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Homework answers / question archive / 1)According to the text, which of the following is NOT a principal route of drug administration? absorption through skin membranes injection inhalation biotransformation     Psychoactive drugs affect our behavior and experience __________

1)According to the text, which of the following is NOT a principal route of drug administration? absorption through skin membranes injection inhalation biotransformation     Psychoactive drugs affect our behavior and experience __________

Health Science

1)According to the text, which of the following is NOT a principal route of drug administration?

    1. absorption through skin membranes
    2. injection
    3. inhalation
    4. biotransformation

 

 

  1. Psychoactive drugs affect our behavior and experience __________.
    1. by altering the functioning of the brain
    2. by purely psychological means
    3. by adjusting our expectations toward a given response
    4. only if they are ingested orally

 

 

  1. Which route of drug administration is the oldest and easiest?
    1. oral
    2. inhalation
    3. injection
    4. absorption through skin or membranes

 

 

  1. 4 An oral administration refers to a delivery through the __________.
    1. larynx
    2. lungs
    3. skin
    4. mouth

 

 

  1. 5 Protection against toxic drugs is maximized when delivered through which route of administration?
    1. inhalation
    2. injection
    3. oral
    4. absorption through skin or membranes

 

 

  1. 6 Which route of administration provides the slowest absorption into the brain, in general?
    1. oral
    2. absorption through skin or membranes
    3. inhalation
    4. injection

 

 

  1. 7 Digestion is a requirement for the absorption of drugs through which route of administration?
    1. anal
    2. oral
    3. intranasal
    4. inhalation

 

 

  1. 8 Alcohol and caffeine are drugs that share a common _______ route of administration.
    1. skin-absorption
    2. vaporous inhalation
    3. oral
    4. sublingual

 

 

  1. 9 When taken orally, weakly acidic drugs are absorbed ______ strongly acidic drugs.
    1. to a lesser degree than
    2. better than
    3. in an equivalent manner to
    4. slower and less completely than

 

 

  1. The term that describes a substance that is soluble in fat is  __________. 
    1. insipid-soluble
    2. lipid-soluble
    3. capillary-soluble
    4. monolipid-soluble

 

 

  1. Constant changes in the state of the gastrointestinal tract can make it difficult to predict the strength of the drug once it reaches the bloodstream. This problem would be associated with which route of administration?
    1. intranasal
    2. sublingual
    3. oral
    4. subcutaneous

 

 

  1. Which of the following forms of drug administration is the fastest?
    1. intravenous
    2. intramuscular
    3. oral
    4. sublingual

 

 

  1. Which of the following delivers a drug into the bloodstream in the quickest manner?
    1. intramuscular injection
    2. intravenous injection
    3. subcutaneous injection
    4. intranasal absorption

 

 

  1. 4 The effects of abused drugs delivered by injection are known as __________. 
    1. streamlining
    2. mainlining
    3. veinlining
    4. intravenous-lining

 

 

  1. 5 With intramuscular injections, the drug is absorbed into the bloodstream through the _______serving the muscle.
    1. arteries
    2. veins
    3. capillaries
    4. muscle membranes

 

 

  1. 6 Inoculations are typically administered via ________ injections.
    1. intravenous
    2. intracellular
    3. intramuscular
    4. subcutaneous

 

 

  1. 7 Which of the following is NOT an injection technique?
    1. intravenous
    2. intramuscular
    3. subcutaneous
    4. vein-popping

 

 

  1. 8 The order of absorption times from slowest to fastest in the following injections are __________.
    1. subcutaneous, intravenous, intramuscular
    2. intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous
    3. intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous
    4. subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous

 

 

  1. 9 Analogy: Mainlining is to skin-popping as __________.
    1. subcutaneous is to intravenous
    2. intravenous is to intramuscular
    3. intravenous is to subcutaneous
    4. intramuscular is to subcutaneous

 

 

  1. 0 Which of the following disadvantages applies to subcutaneous injections?
    1. Only a small amount of drug can be injected.
    2. It is difficult to achieve a precise control over the dosage.
    3. The absorption time is faster than that of intravenous injections.
    4. It is impossible to achieve a steady absorption of the drug into the bloodstream.

