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Homework answers / question archive / 1)  Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups

1)  Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups

Psychology

1)  Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a

 A) signal detector.

 B) sensory adaptation.

 C) perceptual set.

 D) difference threshold.

 

 

2. Visual perceptions of objects often change when the objects are viewed in different surroundings. This best illustrates

 A) prosopagnosia.

 B) Weber's law.

 C) context effects.

 D) subliminal stimulation.

 

3.  In one study, a pictured woman was perceived by some as balancing a box on her head and by others as sitting under a window. The study best illustrated that perceptions are influenced by

 A) sensory adaptation.

 B) masking stimuli.

 C) context effects.

 D) subliminal sensation.

 

 

 4. Although Sue Yen sees her chemistry professor several times a week, she didn't recognize the professor when she saw her in the grocery store. This best illustrates the importance of

 A) bottom-up processing.

 B) context effects.

 C) priming.

 D) sensory adaptation.

 

 

 5. When Rick learned that many students had received a failing grade on the midterm exam, he was no longer disappointed by his C grade. His experience best illustrates the importance of

 A) sensory adaptation.

 B) subliminal sensation.

 C) context effects.

 D) masking stimuli.

 

 

 6. While listening to sad rather than happy music, people are more likely to perceive a spoken word as mourning rather than morning. This best illustrates that perception is influenced by

 A) sensory adaptation.

 B) subliminal stimuli.

 C) Weber's law.

 D) top-down processing.

 

 

 7. A softball may appear smaller to batters who are discouraged by their poor performance than to batters who are hitting well. This best illustrates that perceptions are influenced by

 A) Weber's law.

 B) emotion.

 C) sensory adaptation.

 D) absolute thresholds.

 

 

 8. To those throwing a very heavy rather than a light object at a target, the target is likely to be perceived as

 A) softer.

 B) slower moving.

 C) larger.

 D) farther away.

 

 

 9. We may perceive a bottle of fruit juice as less expensive when we are most thirsty. This best illustrates that perceptions are influenced by

 A) subliminal stimulation.

 B) masking stimuli.

 C) sensory adaptation.

 D) motivation.

 

 

 10. The wavelength of visible light determines its

 A) relative luminance.

 B) amplitude.

 C) difference threshold.

 D) hue.

 

 

 11. Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color ________ and the shortest visible waves as ________.

 A) blue-violet; red

 B) red; green

 C) red; blue-violet

 D) black; white

 

 

 12. The perceived brightness of visible light waves is determined by their

 A) relative motion.

 B) difference threshold.

 C) amplitude.

 D) frequency.

 

 

 13. Brightness is to intensity as hue is to

 A) amplitude.

 B) color.

 C) pitch.

 D) wavelength.

 

 

 14. For her birthday, Amy received flowers that had a dull red appearance. Compared with the entire range of visible light waves, the flowers reflected relatively ________ frequency and ________ amplitude light waves.

 A) high; small

 B) high; great

 C) low; small

 D) low; great

 

 

 15. The pupil is the

 A) adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.

 B) transparent structure that focuses light rays in a process called accommodation.

 C) light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing both rods and cones.

 D) central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.

 

 

 16. Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?

 A) accommodation of the lens

 B) transduction of the blind spot

 C) dilation of the pupil

 D) perceptual adaptation of feature detectors

 

 

 17. The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the

 A) iris.

 B) retina.

 C) optic nerve.

 D) feature detectors.

 

 

 18. The colored muscle that constricts when you feel disgust or enter a dark room is the

 A) cornea.

 B) iris.

 C) retina.

 D) fovea.

 

 

 19. Paul is feeling romantic toward his wife. She is most likely to detect his interest in her by changes in the appearance of his eyes caused by

 A) accommodation of the lens.

 B) dilation of the pupils.

 C) increased retinal disparity.

 D) disappearance of the blind spot.

 

 

 20. Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in the curve and thickness of the

 A) rods and cones.

 B) lens.

 C) bipolar cells.

 D) optic nerve.

 

 

 21. Accommodation refers to the

 A) diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus.

 B) quivering eye movements that enable the retina to detect continuous stimulation.

 C) process by which stimulus energies are changed into neural messages.

 D) process by which the lens changes shape to focus images on the retina.

 

 

 22. Which of the following is the correct order in which the retina's neural layers process visual stimulation?

 A) ganglion cells, rods and cones, bipolar cells

 B) rods and cones, ganglion cells, bipolar cells

 C) bipolar cells, ganglion cells, rods and cones

 D) rods and cones, bipolar cells, ganglion cells

 

 

 23. Which cells for visual processing are located closest to the back of the retina?

 A) ganglion cells

 B) bipolar cells

 C) rods and cones

 D) feature detectors

 

 

 24. The axons of ganglion cells converge to form

 A) the lens.

 B) bipolar cells.

 C) the cornea.

 D) the optic nerve.

 

 

 25. The fovea refers to

 A) the outer protective surface of the eye.

 B) a colored muscle that adjusts light intake.

 C) an area of the thalamus that receives information from the optic nerve.

 D) the central focal point in the retina.

