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Homework answers / question archive / Walsingham Academy - SCIENCE 101 CHAPTER 06: STRENGTHENING THE NEW NATION TRUE/FALSE 1)By raising taxes in the early 1780s, the Confederation was able to reduce the national debt

Walsingham Academy - SCIENCE 101 CHAPTER 06: STRENGTHENING THE NEW NATION TRUE/FALSE 1)By raising taxes in the early 1780s, the Confederation was able to reduce the national debt

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Walsingham Academy - SCIENCE 101



1)By raising taxes in the early 1780s, the Confederation was able to reduce the national debt.




  1. George Washington recognized Shays’s Rebellion as an indicator of the need for a stronger form of government.




  1. Delegates to the Constitutional Convention sharply debated whether to establish a monarchy or a republic.




  1. The New Jersey Plan proposed keeping a unicameral legislature with equal representation for each state.




  1. The Supreme Court has final interpretive power over the Constitution.




  1. Under the Constitution, each slave would count as one person for purposes of representation, but as only half a person for taxation.




  1. The Constitution mentioned the word “slave” (or “slavery”) eighteen times.





  1. Anti-Federalists favored a decentralized federal system of government.




  1. George Washington was appointed president without any kind of election process.




  1. The Bill of Rights originally consisted of twelve amendments to the Constitution.




  1. On the issue of the assumption of state debts, James Madison agreed with Alexander Hamilton.




  1. According to Alexander Hamilton, the United States needed a national bank to provide a stable currency and act as an engine of prosperity.




  1. The XYZ affair came about as part of the so-called Quasi War with France that Adams inherited as president.




  1. Conflicts with Britain and France in the 1790s created a spirit of national unity.




  1. The partisan divisions of the 1790s ended the friendship of Adams and Jefferson for an extended period.







  1. The phrase “Critical Period” refers to:
    1. the time of the Revolutionary War
    2. the summer the Constitution was written
    3. America under the Articles of Confederation
    4. George Washington’s presidency
    5. the years of tension over British taxes




  1. Which one of the following gave the Confederation government the most trouble?
    1. finances                                                   d. postal service
    2. Indian affairs                                           e.   immigration policy
    3. land policy



  1. Under the Articles of Confederation, western lands would be:
    1. divided up among the existing states
    2. free of slavery
    3. recognized as belonging to the Indians
    4. owned by the national government
    5. extended to the Pacific



  1. The 640-acre sections created by the Land Ordinance of 1785:
    1. would be given to settlers for free
    2. raised enough money to pay the national debt
    3. would be reserved for veterans of the Revolution
    4. would be sold by local banks
    5. were part of six-square-mile townships



  1. Which of the following was NOT part of the Northwest Ordinance?


    1. Slavery was prohibited in the territory above the Ohio River.
    2. Statehood was allowed when a territory had a population of 60,000 people.
    3. Religious freedom was guaranteed in a “bill of rights.”
    4. New states formed from the Northwest Territory promised that Indian land would never be taken from them without their approval.
    5. Territorial governors were to be chosen by Congress.



  1. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787:
    1. banned slavery in the Northwest
    2. made Ohio and Indiana states immediately
    3. established colonies in the Ohio Valley
    4. denied self-government to that region
    5. provided for joint occupation of that area with the British



  1. After the Revolutionary War, American trade with Britain:
    1. was illegal
    2. was limited to the West Indies
    3. resumed, but without access to the West Indies
    4. was minimal
    5. was unrestricted



  1. One serious economic problem under the Articles of Confederation was:
    1. a scarcity of good farmland
    2. shortage of “hard money”
    3. the impossibility of obtaining credit
    4. excessively high income taxes
    5. low wages caused by an oversupply of labor



  1. Shays’s Rebellion was led by:
    1. merchants                                               d. indebted farmers
    2. factory workers                                       e.   ambitious politicians
    3. bankers




  1. Shays’s Rebellion broke out in:
    1. Boston                                                     d.   Rhode Island
    2. New York City                                          e.   Pennsylvania
    3. Massachusetts



  1. Shays’s Rebellion:
    1. spread to several northern states
    2. was supported by George Washington and other elite figures
    3. was repressed by state militia
    4. resulted in massive bloodshed and property destruction
    5. made Americans more fearful of strong central government



  1. After Shays’s Rebellion:
    1. Massachusetts was governed by martial law
    2. farmers throughout America were watched by local safety committees
    3. England prepared for the possibility of resuming the war
    4. there were numerous calls promoting a stronger central government
    5. taxes were increased



  1. The convention, which assembled in May 1787, was supposed to:
    1. write a new constitution
    2. address the country’s financial crisis
    3. revise the Articles of Confederation
    4. nominate someone for president
    5. discuss better trade relations with Britain



  1. The delegates who met:
    1. included John Adams and Thomas Jefferson
    2. tended to be elderly
    3. wanted a weaker central government