 

 

  1. A problem inherent in all forms of injection involves __________.
    1. the relatively slow rate of absorption
    2. the need for the individual to be conscious
    3. the possible collapse of a vein
    4. the risk of infection if the needle is not sterile

 

 

  1. A chemical substance can travel from lungs to the brain in __________.
    1. five to eight seconds
    2. about a minute and a half
    3. about the same time as when injected sub-Q
    4. one-half second or less

 

 

  1. Smoking is a method of inhalation that depends upon __________.
    1. vapors traveling freely in the air
    2. specialized medical equipment
    3. smoke-borne particles in the air
    4. liquids that have combined with air molecules

 

 

  1. 4 Drugs administered through smoking include __________.
    1. opium
    2. nicotine from cigarettes
    3. crystallized forms of methamphetamine
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 5 Risks of emphysema, asthma, and cancer are associated with __________.
    1. tars and hydrocarbons in inhaled smoke
    2. non-sterile injection needles
    3. long-term irritation from subcutaneous injections
    4. allergic reactions to hypodermic syringes

 

 

  1. 6 Paint thinners, gasoline, and cleaning fluid are typically associated with which route of administration?
    1. smoking
    2. vaporous inhalation
    3. absorption through the skin
    4. oral

 

 

  1.  Sniffing employs the same route of administration as__________.
    1. snorting
    2. smoking
    3. subcutaneous injections
    4. inhalation methods

 

 

  1. 8 Inhalation is to gas as snorting is to __________.
    1. liquid
    2. smoke
    3. powder
    4. vapor

 

 

  1. 9 Intramuscular is to capillaries as intranasal is to __________.
    1. mucus membranes
    2. snorting
    3. veins
    4. lungs

 

 

  1. 0 In a sublingual administration, the drug is placed __________.
    1. over the dorsal surface of the arm
    2. under the tongue
    3. into the nose
    4. directly into the lingual vein

 

 

  1. Suppositories are typically administered __________.
    1. sublingually
    2. subcutaneously
    3. rectally
    4. transdermally

 

 

  1. Suppositories may be necessary if __________.
    1. the individual is vomiting
    2. the individual is unconscious
    3. oral administration is impossible
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. A transdermal patch works through the principle of __________.
    1. inhalation
    2. oral absorption
    3. absorption through the skin
    4. slow absorption through a muscle

 

 

  1. 4 Analogy: Sublingual is to transdermal as __________.
    1. tongue is to skin
    2. vein is to muscle
    3. powder is to smoke
    4. nose is to tongue

 

 

  1. 5 A technique well-suited for long-term, gradual administration of a drug is a(n) __________.
    1. intramuscular clamp
    2. transdermal patch
    3. intranasal loop
    4. lung implantation

 

 

  1. 6 Silicon chip patches that contain a grid of microscopic needles are used to deliver drugs __________.
    1. orally
    2. intravenously
    3. through the skin
    4. through the tongue

 

 

  1. 7 The most common means of drug elimination is through excretion in the __________.
    1. feces
    2. urine
    3. saliva
    4. exhaled breath

 

 

  1. 8 Which of the following is NOT a way in which the body eliminates drugs?
    1. saliva
    2. feces and urine
    3. sweat
    4. inhaled breath

 

 

  1. 9 Biotransformation is a process accomplished in the __________.
    1. mouth
    2. liver
    3. stomach
    4. esophagus

 

 

  1. 40 Products of biotransformation are called __________.
    1. metabolites
    2. enzymatic residues
    3. biotransformables
    4. urinary particles

 

 

  1. 4 The processes of biotransformation and urinary excretion are influenced by __________.
    1. the concentration of the drug in the bloodstream
    2. the presence of other drugs in the bloodstream
    3. the chemical properties of the drug
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 4 The ______ the quantity of the drug, the ______ the body tries to get rid of it.
    1. larger; slower
    2. smaller; faster
    3. larger; faster
    4. there is no relationship between the quantity of the drug and the speed with which the body tries to excrete it.

 

 

  1. 4 As a person gets older, the enzyme activity in the liver __________.
    1. increases
    2. decreases
    3. stays the same
    4. completely stops

 

 

  1. 44 The rate of elimination of a particular drug can be determined by an index called __________.
    1. the elimination quarter-life
    2. the elimination half-life
    3. the elimination rate-life
    4. the elimination declination life

 

 

  1. 45 The elimination half-life index of a drug is determined by __________.
    1. dividing in half the total time the drug produces an effect
    2. dividing in half the user’s age
    3. noting the time it takes for the concentration to decline by half
    4. a combination of the above

 

 

  1. 46 Of the following drugs, which has the longest elimination half-life?
    1. cocaine
    2. marijuana
    3. nicotine
    4. caffeine

 

 

