban, skilled craftsmen.

E) wage earners.


    1. In the 16th century, the transition from medieval to modern times was especially difficult for A) peasants.

B) central Europe. C) women. D) unemployed.

E) all of the above.



    1. The practice of usury means A) paying a tithe to the Church.

B) receiving a ?just price.? C) establishing cottage industries. D) charging interest or excess interest on loans.

E) canon law.


    1. Which book is regarded as the culmination of medieval intellectual tradition? A) the Decameron

B) Gargantua C) the Divine Comedy D) The Book of the City Ladies

E) The Book of the City of Ladies


    1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with the Canterbury Tales? A) satire

B) a defense of women?s significance in society C) written in the vernacular D) Geoffrey Chaucer

E) personality profiles


    1. The early humanists are best described as A) artists interested in the glorification of God.

B) restless free-thinkers interested in doing away with all religion. C) dissatisfied priests interested in reform of the Church. D) scholars interested in translating classical literature.

E) artists who emphasized religious themes.


    1. The Renaissance originated in A) the cities of northern Italy.

B) England. C) the Holy Roman Empire. D) the cities of southern Italy.

E) Greece.





    1. Which of the following developments in the 12th and 13th centuries gave rise to forces that culminated in the Renaissance?
      1. increased commerce and the revival of a money economy B) the emergence of a new middle class in towns

C) the rise of self-governing communes D) population increase

E) all of the above


    1. Leading citizens of the Italian city-states during the Renaissance A) were unwilling to participate in local government.

B) often patronized the arts. C) desired to see all of Italy united under the Papal authority. D) considered money lending an unworthy occupation.

E) allied themselves with the French.


    1. What family controlled Florentine politics for most of the 15th century? A) Medici

B) Valois C) Habsburgs D) Borgias

E) Boccaccio


    1. Which of the following was NOT characteristic of the Italian Renaissance? A) advocating for the Roman concept of a liberal education B) an interest in the literature of classical Greece and Rome

C) a focus on the importance of human life in this world D) a pervasive feeling of the worthlessness of the present

E) conspicuous displays of wealth


    1. The father of Italian humanism was A) Petrarch.

B) Lorenzo Valla. C) Marsilio Ficino. D) Dante.

E) Machiavelli.  22 160

    1. Boccaccio?s Decameron A) discredits Petrarch.

B) offers a vivid look at Renaissance life. C) was the humanists? attempt to recover classical antiquity. D) was written in Greek.

E) emphasized classical mythology.


    1. Working at the library of Cosimo de? Medici in Florence, Marsilio Ficino A) placed an emphasis on Plato?s admiration of human reason.

B) subjected the Catholic Church to a re-examination of its dogma. C) studied Cicero and Aristotle. D) wrote the first Bible in the vernacular.

E) discredited the concept of free will.


    1. Aristotelianism at the University of Padua fostered A) a mysticism that inspired reform of the Church.
  1. a secular rationalism and experimentalism that led to the emergence of modern scientific methods.
  2. conservative attitudes toward science that inhibited progress. D) severe criticism of the Catholic Church.

E) none of the above.


    1. Which of the following artists, straddling the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, occupies a transitional position in the history of painting?


      1. Giotto B) Andrea Mantegna

C) Masaccio D) Michelangelo

E) Donatello


    1. Botticelli?s painting A) inspired imagination and emotion.

B) was the first of the Renaissance to include nudes. C) remained unpopular. D) mimicked Masaccio.

E) discontinued the use of decorative backgrounds.



    1. Donatello excelled in the field of A) philosophy.

B) architecture. C) sculpture. D) painting.

E) music.


    1. The great triad of High Renaissance painters consists of A) Botticelli, Michelangelo, and Leonardo da Vinci.

B) Raphael, Michelangelo, and Masaccio. C) Michelangelo, Masaccio, and Botticelli. D) Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo.

E) Leonardo da Vinci, Donatello, and Raphael.