 

 

 26. The blind spot is located in the area of the retina

 A) called the fovea.

 B) that contains rods but no cones.

 C) where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

 D) where bipolar cells connect with ganglion cells.

 

 

 27. Objects to your _____ would be most likely to fall into your right eye's blind spot because the blind spot is located on the side of each retina that is ________ to the nose.

 A) right; closest

 B) left; closest

 C) right; farthest

 D) left; farthest

 

 

 28. The direct link between a single cone and a single ________ preserves the fine details in the cone's message.

 A) rod

 B) ganglion cell

 C) blind spot

 D) bipolar cell

 

 

 29. Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?

 A) rods

 B) cones

 C) bipolar cells

 D) feature detectors

 

 

 30. Rods are

 A) more light-sensitive and more color-sensitive than are cones.

 B) less light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones.

 C) more light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones.

 D) less light-sensitive and more color-sensitive than are cones.

 

 

 31. Damage to the fovea would probably have the LEAST effect on visual sensitivity to ________ stimuli.

 A) brilliantly colored

 B) finely detailed

 C) dimly illuminated

 D) highly familiar

 

 

 32. When a power outage shut off the lights in her house late one night, Shelly could see very little. But within 20 minutes she could see quite well in the dark due to

 A) visual afterimages.

 B) retinal disparity.

 C) pupil dilation.

 D) color constancy.

 

 

 33. The encoding and analysis of visual information first begins within the neural layers of the

 A) lens.

 B) optic nerve.

 C) retina.

 D) thalamus.

 

 

 34. When we are exposed to the narrow band of wavelengths visible to the human eye, we see a red object as red because it rejects waves of

 A) blue-violet light.

 B) red light.

 C) green light.

 D) yellow light.

 

 

 35. A genetically sex-linked characteristic accounts for the greater incidence of

 A) retinal disparity among females than among males.

 B) visual afterimages among males than among females.

 C) accommodation among females than among males.

 D) color-deficient vision among males than among females.

 

 

 36. Who first hypothesized that the eye must have three different types of color receptors, with each especially sensitive to one of the three primary colors?

 A) Leonardo Da Vinci and Johannes Kepler

 B) David Hubel and Torsten Weisel

 C) Thomas Young and Hermann Von Helmholtz

 D) John Locke and William Molyneux

 

 

 37. Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of

 A) place theory.

 B) the Young-Helmholtz theory.

 C) Kant's theory.

 D) the opponent-process theory.

 

 

 38. According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red-sensitive and green-sensitive cones are stimulated simultaneously, a person should see

 A) red.

 B) yellow.

 C) blue.

 D) green.

 

 

 39. Who first proposed the opponent-process theory of color vision?

 A) Isaac Newton

 B) Ewald Hering

 C) Adelbert Ames

 D) Herman von Helmholtz

 

 

 40. Ewald Hering found a clue to the mystery of color vision in

 A) blindsight.

 B) afterimages.

 C) retinal disparity.

 D) the phi phenomenon.

 

 

 41. When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears

 A) yellow.

 B) red.

 C) green.

 D) blue.

 

 

 42. People with color-deficient vision for red and green may still see yellow. This is most easily explained by

 A) the Young-Helmholtz theory.

 B) Locke's theory.

 C) frequency theory.

 D) the opponent-process theory.

 

 

 43. Opponent-process cells have been located in the

 A) retina and the thalamus.

 B) cornea and the lens.

 C) lens and the retina.

 D) thalamus and the hypothalamus.

 

 

 44. According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are turned “on” by

 A) green light are turned “off” by blue light.

 B) yellow light are turned “off” by red light.

 C) green light are turned “off” by red light.

 D) red light are turned “off” by blue light.

 

 

 45. The processing of color begins with the activation of ________, followed by the activation of ________.

 A) opponent-process cells; cells sensitive to one of the three colors red, yellow, or blue

 B) cells sensitive to one of the three colors red, yellow, or blue; opponent-process cells

 C) opponent-process cells; cells sensitive to one of the three colors red, green, or blue

 D) cells sensitive to one of the three colors red, green, or blue; opponent-process cells

 

 

 46. Visual information is processed by

 A) feature detectors before it is processed by rods and cones.

 B) ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors.

 C) bipolar cells before it is processed by rods and cones.

 D) feature detectors before it is processed by bipolar cells.

 

 

 47. The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Wiesel consist of

 A) nerve cells in the brain.

 B) rods and cones.

 C) bipolar cells.

 D) ganglion cells.

 

 

 48. The feature detectors identified by Hubel and Wiesel respond to specific aspects of ________ stimulation.

 A) visual

 B) auditory

 C) olfactory

 D) kinesthetic

 

 

 49. When we look at a clock showing 8 A.M., certain brain cells in our visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 A.M. This is most indicative of

 A) retinal disparity.

 B) feature detection.

 C) perceptual adaptation.

 D) accommodation.

 

 

 50. An area of the brain dedicated to the specialized task of recognizing faces is located in the right ________ lobe.

 A) frontal

 B) parietal

 C) occipital

 D) temporal

 

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