  1. 47 Which of the following plays the most important role in determining the final result after a drug is repeatedly administered?
    1. the timing of drug administration
    2. the acute effects of drugs administered close together in time
    3. the chronic effects of drugs administered close together in time
    4. the age of the individual

 

 

  1. 48 A latency period occurs __________.
    1. late in a drug administration, when concentrations declined
    2. in the “middle” of the interval, when drug effect has been observed
    3. when it is realized that the drug was really a placebo
    4. when drug concentrations are increasing in the blood but no drug effect has yet been detected

                             

 

  1. 49 If a drug is taken at noon and an effect is detected at :05 but no longer detected by :00, it is reasonable to assume that the latency period occurred at __________.
    1. :04
    2. :07
    3. :55
    4. :5

 

 

  1. 50 It is possible for drug concentrations to continue to rise in the blood __________.
    1. even when there is no longer any effect at all
    2. even when the effect has reached maximum strength
    3. even when the effect has begun to decline
    4. even when the individual has not taken the drug

 

 

  1. 5 The technique used to keep the concentration of the drug high enough to be effective yet low enough to avoid toxic effects is known as the __________.
    1. time-sensitive form
    2. time-release form
    3. time-suspension form
    4. time-mark form

 

 

  1. 5 A solution to the problem of undesirable side effects due to excessive concentrations of the drug in the blood is __________.
    1. a placebo
    2. taking twice the recommended dosage
    3. a time-release form of the drug
    4. avoiding the therapeutic window

 

 

  1. 5 You have a better chance of staying within the therapeutic window with __________.
    1. a tamper-proof drug container
    2. a time-release form of the drug
    3. an easily digested form of the drug
    4. an injection of the drug

 

 

  1. 54 When the combination of two drugs results in an acute effect that is equivalent to the sum of the effects of either drug administered separately, the effect is known as __________.
    1. subtractive
    2. multiplicative
    3. additive
    4. obtuse

 

 

 

  1. 56 If one drug has an effect of 6, a second drug has an effect of 8, and the combination of the  drugs has an effect of 0, then the interaction is __________.
    1. synergistic
    2. additive
    3. antagonistic
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 57 Synergism and potentiation are special cases of __________.
    1. an additive combination
    2. a hypoadditive combination
    3. a hyperadditive combination
    4. a postadditive combination

 

 

  1. 58 If there is a very strong effect when two drugs are taken in combination, even though one of the drugs by itself has no effect and the other by itself has only a weak effect, then the combination effect is called __________.
    1. additive
    2. subtractive
    3. synergistic
    4. potentiation

 

 

  1. 59 If one drug has an effect of 6 and a second drug has an effect of 6, but the combination of the two drugs has an effect of 0, then the interaction is __________.
    1. synergistic
    2. antagonistic
    3. hyperadditive
    4. additive

 

 

  1. 60 Developing a tolerance for a drug’s effect results in tolerance for the effects of another drug never taken; this is known as __________.
    1. cross-reference
    2. cross-tolerance
    3. cross-dependence
    4. cross-induction

 

 

  1. 6 Cross-tolerance is commonly observed in the effects of __________.
    1. cocaine
    2. nicotine
    3. benzodiazepines
    4. marijuana

 

 

  1. 6 Which of the following is NOT an example of cross-tolerance?
    1. a barbiturate abuser having to drink more than usual before getting drunk
    2. an alcoholic needing a greater amount of anesthetic when undergoing surgery
    3. liquid heroin abuser needing increasingly higher doses when snorting it
    4. All of the above are examples.

 

 

  1. 6 Dangerous interactions can result from__________.
    1. drug/drug combinations
    2. food/drug combinations
    3. both A and B
    4. neither A nor B

 

 

  1. 64 The combination of morphine or heroin with naloxone or naltrexone is an example of __________.
    1. potentiation
    2. synergism
    3. an additive effect
    4. an antagonistic effect

 

 

  1. 65 When one drug can substitute for the physiological effects produced by a second drug that has been discontinued, this phenomenon is known as __________.
    1. cross-reference
    2. cross-dependence
    3. cross-tolerance
    4. cross-induction

 

 

  1. 66 A man using barbiturates to hide an addiction is an example of __________.
    1. cross-reference
    2. cross-tolerance
    3. cross-dependence
    4. cross-induction

 

 

  1. 67 Which of the following can affect how one person reacts to a drug compared to another?
    1. weight
    2. ethnicity
    3. gender
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 68 Women may be affected more by alcohol than men due to __________.
    1. having a lower proportion of water than men
    2. reduced levels of enzymes that break down alcohol in the liver
    3. having a lower fat-to-muscle ratio than men
    4. both A and B