    1. included many participants in the Revolution
    2. arrived knowing what they wanted



  1. The convention’s most gifted political philosopher and the man who emerged as its central figure was:
    1. Alexander Hamilton                                d. Patrick Henry
    2. George Washington                                e.   James Madison
    3. Benjamin Franklin



  1. Madison’s Virginia Plan:
    1. would create a president for life
    2. would create a two-house Congress
    3. was most favored by the small states
    4. would simply amend the Articles of Confederation
    5. would abolish the state governments



  1. The Great Compromise:
    1. was negotiated by Benjamin Franklin
    2. showed the South’s determination to protect slavery
    3. listed the explicit powers of Congress
    4. created a four-year term for president
    5. settled the question of congressional representation



  1. The Founding Fathers viewed the most democratic branch of the government as the:
    1. presidency                                               d. cabinet
    2. Senate                                                     e.   House of Representatives
    3. Supreme Court



  1. According to the Constitution, the president has the authority to do all of the following EXCEPT:
    1. veto acts of Congress
    2. resign and choose his successor


    1. serve a four-year term
    2. act as commander in chief of the armed forces
    3. appoint diplomats and judges



  1. The Constitution addressed slavery by:
    1. referring numerous times to “slaves” or “slavery”
    2. counting slaves as three fifths of a person for the purposes of apportionment
    3. requiring that all slaves count toward a state’s congressional representation
    4. making it legal in every state
    5. requiring that slaves have full legal protections



  1. On the question of women’s rights, the proposed Constitution:
    1. denied the vote to females
    2. was surprisingly progressive for its time
    3. defined women as the property of their husbands
    4. accepted the advice of prominent women
    5. said nothing



  1. The Constitution was to be considered ratified as soon as it had been approved by:
    1. the Constitutional Convention                d. nine of the states
    2. the Continental Congress                       e.   a majority popular vote
    3. all thirteen states



  1. The Federalist essays were written by:
    1. Madison and Washington                       d. Hamilton, Madison, and Jay
    2. John Jay                                                   e.   John Adams
    3. Patrick Henry



  1. Who among the following was an anti-Federalist?
    1. Alexander Hamilton                                d. James Madison
    2. John Jay                                                   e.   George Washington


    1. George Mason




  1. Federalist essay Number 10 explains how a republic can:
    1. defend itself
    2. become a democracy
    3. create a just society
    4. pay its debts
    5. be successful in a large, diverse society



  1. The Federalist argued that:
    1. the size and diversity of the large new country would make it impossible for any one faction to control the government
    2. the Constitution was necessary to prevent one faction from taking control of the nation
    3. a republican form of government could not work in a nation as large as the United States and therefore the Constitution was necessary
    4. the Constitution would promote control of the government by one faction, which would be

good for the nation

    1. if the Constitution failed, the country could always go back to the Articles of Confederation



  1. The first of these states to ratify the Constitution was:
    1. Delaware                                                d. Virginia
    2. New York                                                 e.   Massachusetts
    3. Rhode Island




  1. In early 1789, the new Congress gathered in the national capital, which was:
    1. Philadelphia                                            d. Washington, D.C.
    2. New York City                                          e.   Baltimore
    3. Boston





  1. In his inaugural address, President Washington emphasized:
    1. his economic plans                                 d.   relations with Britain
    2. party politics                                           e.   his cabinet selections
    3. national unity



  1. The Bill of Rights did all of the following EXCEPT:
    1. safeguard freedoms such as press, speech, and assembly
    2. appease some initial critics of the Constitution
    3. constitute the first ten amendments to the Constitution
    4. protect against “cruel and unusual” punishment
    5. settle all questions about federal versus state authority



  1. In regard to religion, the Constitution:
    1. makes the United States a Christian nation
    2. reflects the atheism of the Founding Fathers
    3. prohibits the states from having official churches
    4. expresses hostility toward religion
    5. prevents Congress from establishing an official religion




  1. Alexander Hamilton’s basic vision of America was to make it:
    1. a vibrant capitalist power
    2. a democratic model for the world
    3. a mighty empire like ancient Rome
    4. committed to limited government and social equality
    5. an example of racial tolerance and diversity



  1. One key element of Hamilton’s program to encourage manufacturing was his proposal for:
    1. a cutoff of trade with Britain
    2. high protective tariffs
    3. government-owned factories
    4. importation of cheap foreign labor
    5. government colleges for industrial education




  1. Madison decided to support Hamilton’s debt proposals in return for an agreement to:
    1. give more money to the original bondholders
    2. make the states pay their own debts
    3. cut taxes
    4. limit future federal spending
    5. relocate the nation’s capital southward



  1. The Bank of the United States:
    1. would be totally owned by the federal government
    2. had unanimous support in Congress
    3. was specifically authorized by the Constitution
    4. would provide a stable national currency
    5. was ultimately opposed by President Washington



