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Homework answers / question archive / 1) If two objects cast retinal images of the same size, the object that appears to be closer is perceived as ________ the object that appears to be more distant

1) If two objects cast retinal images of the same size, the object that appears to be closer is perceived as ________ the object that appears to be more distant

Psychology

1) If two objects cast retinal images of the same size, the object that appears to be closer is perceived as ________ the object that appears to be more distant.

 A) overlapping

 B) smaller than

 C) larger than

 D) the same size as

 

 

 2. Because she mistakenly thought she was much closer to the mountain than she actually was, Fiona perceived the mountain to be ________ than it actually was.

 A) higher

 B) smaller

 C) more richly colorful

 D) larger

 

 

 3. When the Moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of

 A) the slightly dimmer appearance of the horizon Moon.

 B) the scattering of the horizon Moon's light waves, which penetrate the atmosphere at an angle.

 C) monocular distance cues, which make the horizon Moon seem farther away.

 D) the brighter appearance of the horizon Moon.

 

 

 4. Knowing about the effects of the perceived distance of objects on their perceived size helps us to understand

 A) the Moon illusion.

 B) blindsight.

 C) shape constancy.

 D) relative luminance.

 

 

 5. While watching a stranger walk from the far right corner to the far left corner of Adelbert Ames' distorted room, observers are likely to experience the greatest difficulty maintaining a sense of

 A) shape constancy.

 B) brightness constancy.

 C) color constancy.

 D) size constancy

 

 

 6. The tendency to hear the steady drip of a leaky sink faucet as if it were a repeating rhythm of two or more beats best illustrates

 A) interposition.

 B) perceptual organization.

 C) relative luminance.

 D) perceptual adaptation.

 

 

 7. Who emphasized that perceptual understanding comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experience?

 A) Immanuel Kant

 B) Aristotle

 C) John Locke

 D) Sigmund Freud

 

 

 8. The ability of newborn infants to perceive depth best serves to support the views of

 A) John Locke.

 B) Immanuel Kant.

 C) Sigmund Freud.

 D) Aristotle.

 

 

 9. The philosopher John Locke believed that people

 A) learn to perceive the world through experience.

 B) are endowed at birth with perceptual skills.

 C) perceive whole figures as greater than the sum of their parts.

 D) are unable to adapt to an inverted visual world.

 

 

 10. John Locke is to Immanuel Kant as ________ is to ________.

 A) figure; ground

 B) perception; sensation

 C) nurture; nature

 D) experience; learning

 

 

 11. Lenore had been blind from birth. Immediately after corrective eye surgery, she could visually perceive figure-ground relationships. This fact would serve to support the position advanced by

 A) Immanuel Kant.

 B) Sigmund Freud.

 C) Aristotle.

 D) John Locke.

 

 

 12. If an adult who was blind from birth gains the ability to see, that person would have the greatest difficulty visually distinguishing

 A) ice cubes from golf balls.

 B) the Sun from the Moon.

 C) red from green.

 D) a white cloud from the blue sky.

 

 

 13. A clouding of the lens of the eye is called a

 A) blind spot.

 B) cataract.

 C) visual cliff.

 D) gestalt.

 

 

 14. Rebecca was born with cataracts that were not surgically removed until she was 3 years old. As a result, Rebecca is most likely to

 A) have lost visual receptor cells in her eyes.

 B) be unable to perceive figure-ground relationships.

 C) have inadequate neural connections in her visual cortex.

 D) be unable to sense colors.

 

 

 . Sensory restriction is much more likely to hinder visual development in early infancy than during other times of life. This suggests that there is a(n) ________ for normal visual development.

 A) difference threshold

 B) accommodation

 C) critical period

 D) blind spot

 

 

 . The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called

 A) retinal disparity.

 B) accommodation.

 C) perceptual adaptation.

 D) shape constancy.

 

 

 . Research with distorting goggles best supports the view of human perception advanced by

 A) John Locke.

 B) Hermann von Helmholtz.

 C) Immanuel Kant.

 D) Ewald Hering.

 

 

 . Although he was wearing a pair of glasses that shifted the apparent location of objects 20 degrees to his right, after a short practice time Lars was still able to play tennis very effectively. This best illustrates the value of

 A) relative luminance.

 B) shape constancy.

 C) retinal disparity.

 D) perceptual adaptation.

 

 

 . Our sense of hearing is known as

 A) the vestibular sense.

 B) kinesthesia.

 C) audition.

 D) tinnitus.

 

 

 20. The process of transforming air pressure waves into neural messages that the brain interprets as meaningful sound is known as

 A) sensory interaction.

 B) the vestibular sense.

 C) kinesthesia.

 D) audition.

 

 

 21. The loudness of sounds is determined by the ________ of sound waves.

 A) length

 B) telepathy

 C) amplitude

 D) frequency

 

 

 22. The high notes on a piano always produce ________ sound waves than the low notes.

 A) higher-amplitude

 B) lower-amplitude

 C) higher-frequency

 D) lower-frequency

 

 

 23. Brightness is to light as ________ is to sound.

 A) pitch

 B) loudness

 C) frequency

 D) wavelength

 

 

 24. High-frequency sound waves are to ______ as low-frequency sound waves are to ______.

 A) a loud voice; a soft voice

 B) a high-pitched voice; a low-pitched voice

 C) a soft voice; a loud voice

 D) a low-pitched voice; a high-pitched voice

 

 

 25. The absolute threshold for hearing is defined as zero

 A) decibels.