 

 

  1. 69 A lower proportion of water in a woman relative to an equivalently weighted man __________.
    1. is related to a lower fat-to-muscle ratio in women
    2. will make women more affected by alcohol
    3. has been found to have no effect on how a person is affected by alcohol   
    4. is related to an increased level of enzymes that metabolize alcohol in the liver

 

 

  1. 70 About half of all individuals of Asian descent have __________.
    1. low levels of an enzyme involved in the metabolism of alcohol
    2. low levels of an enzyme involved in the metabolism of caffeine
    3. high levels of an enzyme involved in the metabolism of most drugs
    4. high levels of an enzyme involved in the metabolism of antibacterial drugs          

 

 

  1. 7 Asian schizophrenic patients _______ Caucasian patients when taking antipsychotic medication.
    1. are less sensitive than
    2. are more sensitive than
    3. are equivalent relative to
    4. show a faster metabolism than

 

 

  1. 7 According to the text, _______ smoke fewer cigarettes per day than _______.
    1. African Americans, whites
    2. whites, African Americans
    3. Hispanics, Asians
    4. Asians, African Americans

 

 

  1. 7 Which of the following is true?
    1. African Americans retain more nicotine per cigarette than white smokers, smoking, therefore, fewer cigarettes per day.
    2. African Americans retain less nicotine per cigarette than white smokers, smoking, therefore, fewer cigarettes per day.
    3. whites retain more nicotine per cigarette than African Americans, smoking, therefore, fewer cigarettes per day.
    4. Asians retain more nicotine per cigarette than white smokers, smoking, therefore, more cigarettes per day.

 

 

  1. 74 African Americans have a(n) __________.
    1. relatively fast rate of nicotine metabolism
    2. relatively slow rate of nicotine metabolism
    3. rate of nicotine metabolism equal to whites
    4. immunity to drug dependence

 

 

  1. 75 The central nervous system consists of the __________.
    1. somatic and autonomic systems
    2. brain and spinal cord
    3. brain and autonomic system
    4. sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

 

 

  1. 76 Sensory pathways leading to the CNS are considered part of the __________.
    1. autonomic system
    2. extracranial system
    3. peripheral nervous system
    4. sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system

 

 

  1. 77 Kicking your legs is considered a ______ response.
    1. skeletal
    2. somatic
    3. autonomic
    4. gastrointestinal

 

 

  1. 78 Analogy: ______ is to voluntary as ______ is to involuntary.
    1. somatic; psychosomatic
    2. somatic; autonomic
    3. psychosomatic; somatic
    4. autonomic; somatic

 

 

  1. 79 _______ is to skeletal muscle as _______ is to smooth muscle.               
    1. Somatic; psychosomatic
    2. Somatic; autonomic
    3. Psychosomatic; somatic
    4. Autonomic; somatic

 

 

  1. 80 An autonomic response involves which kind of muscle?
    1. skeletal
    2. somatic
    3. smooth
    4. rigid

 

 

  1. 8 An acceleration or deceleration of the heart rate is considered a ______ response.
    1. somatic
    2. skeletal
    3. autonomic
    4. gastrointestinal

 

 

  1. 8 Bodily changes that result from stressful or emergency situations are handled by the __________.
    1. peripheral nervous system in general
    2. parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system
    3. skeletal muscles attached to bone
    4. sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system

 

 

  1. 8 The sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are two branches of the __________.
    1. peripheral nervous system
    2. central nervous system
    3. autonomic nervous system
    4. spinal cord

 

 

  1. 84 Sympathetic activation can result in all of the following EXCEPT __________.
    1. increased blood pressure
    2. dilation of the bronchi in the lungs
    3. dilation of the pupils in the eyes
    4. increased function of the gastrointestinal tract

 

 

  1. 85 Which response would be a result of sympathetic activation?
    1. a higher level of blood pressure
    2. a slower heart rate
    3. an increased rate of digestion                                   
    4. a constriction in the pupil of the eye

 

 

  1. 86 Parasympathetic activation can result in all of the following EXCEPT __________.
    1. decreased heart rate
    2. decreased blood pressure
    3. construction of pupils and bronchi
    4. decreased function of the gastrointestinal tract

 

 

  1. 87 A lower level of blood pressure is typically associated with __________.
    1. a faster heart rate
    2. an increased rate of digestion
    3. a dilation of the pupil of the eye
    4. a dilation of the bronchi in the lungs