  1. In his debate with Jefferson over the national bank’s constitutionality, Hamilton:
    1. emphasized states’ rights                       d. emphasized the Tenth Amendment
    2. strictly interpreted the Constitution       e.   had Madison’s support
    3. used the doctrine of implied powers



  1. The emergence of political parties:
    1. was anticipated by the writers of the Constitution
    2. was strongly encouraged by President Washington
    3. resulted from a division between monarchists and republicans
    4. brought the United States to the brink of civil war
    5. reflected basic philosophical differences between Jefferson and Hamilton



  1. When Britain and France went to war in 1793, the United States:
    1. supported Britain because of its conservative government
    2. supported France because of the Franco-American alliance
    3. expressed neutrality, warning Americans not to aid either side
    4. allied with other nations to oppose both Britain and France


    1. sharply increased its military spending




  1. Edmond-Charles Genêt:
    1. came to the United States to escape the revolutionary excesses of the French Revolution
    2. encouraged Americans to attack English and Spanish vessels
    3. quickly won the sympathy of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists
    4. was deeply involved in the XYZ affair
    5. became a leading member of the Republican party



  1. Jay’s Treaty:
    1. shut American merchants out of the West Indies
    2. ended a war with the British
    3. was most strongly opposed in New England
    4. infuriated Republicans for its concessions to the British
    5. forced Hamilton’s resignation from the cabinet



  1. Opposition to Hamilton’s excise tax on whiskey was strongest among:
    1. merchants                                               d. frontier farmers
    2. Federalists                                               e.   churchgoers
    3. veterans



  1. Pinckney’s Treaty resulted in:
    1. American ownership of the Mississippi River
    2. expulsion of the Indians from the Southwest
    3. American trade access to Spanish New Orleans
    4. Spain’s withdrawal from Florida
    5. the right of Americans to settle in Texas



  1. Daniel Boone’s route into Kentucky was the:
    1. Fincastle Turnpike                                   d. Warriors’ Path
    2. Great Valley Road                                   e.   Wilderness Road
    3. Appalachian Trail




  1. Washington’s farewell address:
    1. praised the emerging party system
    2. urged greater involvement in Europe
    3. was soon forgotten since Washington was a poor speaker
    4. was pessimistic about the nation’s future
    5. opposed permanent alliances



  1. Under President Adams, a war between the United States and France:
    1. was an undeclared naval conflict
    2. was ended by the XYZ affair
    3. halted partisan divisions
    4. ended in American victory
    5. led to French attacks on the U.S. coast



  1. The Sedition Act was aimed primarily at:
    1. foreign immigrants                                 d. French spies
    2. anti-war Federalists                                e.   draft-evaders
    3. Republican newspaper editors



  1. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions argued that:
    1. states could nullify federal laws
    2. taxes imposed by Congress were unconstitutional
    3. immigrants should be expelled from the country if they were not loyal to the American cause
    4. the “freedom of speech” clause in the Bill of Rights did not apply to purely political


    1. new western states should be admitted as quickly as possible



  1. Jefferson’s election in 1800:
    1. continued the Federalist domination of the U.S. government
    2. had to be settled by the House of Representatives
    3. was assured when Aaron Burr agreed to withdraw as a candidate for president
    4. was assured when George Washington announced his support of Jefferson just three weeks


before the election

    1. ended party divisions



  1. The Judiciary Act of 1801:
    1. created three new positions on the Supreme Court
    2. was the first act passed by the Republicans
    3. allowed federal judges to be impeached under the Sedition Act
    4. was the legacy of the Federalists as they left office
    5. was vetoed by President Jefferson



  1. Just before he left office, Adams:
    1. repealed Hamilton’s tax policies
    2. questioned the fair outcome of the election
    3. cemented Federalism within the judiciary
    4. destroyed his official records
    5. renewed his friendship with Jefferson






  1. Match each description with the item below.
    1. was the oldest member of the Constitutional Convention
    2. issued a neutrality proclamation in 1793 in response to pressure to enter European conflicts
    3. drafted the land ordinance of 1784
    4. diplomat who sought to undermine American policy relative to the French Revolution
    5. briefly represented New York at the Constitutional Convention
    6. claimed to “smell a rat” at the Constitutional Convention
    7. defined the United States through his tenure as chief justice of the Supreme Court
    8. arrived in Philadelphia having spent months preparing for the convention
    9. led American troops at the Battle of Fallen Timbers
    10. negotiated the extremely popular treaty with Spain


  1. James Madison
  2. Benjamin Franklin
  3. Alexander Hamilton
  4. Patrick Henry
  5. Thomas Jefferson
  6. John Marshall
  7. Thomas Pinckney
  8. Anthony Wayne
  9. George Washington
  10. Edmond-Charles Genêt



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