    1. Who painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper? A) Michelangelo

B) Titian C) da Vinci D) Raphael

E) Masaccio


    1. Who is considered the master of perfect design and balanced composition? A) Buonarroti

B) Raphael C) Michelangelo D) da Vinci

E) Parmigianino


    1. Which of the following should NOT be associated with Michelangelo? A) work on the present Saint Peter?s

B) paintings in the Sistine Chapel C) designs for new roads D) studies of male nudes

E) David




    1. Mannerism was typified by all of the following EXCEPT A) balanced composition.

B) an effort to shock the viewer. C) a revolt against classical serenity. D) illustration of no logic of structure.

E) an expression of each artist?s inner vision.


    1. The diffusion of humanistic and other learning was greatly aided by the A) European discovery of paper and movable type.

B) end of censorship by Church authorities. C) development of the miniscule form of writing. D) construction of new roads across the Alps.

E) sympathetic centralized European government.


    1. The first book printed using the new movable type was A) Cervantes? Don Quixote.

B) the Bible. C) the Qur?an. D) More?s Utopia.

E) Rabelais? Gargantua and Pantagruel.


    1. All of the following were effects of the printing press EXCEPT A) the circulation of controversial material increased.


B) the availability of inexpensive books. C) Chinese and Muslim empires adopted new learning. D) new ideas caused intellectual growth.

E) an increase in literacy.


    1. Gargantua and Pantagruel by the French humanist Rabelais A) made powerful attacks on the abuses of the Catholic Church.

B) remains the most praised of Renaissance poetry. C) advocated tolerance. D) was banned.

E) supported traditional political systems.



    1. The northern humanist who developed the essay as a literary form was A) Sir Thomas More.

B) Michel de Montaigne. C) Ulrich von Hutten. D) François Rabelais.

E) Desiderius Erasmus.


    1. An outstanding German humanist patriot was A) Albrecht Du ?rer.

B) Ulrich von Hutten. C) Hans Holbein. D) Jan van Eyck.

E) Johann Musser.


    1. Cervantes? masterpiece, Don Quixote de la Mancha, is a satire about A) knighthood and chivalry.

B) the humanists? fascination with classical antiquity. C) the middle class. D) the Church and its ceremony.

E) all of the above.


    1. William Shakespeare first became the supreme figure in English literature during the reign of A) Mary Tudor.

B) Elizabeth I. C) Henry VII. D) Henry VIII.

E) James I.


    1. In addition to being the author of thirty-seven plays, William Shakespeare has been judged the foremost English writer of
      1. essays. B) epic poems.

C) sonnets. D) songs.

E) political satire.



    1. William Shakespeare?s works reflect the Renaissance concern for A) the Last Judgment and afterlife.

B) religion. C) chivalry. D) humanity and the world.

E) wealth.


    1. The artist who perfected the technique of oil painting, enabling him to paint with greater realism and detail, was
      1. Pieter Brueghel the Elder. B) Jan van Eyck.

C) Albrecht Du ?rer. D) Hans Holbein. E) Hieronymous.


    1. A German painter celebrated for his many engravings and woodcuts was A) Hans Holbein.

B) Jan van Eyck. C) Pieter Brueghel the Elder. D) Albrecht Du ?rer.

E) Johann Gutenberg.



    1. A German painter famous for his portraits was A) Albrecht Du ?rer.

B) Pieter Brueghel the Elder. C) Hans Holbein. D) Jan van Eyck.

E) Erasmus.


    1. Bosch?s triptych, The Garden of Delights, reflects his obsession with A) morality, sin, and hell.

B) pleasure and hedonism. C) food. D) botany.

E) classic art forms.




    1. The intellectual life of Europe during the first half of the 16th century was dominated by A) Desiderius Erasmus.

B) William Shakespeare. C) Sir Thomas More. D) Ulrich von Hutten.

E) Islam


    1. Erasmus produced A) a Greek edition of the New Testament.

B) a new edition of the Codex Justinianus. C) a vernacular edition of the Bible. D) a Hebrew edition of the Old Testament.

E) all of the above.


    1. Northern humanists broadened their interest in classical literature to include works by A) Hellenic Greek authors.

B) Hellenistic authors. C) early Christians. D) authors of the Roman Republic.

E) Islamic scholars.