 

 

  1. 88 According to the text, the most important part of the CNS is __________.
    1. the brain
    2. the spinal cord
    3. parasympathetic activation
    4. neural pathways

 

 

  1. 89 Neurons are specialized cells that __________.
    1. dilate and constrict
    2. receive and transmit information
    3. reject foreign particles in the body
    4. form the walls of the heart

 

 

  1. 90 If you were to order the three classifications of brain tissue from the most primitive to the most recently evolved part of the human brain, it would in which order?
    1. forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
    2. hindbrain, forebrain, midbrain
    3. midbrain, hindbrain, forebrain
    4. hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain

 

 

  1. 9 The most recently evolved part of the human brain is the __________.
    1. hindbrain
    2. forebrain
    3. midbrain
    4. spinal cord

 

 

  1. 9 The coordinator of the basic life-support systems of the body is the __________.
    1. medulla
    2. pons
    3. cerebellum
    4. limbic system

 

 

  1. 9 Opiates, alcohol, barbiturates, and other depressants are potentially dangerous since there is the risk of inhibiting __________.
    1. blood pressure
    2. digestion
    3. the vomiting reflex
    4. respiration

 

 

  1. 94 Which of the following is part of the hindbrain?
    1. somatic system
    2. medulla
    3. autonomic nervous system
    4. cortex

 

 

  1. 95 Which of the following is NOT part of the hindbrain?
    1. medulla
    2. pons
    3. cerebellum
    4. limbic system

 

 

  1. 96 Asphyxiation can occur when respiratory centers in the ______ are inhibited.
    1. cerebellum
    2. lungs
    3. medulla
    4. forebrain

 

 

  1. 97 The vomiting center of the brain is located in the __________.
    1. medulla
    2. pons
    3. cerebellum
    4. substantia nigra

 

 

  1. 98 Alcohol’s depressive effect occurs in which area of the hindbrain?
    1. medulla
    2. pons
    3. reticular formation
    4. cerebellum

 

 

  1. 99 The reticular formation is located in the __________.
    1. medulla
    2. pons
    3. cerebellum
    4. limbic system

 

 

  1. 00 Maintaining the necessary level of alertness when we are conscious and awake is the responsibility of the __________.
    1. cerebellum
    2. reticular formation
    3. hypothalamus and limbic system
    4. medial forebrain bundle

 

 

  1. 0 Inhibition of the ______ is the reason for dizziness after drinking alcohol.
    1. substantia nigra
    2. cerebral cortex
    3. cerebellum
    4. central nervous system in general

 

 

  1. 0 Hindbrain is to cerebellum as midbrain is to __________.
    1. pons
    2. cerebral cortex
    3. substantia nigra
    4. hypothalamus

 

 

  1. 0 Body movement depends on which part of the brain?
    1. cerebral cortex
    2. hypothalamus
    3. substantia nigra
    4. both A and C

 

 

  1. 04 Degeneration of the substantia nigra results in __________.
    1. Parkinson’s disease
    2. a strange effect of prolonged euphoria
    3. a reduction in the effects of antipsychotic medication
    4. cortical inhibition

 

 

  1. 05 Motivational and emotional behaviors are controlled by the __________.
    1. hindbrain
    2. hypothalamus
    3. limbic system
    4. both B and C

 

 

  1. 06 The hypothalamus controls __________.
    1. feeding behavior
    2. drinking behavior
    3. sexual behavior
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 07 More than 80 percent of the cerebral cortex is referred to as __________.
    1. sensory cortex
    2. sensory and motor cortex
    3. association cortex
    4. motor cortex

 

 

  1. 08 The most recently evolved region of the human brain is the __________.
    1. limbic system
    2. prefrontal cortex
    3. parasympathetic nervous system
    4. cerebellum

 

 

  1. 09 Midbrain is to sensory and motor reflexes as forebrain is to __________.
    1. emotional and motivational acts
    2. basic life functions
    3. instinctive behaviors
    4. sleeping patterns

 

 

  1. 0 The long appendage extending from the cell body of a neuron is referred to as the __________.
    1. dendrite
    2. axon
    3. synaptic knob
    4. synaptic cleft

 

 

  1. The “on” state of the neuron is generally referred to as the __________.
    1. dendritic charge
    2. nerve impulse
    3. synaptic knob-knocker
    4. axonic metabolite

 

 

  1. The bulk of the neuron is attributed to the __________.
    1. nerve impulse
    2. cell body
    3. axons
    4. dendrites