 B) amps.

 C) ESPs.

 D) hertz.

 

 

 26. An 80-decibel sound is ________ times more intense than a 60-decibel sound.

 A) 2

 B) 10

 C) 20

 D) 100

 

 

 27. The bones of the middle ear relay vibrations received from the

 A) cochlea.

 B) eardrum.

 C) vestibular sacs.

 D) semicircular canals.

 

 

 28. Eardrum vibrations are transmitted by three tiny bones located in the

 A) vestibular sacs.

 B) inner ear.

 C) cochlea.

 D) middle ear.

 

 

 29. Eardrum vibrations are transmitted to the cochlea by a piston consisting of

 A) protruding hair cells.

 B) the basilar membrane.

 C) the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.

 D) vestibular sacs.

 

 

 30. The surface of the basilar membrane is lined with

 A) hair cells.

 B) olfactory receptors.

 C) nociceptors.

 D) decibels.

 

 

 31. The cochlea consists of

 A) interconnected nerve fibers in the spinal cord.

 B) a fluid-filled tube in the inner ear.

 C) olfactory receptor cells at the top of each nasal cavity.

 D) neural networks located within each temporal lobe.

 

 

 32. On the way to the temporal lobe's auditory cortex, neural impulses from the auditory nerve are first relayed to the

 A) thalamus.

 B) amygdala.

 C) hippocampus.

 D) hypothalamus.

 

 

33. Damage to the hair cells lining the basilar membrane is most likely to result in

 A) phantom limb sensations.

 B) conduction hearing loss.

 C) loss of the sense of balance.

 D) sensorineural hearing loss.

 

 

 34. As a rock musician who has experienced prolonged exposure to high-amplitude sounds, Rodney is beginning to lose his hearing. It is most likely that this hearing loss involves problems in the

 A) auditory canal.

 B) eardrum.

 C) tiny bones of the middle ear.

 D) cochlea.

 

 

 35. Joe Wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that he has conduction hearing loss and that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that Joe's hearing loss involves problems within the

 A) inner ear.

 B) middle ear.

 C) auditory nerve.

 D) basilar membrane.

 

 

36. Damage to the hammer, anvil, and stirrup is most likely to cause

 A) dissociation.

 B) sensorineural hearing loss.

 C) phantom limb sensations.

 D) conduction hearing loss.

 

 

 37. Ringing of the ears after exposure to loud music is most likely to be caused by damage to

 A) nociceptors.

 B) hair cells.

 C) cochlear implants.

 D) bipolar cells.

 

 

 38. A cochlear implant converts sounds into

 A) decibels.

 B) electrical signals.

 C) air pressure changes.

 D) fluid vibrations.

 

 

39. The greatest number of hair cells lining the basilar membrane are activated in response to ________ sound waves.

 A) high-amplitud

 B) low-amplitude

 C) high-frequency

 D) low-frequency

 

 

 40. Many hard-of-hearing people like sound compressed because they remain sensitive to ________ sounds.

 A) loud

 B) high-pitched

 C) prolonged

 D) unpredictable

 

 

41 . Mr. Wilkes has difficulty hearing sounds in the range of 20 to 40 decibels, but he has no difficulty hearing sounds above that range. He would most likely profit from today's digital hearing aids because they can deliver sound that is

 A) redirected.

 B) compressed.

 C) rebalanced.

 D) compounded.

 

 

42. Place theory suggests that

 A) structures in the inner ear provide us with a sense of the position of our bodies in space.

 B) we have a system for sensing the position and movement of the various parts of our body.

 C) we can locate the place from which a sound is emitted because of the distance between our ears.

 D) the pitch we hear is related to the place where the cochlea's basilar membrane is stimulated.

 

 

 43. After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Jason experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Jason's hearing loss is best explained by the ________ theory.

 A) gate-control

 B) frequency

 C) dissociation

 D) place

 

 

 44. According to place theory, the perception of

 A) low-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the eardrum closest to the oval window.

 B) high-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the eardrum closest to the oval window.

 C) low-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window.

 D) high-pitched sounds is associated with large vibrations of the basilar membrane closest to the oval window.

 

 

 45. Which of the following best explains how we perceive very low-pitched sounds?

 A) place theory

 B) volley principle

 C) frequency theory

 D) dissociation theory

 

 

 46. Individual nerve cells increase the frequency of neural impulses in the auditory nerve by firing in rapid succession. This is said to illustrate

 A) gate-control theory.

 B) the McGurk effect.

 C) the volley principle.

 D) top-down processing.

 

 

 47. The volley principle is most directly relevant to our perception of

 A) touch.

 B) taste.

 C) pain.

 D) pitch.

 

 

 48. Some combination of place theory and frequency theory appears to be most necessary in accounting for how we sense

 A) high-frequency sound waves.

 B) intermediate-frequency sound waves.

 C) low-frequency sound waves.

 D) low-amplitude sound waves.

 

 

 49. A time lag between left and right auditory stimulation is important for accurately

 A) locating sounds.

 B) detecting pitch.

 C) recognizing rhythms.

 D) judging amplitude.

 

 

 50. Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ________ of a sound.

 A) pitch

 B) loudness

 C) location

 D) amplitude

 

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