    1. Which of the following does NOT mark the Renaissance as a major turning point in Western civilization?
      1. the decline of feudalism B) the demand for the breakup of the Catholic Church

C) the decline in scholasticism D) an emphasis on Oriental intellectual philosophies.

E) an emphasis on individualism


    1. Sir Thomas More?s Utopia was A) a very popular satire of the European ruling class.

B) an English edition of the New Testament. C) the first description of an ideal state since Plato?s Republic. D) a reflection of everyday life in a vulgar and slapstick fashion.

E) a defense of Henry VIII.



    1. Contributions of one-tenth of one?s income to the Church A) were used to assist the poor of individual parishes.

B) were not required by secular law. C) were known as tithes. D) were shared by kings.

E) originated in the Byzantine Empire.


    1. The bull Unam Sanctam issued by Boniface VIII A) stated that all rulers were subject to the spiritual power of the pope.

B) limited the authority of the papal courts. C) forced the church to pay taxes. D) established Avignon as the papal headquarters.

E) was supported by Philip IV.



    1. The medieval pope who unsuccessfully sought to control Philip the Fair of France was A) Urban II.

B) Boniface VIII. C) Clement IV. D) Innocent III.

E) Leo X.


    1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with the Babylonian Captivity of the Church? A) Due to the death of Boniface VIII, France remained the papal headquarters for the next

century. B) New church taxes were added.

C) It gave ammunition to the critics of the Church who accused it of moral corruption. D) The papal headquarters were moved to France.

E) The papal bureaucracy was expanded.


    1. Which of the following is NOT significant to John Wycliffe?s theology? A) monarchs accountable only to God

B) seven sacraments C) role of the popes unimportant D) primacy of the Bible

E) God touches each person



    1. John Wycliffe?s beliefs continued in England after his death due to A) the Hussites.

B) the Lollards. C) religious toleration. D) the Conciliar Movement.

E) the Council of Constance.


    1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with John Hus? A) He preached against clerical abuses.

B) He was excommunicated. C) He was burned at the stake as a heretic. D) He preceded Wycliffe.

E) He preached in the vernacular.


    1. Since 1059 the pope of the Roman Catholic Church has been chosen by A) the government of Italy.

B) the College of Cardinals. C) the dominant secular power of Europe. D) members of the Catholic faith.

E) the people of Rome.


    1. The period between 1377 and 1417, when there were two and sometimes three rival Popes, was known as the
      1. Protestant revolt. B) Conciliar Movement.

C) Great Schism. D) Babylonian Captivity.

E) Reformation.


    1. Failure of the Conciliar Movement within the Catholic Church meant A) lay control of the Papacy.

B) regular meeting of councils to reform the Church. C) eventual loss of many European countries to Protestantism. D) weakening of secular rulers.

E) loss of power for the Pope.



    1. Which of the following did NOT contribute to a weakening papacy? A) British attack on Rome

B) Charles V C) Habsburgs D) the rulers of Venice

E) the merchants of Florence


    1. In 1500, the most religious believers were A) illiterate.

B) followers of the Dominicans. C) members of the middle class. D) humanist reformers.

E) members of the nobility.



    1. Public opinion concerning the need for reform in religious themes was mobilized by A) monks.

B) printing presses. C) scholastics. D) local secular rulers.

E) parish priests.


    1. Which of these beliefs is NOT consistent with the teaching of St. Augustine? A) Salvation is achieved through good works.

B) Faith is more important than reason. C) Humans are depraved sinners. D) Faith in God?s mercy is necessary for salvation.

E) Personal repentance offers salvation.


    1. Which of the following best describes Martin Luther prior to 1517? A) He was obsessed with hell and the devil.

B) He followed the teachings of the Jesuits. C) He was committed to reforming the Catholic Church. D) He was raised by non-Christian parents.

E) He was a parish priest.



    1. Indulgences were A) petitions to the local priest.

B) sacraments of the Catholic Church. C) sold by churchmen as guarantees of release from purgatory. D) sacrifices made to atone for sins.

E) individual repentances for sins.


    1. Luther believed that salvation could be gained only by A) performing acts of charity.

B) receiving the sacraments. C) venerating the relics of saints. D) faith.