 

 

  1. The gap between neurons is known as the __________.
    1. neurological gap
    2. synapse
    3. neurotransmitters
    4. synaptic knobs

 

 

  1. 4 Approximately how long does a neurotransmitter molecule remain in the receptor site?
    1. two minutes
    2. one second
    3. one-quarter of a second
    4. one millisecond

 

 

  1. 5 Reuptake refers to the “returning back” of the neurotransmitter to the __________.
    1. vesicles in the synaptic knob
    2. receptor sites
    3. heart and other internal organs
    4. cerebral cortex

 

 

  1. 6 How many neurotransmitters are there?
    1. two
    2. one
    3. more than fifty
    4. two, three, or four (the exact number is in doubt)

 

 

  1. 7 Muscarinic receptors and nicotinic receptors are receptor sites that are sensitive to which neurotransmitter?
    1. norepinephrine
    2. acetylcholine
    3. dopamine
    4. gamma aminobutyric acid

 

 

  1. 8 Acetylcholine-sensitive receptors in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system are called __________.
    1. nicotinic receptors
    2. muscarinic receptors
    3. motor receptors
    4. curare receptors

 

 

  1. 9 Atropine is a drug that __________.
    1. reduces schizophrenic symptoms
    2. reduces feelings of anxiety
    3. inhibits feelings of anger and frustration
    4. inhibits acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors

 

 

  1. 0 The poison curare is considered a(n) __________.
    1. antimuscarinic drug
    2. antinicotinic drug
    3. antagonistic drug to opiates
    4. drug related to dopamine

 

 

  1. According to the text, deficiencies in acetylcholine and/or nicotine receptors are linked to __________.
    1. nicotine addiction
    2. Parkinson’s disease
    3. Alzheimer’s disease
    4. emphysema

 

 

  1. The major neurotransmitter for sympathetic autonomic activation is __________.
    1. acetylcholine
    2. dopamine
    3. serotonin
    4. norepinephrine

 

 

  1. Through norepinephrine is found all over the brain, in which part is it most concentrated?
    1. medulla
    2. limbic system
    3. hypothalamus
    4. both B and C

 

 

  1. 4 What aspects of human behavior are affected by the neurotransmitter dopamine?
    1. motor control
    2. emotionality
    3. drug cravings
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 5 A deficiency in motor control can result from a degeneration of neurons sensitive to which major neurotransmitter?
    1. acetylcholine
    2. dopamine
    3. serotonin
    4. norepinephrine

 

 

  1. 6 Analogy: ________ is to Alzheimer’s disease as ________ is to Parkinson’s disease.
    1. Norepinephrine; dopamine
    2. Serotonin; dopamine
    3. Acetylcholine; dopamine
    4. Serotonin; acetylcholine

 

 

  1. 7 ________ is a disorder resulting from degeneration of dopamine releasing neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain.
    1. Nicotine addiction
    2. Parkinson’s disease
    3. Alzheimer’s Disease
    4. Emphysema

 

 

  1. 8 Which of the following disorders has NOT been linked to dopamine?
    1. Parkinson’s disease
    2. Alzheimer’s disease
    3. schizophrenia
    4. both B and C

 

 

  1. 9 Schizophrenia is strongly suspected to be related to neurons sensitive to __________.
    1. acetylcholine
    2. serotonin
    3. dopamine
    4. norepinephrine

 

 

  1. 0 Serotonin is most concentrated in which part of the brain?
    1. medulla and pons
    2. limbic system
    3. cortex
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. Serotonin plays an important role in regulating __________.
    1. patterns of sleep
    2. feelings of stress and fear
    3. one’s reaction to pain
    4. our movements

 

 

  1. The technical name for _______ is 5-hydroxytryptamine (abbreviated 5-HT).
    1. serotonin
    2. dopamine
    3. acetylcholine
    4. norepinephrine

 

 

  1. Which two major neurotransmitters are considered responsible for establishing appropriate levels of mood?
    1. serotonin and acetylcholine
    2. dopamine and endorphins
    3. acetylcholine and norepinephrine
    4. serotonin and norepinephrine

 

 

  1. 4 It is reasonable that antiepileptic medications would increase levels of __________.
    1. dopamine
    2. GABA
    3. endorphins
    4. serotonin

 

 

  1. 5 Which of the following statements about glutamate is NOT true?
    1. Glutamate functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.
    2. Glutamate receptors are blocked by some psychoactive drugs.
    3. Glutamate receptors are activated by the presence of some psychoactive drugs.
    4. Drugs that block glutamate receptors have been largely unsuccessful in treating drug abuse.

 

 

  1. 6 Pain-killing drugs bear a remarkable resemblance to __________.
    1. endorphins
    2. dopamine
    3. acetylcholine
    4. serotonin

 

 

  1. 7 A group of neurotransmitters which serve as natural painkillers are called __________.
    1. endorphins
    2. gamma aminobutyric acids
    3. serotonin
    4. norepinephrine

 

 

  1. 8 A major function of endorphins is to __________.
    1. allow us to fall asleep
    2. cause us to feel less pain
    3. prevent schizophrenia
    4. reduce hallucinations after LSD is ingested

 

 

  1. 9 Athletes can experience a “runner’s high,” or euphoria, during strenuous physical activity due to elevated levels of_______.
    1. GABA
    2. endorphins
    3. acetylcholine
    4. norepinephrine

 

 

  1. 40 The analgesic effects of Chinese acupuncture can be reversed by __________.           
    1. dopamine
    2. serotonin
    3. acetylcholine
    4. naloxone

 

 

  1. 4 What is the blood-brain barrier responsible for?
    1. guarding the brain by keeping blood from “drowning” brain cells
    2. acting as a resource for neurotransmitters in the blood to communicate with the brain
    3. prohibiting drugs and other molecules from passing from the bloodstream into the brain
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 4 The key factor in determining passage across the blood-brain barrier is __________.
    1. protein linkages
    2. fat solubility
    3. stability in the brain
    4. spinal cord compatibility

 

 

  1. 4 If a drug is fat soluble, then it is likely to __________.
    1. cross from the spinal cord into the brain
    2. cross from the hindbrain into the forebrain
    3. cross from the arteries to the veins
    4. cross from the blood into the brain

 

 

  1. 44 Which drug easily passes into the brain from the bloodstream?
    1. alcohol
    2. cocaine
    3. barbiturates
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 45 Which drug is the LEAST likely to cross the blood-brain barrier?
    1. alcohol
    2. barbiturates
    3. nicotine
    4. penicillin

 

 

  1. 46 This common antibiotic treatment can only be used for infections outside the brain.
    1. sulfamide
    2. penicillin
    3. clarithromycin
    4. azithromycin

 

 

  1. 47 L-dopa is administered instead of dopamine to treat Parkinson’s disease because __________.
    1. it produces fewer side effects
    2. it crosses the blood-brain barrier more easily than dopamine
    3. it can metabolize better into norepinephrine
    4. none of the above

 

 

  1. 48 You can facilitate the crossing of the blood-brain barrier by combining protein-based drugs with __________.      
    1. another protein
    2. a fatty acid
    3. a derivative of dopamine
    4. a substance decreasing fat-solubility

 

 

  1. 49 Which type of drug tolerance depends upon processes in the liver?
    1. metabolic tolerance
    2. pharmacodynamic tolerance
    3. cellular tolerance
    4. behavioral tolerance

 

 

  1. 50 Which type of drug tolerance depends upon processes in the neuron?
    1. metabolic tolerance
    2. pharmacodynamic tolerance
    3. pharmacokinetic tolerance
    4. behavioral tolerance

 

 

  1. 5 A decline in the sensitivity of receptors underlies which kind of tolerance?
    1. metabolic tolerance
    2. cellular tolerance
    3. dispositional tolerance
    4. behavioral tolerance

 

 

  1. 5 Drug A and Drug B activate the same types of receptor sites. After repeated using of Drug A, Drug B would produce a _______ effect.
    1. stronger
    2. equivalent
    3. weaker
    4. cannot be determined from the above information

 

 

  1. 5 The nucleus accumbens in the brain appears to be associated with what feature of many psychoactive drugs?
    1. their sedative (sleep-inducing) effects
    2. their stimulating effects
    3. their rewarding or reinforcing effects
    4. their hallucinogenic effects

 

 

  1. 54 The pattern of human behavior that characterizes psychological dependence closely parallels __________.
    1. hoarding behavior in animals
    2. self-administration behavior in animals
    3. self-grooming behavior in animals
    4. epileptic seizures in animals

 

 

  1. 55 The rewarding or reinforcing effects of amphetamines, cocaine, and heroin have been associated with the effect on which major neurotransmitter?
    1. acetylcholine
    2. serotonin
    3. GABA
    4. dopamine

 

 