E) priestly intervention.


    1. ?A penny in the box, a soul out of purgatory? refers to A) the attempt to buy a deceased family member?s way to heaven.

B) Pope Leo X?s attempt to build St. Peter?s Basilica in Rome. C) Johann Tetzel?s sale of indulgences. D) the Archbishop of Mainz?s efforts to raise funds.

E) all of the above.


    1. Why did Martin Luther and the Germans find Johann Tetzel objectionable? A) his condemnation of the Germans

B) the sale of indulgences C) his connections to France D) his connection to the Pope

E) his failure to present himself as a representative of the Church


    1. Luther?s Ninety-Five Theses were written A) on the subject of abuses within the Catholic church.

B) as arguments against heresy. C) to incite the peasants to revolt. D) in defense of transubstantiation.

E) to cause a rebellion within the Catholic Church.



    1. Lutheranism did all of the following EXCEPT A) satisfy those who wanted to return to a simple faith.

B) give the Holy Roman Emperor a weapon to use against the pope . C) provide an outlet for German resentment against Rome. D) appeal to those who were aroused by Church abuses.

E) give German princes encouragement to seek political independence.



    1. In a debate at Leipzig in 1519, Luther proclaimed the only doctrinal authority to be A) Scripture.

B) church councils. C) tradition. D) the Pope.

E) the College of Cardinals.


    1. Luther might have been burned at the stake as a heretic had he NOT won the support of A) Frederick, Elector of Saxony.

B) John Eck. C) the Dominicans. D) Charles V.

E) an influential group of laity.


    1. Which of the following is NOT consistent with Luther?s early church? A) Salvation can occur only through faith.

B) Humans must maintain a subordinate loyalty to earthly governments C) Church services conducted in German

  1. Clerical celibacy enforced for all clergy members.
  2. Monasteries were abolished.


    1. Luther?s role in the German peasant revolt of 1524?1525 provides a good example of his A) pacifist nature.

B) contempt for the power of the nobility. C) compassion for the lower classes. D) respect for authority and his political conservatism.

E) attempt to reform social ills.



    1. The Schmalkaldic League was A) an alliance of peasants who desired better circumstances.

B) an alliance of Habsburg supporters in the Holy Roman Empire. C) an anti-Turkish alliance. D) an alliance of Lutheran princes who opposed Charles V.

E) dissolved upon the death of Luther.


    1. The Peace of Augsburg, which ended the first phase of the Reformation, also encouraged the A) consolidation of Habsburg authority in the Holy Roman Empire.

B) growth of Calvinism in the Holy Roman Empire. C) political disunification of the Holy Roman Empire. D) creation of religious uniformity in the Holy Roman Empire.

E) growth of the papacy?s power.


    1. All of the following countries became heavily Lutheran EXCEPT A) Denmark.

B) Germany. C) France. D) Sweden.

E) Norway.


    1. In England, the break with Rome was led by the A) Archbishop of York.

B) Archbishop of Canterbury. C) king. D) people.

E) Parliament.


    1. The immediate reason for the English Reformation was A) disagreement over the number of sacraments.

B) refusal to accept papal infallibility. C) Henry VIII?s demand to control religious appointments. D) the pope?s refusal to allow Henry VIII to divorce his wife.

E) all of the above.




    1. Thomas Cranmer was A) an Albigensian heretic.

B) an outstanding English humanist. C) the archbishop of Canterbury who backed Henry VIII in his religious policy. D) the representative from Rome who was executed by Henry VIII for opposing his divorce.

E) an English noble who led a rebellion against Henry VIII.


    1. The basic beliefs of the Anglican Church during the reign of Henry VIII are found in A) the Six Articles.

B) the Canterbury Creed. C) Acts of Devotion. D) the Book of Exercises.

E) In Defense of the Church of England.


    1. Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and wife of Philip II of Spain, sought to A) end religious persecution in England.

B) push England toward a more radical Protestant faith. C) restore Catholicism in England by ruthless means. D) return England to the church of her father.

E) avoid the crown.