  1. 56 Analogy: Dopamine is to craving as GABA is to __________.
    1. depression
    2. reduction of epileptic seizures
    3. schizophrenia
    4. separation anxiety during childhood

 

 

  1. 57 Activity in the nucleus accumbens is related to __________.
    1. hallucinogenic drug effects
    2. sleep-inducing drug effects
    3. panic-inducing drug effects
    4. feelings of craving for certain psychoactive drugs   

 

 

  1. 58 The nucleus accumbens is in the __________.
    1. midbrain
    2. medulla
    3. cerebellum
    4. limbic system

 

 

  1. 59 Which of the following statements is NOT true?
    1. Involvement with the nucleus accumbens has been linked to compulsive gambling and compulsive eating.
    2. Protein-based drugs can be mixed with fatty acids to allow them to pass through the blood brain barrier.
    3. Dopamine cannot cross through the blood brain barrier.
    4. Individual differences in dopamine receptor concentrations are partly environmentally based.

 

 

  1. 60 It is estimated that genetics account for about ___ percent of the inclination to begin smoking, and for about ___ percent of the ability to quit.
    1. 0; 5
    2. 75; 54
    3. 0;
    4. 54; 75

 

 

  1. 6 In a recent study, twelve out of thirteen former cigarette smokers with brain damage to the ______ report that it was easier to quit smoking, whereas only four out of nineteen people with damage that did not include this area were able to do so.
    1. insula
    2. cerebellum
    3. medulla
    4. pons

 

 

  1. 6 Drug effects are considered to be a three-way interaction of the drug’s pharmacological properties with __________.
    1. set and stature
    2. set and setting
    3. set and time of day
    4. set and season

 

 

  1. 6 Individual characteristics of the drug-taker or environmental conditions will have little influence on drug effects when __________.
    1. the drug is relatively bad-tasting
    2. the temperature is above 80 degrees Fahrenheit
    3. the drug-taker is younger than twelve
    4. the drug dose is relatively high

 

 

  1. 64 Expectations about a drug effect determine the extent to which _______ occurs.
    1. the placebo effect
    2. the dosage-weight interaction
    3. the blood-brain barrier effect
    4. the gender-weight interaction

 

 

  1. 65 If a placebo effect occurs, a completely inert substance __________.
    1. will have no effect whatsoever
    2. will have a reduced effect
    3. will have an effect
    4. will likely produce a lethal response

 

 

  1. 66 Placebo effects are __________.
    1. psychological but not physical
    2. physical but not psychological
    3. neither physical nor psychological
    4. physical, psychological, or both

 

 

  1. 67 The placebo effect in morphine administrations is __________.
    1. substantial
    2. relatively minor
    3. non-existent
    4. dependent upon the degree of fat solubility

 

 

  1. 68 A possible determinant of whether a placebo effect will occur is __________.
    1. the enthusiasm of the physician prescribing it
    2. the attractiveness of the packaging
    3. information that other people have been helped
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. 69 Research has shown that if a doctor has negative attitudes concerning a drug, the effect of the drug on the patient is more likely to result in __________.
    1. the most benefits of the drug
    2. no effect at all
    3. the least benefits of the drug
    4. dependence on the drug

 

 

  1. 70 The development of skin rashes when people believe they have been exposed to fake poison ivy is a likely consequence of __________.
    1. hyperadditive interactions between drugs
    2. the placebo effect
    3. the classical conditioning effect
    4. the nucleus accumbens effect

 

 

  1. 7 In order for a possible placebo effect to be evaluated, __________.
    1. the placebo drug must look different from the real drug
    2. the placebo drug must be identical in appearance to the real drug
    3. it does not matter what the placebo drug looks like
    4. the individual must know ahead of time that a placebo is being used

 

 

  1. 7 An active placebo is a __________.
    1. drug that actually has active ingredients in it
    2. drug that is inert but looks identical to the one with active ingredients
    3. drug that is inert but looks different from the one with active ingredients
    4. drug that has active ingredients in it and looks physically attractive

 

 

  1. 7 An effective placebo to a well-known red pill containing antianxiety medication would be what color?
    1. a complementary color to red (in this case, green)
    2. white (colorless)
    3. black and white so that there would be no association with color red
    4. red

 

 

  1. 74 In a double-blind procedure, knowledge about whether a drug or a placebo is being administered is withheld from __________.
    1. the individual receiving the drug but not the person administering it
    2. the individual administering the drug but not the person receiving it
    3. both the individual administering the drug and the person receiving it
    4. neither the individual administering nor the person receiving a drug

     

 

 

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