    1. The leader of the Protestant revolt in Switzerland was A) John Tetzel.

B) Albrecht Du ?rer. C) Martin Luther. D) Ulrich Zwingli.

E) John Calvin.


    1. By declaring itself independent from its bishop and its secular ruler,               became a hotbed of Protestantism, thereby triggering a religious war.
      1. Geneva   B) Bern          C) Lucerne   D) Zurich       E) Basel


    1. In 1536, John Calvin published A) a Greek edition of the New Testament.

B) Spiritual Exercises. C) The Education of a Christian Prince. D) Institutes of the Christian Religion.

E) a German Bible.



    1. A committee of clergy and lay members that surveyed the private lives of members of Calvinist congregations was the
      1. Inquisition. B) Committee of Public Safety.

C) Consistory. D) synod.

E) church council.


    1. Michael Servetus was A) the founder of the Society of Jesus.

B) a German who debated religion with Luther. C) a Spanish theologian burned at the stake as a heretic by Calvinists. D) the leader of the Schmalkaldic League.

E) a supported of the Calvinists.


    1. Anabaptists A) believed in the unity of government and religion.

B) opposed the Calvinists. C) believed in adult baptism. D) were non-Christian.

E) became dominant in England.


    1. All of the following are consistent with the teachings of John Calvin EXCEPT A) religious inferiority of women.

B) education of youth. C) representative government. D) predestination.

E) the human purpose was to honor God.



    1. Huguenots were A) English Catholics.

B) French Calvinists. C) Dutch Lutherans. D) Swiss Anabaptists.

E) German Protestants.




    1. Calvinism advocated all of the following EXCEPT A) the non-belief in the existence of Satan.

B) the recognition of the Bible as supreme law. C) members should disregard any government that denied the freedom to follow Christ. D) God?s purposes were beyond human understanding.

E) believers waged a constant war against Satan.


    1. All of the following were heavily influenced by Calvinism EXCEPT A) Spain.

B) France. C) Netherlands. D) Scotland.

E) Switzerland.


    1. Which of the following is NOT true of the ?regime of saints? led by John of Leyden? A) They planned to convert the world

B) They advocated the seizure of private property C) They practiced polygamy D) Catholic women who resisted forced marriage to Protestants were executed.

E) They remained obedient to secular authority


    1. The theocratic state established by the Anabaptists of Mu ?nster applied capital punishment in which of the following cases?
      1. adultery B) cursing God

C) cursing the government D) cursing God?s word

E) all of the above


    1. For a time in the 1490s, Savonarola imposed his religious views on the city of A) Naples. B) Milan.

C) Florence.   D) Venice. E) Paris.


    1. The reforming Pope was A) Leo X.

B) Julius II. C) Paul III. D) Clement VII.

E) Martin IV.  48 175

    1. The Council of Trent was important because it A) affirmed Catholic teachings after years of Protestant challenges.

B) marked the start of what is called the conciliar movement. C) was the first general council ever held by the Catholic Church. D) allowed Catholics to break away from Rome?s leadership.

E) ended dissent within the Catholic Church.


    1. The founder of the Society of Jesus was A) Savonarola.

B) Cardinal Ximenes. C) Saint Theresa. D) Ignatius Loyola.

E) St. Augustine.


    1. The Catholic Reformation reached a climax in the A) creation of the Inquisition in Rome.

B) creation of the Society of Jesus. C) meeting of the Council of Trent. D) the infallibility of the pope.


E) Catholic Tribunal.


    1. Which of the following changes occurred due to the Council of Trent? A) The powers of the papacy were reduced.

B) The doctrine recognized that only faith was necessary for salvation. C) The vernacular languages were to be used in mass rather than Latin. D) More seminaries were established to educate priests.

E) The office of the Pope was abolished.


    1. A major factor checking the spread of Protestantism in many areas was the A) development of the Carmelites.

B) controversy over Zwingli. C) activity of the Jesuits. D) reaction against Calvinism.

E) activity of John Calvin.



    1. After the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church became A) a global church.

B) fewer in the number of members. C) secondary to the Protestant sects. D) the sponsor of numerous crusades against Islam.

E) the one true faith.


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