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#### 1) The classical method of determining probability is A) subjective probability

###### Statistics

1) The classical method of determining probability is

A) subjective probability.

B) marginal probability.

C) objective probability.

D) joint probability.

E) conditional probability.

2) Subjective probability assessments depend on

A) the total number of trials.

B) the relative frequency of occurrence.

C) the number of occurrences of the event.

D) experience and judgment.

E) None of the above

3) If two events are mutually exclusive, then

A) their probabilities can be added.

B) they may also be collectively exhaustive.

C) the joint probability is equal to 0.

D) if one occurs, the other cannot occur.

E) All of the above

4) A ________ is a numerical statement about the likelihood that an event will occur.

A) mutually exclusive construct

B) collectively exhaustive construct

C) variance

D) probability

E) standard deviation

5) A conditional probability P(B|A) is equal to its marginal probability P(B) if

A) it is a joint probability.

B) statistical dependence exists.

C) statistical independence exists.

D) the events are mutually exclusive.

E) P(A) = P(B).

6) The equation P(A|B) = P(AB)/P(B) is

A) the marginal probability.

B) the formula for a conditional probability.

C) the formula for a joint probability.

D) only relevant when events A and B are collectively exhaustive.

E) None of the above

7) Suppose that we determine the probability of a warm winter based on the number of warm winters experienced over the past 10 years. In this case, we have used

A) relative frequency.

B) the classical method.

C) the logical method.

D) subjective probability.

E) None of the above

8) Bayes' theorem is used to calculate

A) revised probabilities.

B) joint probabilities.

C) prior probabilities.

D) subjective probabilities.

E) marginal probabilities.

9) If the sale of ice cream and pizza are independent, then as ice cream sales decrease by 60 percent during the winter months, pizza sales will

A) increase by 60 percent.

B) increase by 40 percent.

C) decrease by 60 percent.

D) decrease by 40 percent.

E) be unrelated.

10) If P(A) = 0.3, P(B) = 0.2, P(A and B) = 0.0, what can be said about events A and B?

A) They are independent.

B) They are mutually exclusive.

C) They are posterior probabilities.

D) None of the above

E) All of the above

11) "The probability of event B, given that event A has occurred" is known as a ________ probability.

A) continuous

B) marginal

C) simple

D) joint

E) conditional

12) When does P(A|B) = P(A)?

A) when A and B are mutually exclusive

B) when A and B are statistically independent

C) when A and B are statistically dependent

D) when A and B are collectively exhaustive

E) when P(B) = 0

A) binomial distribution

B) distribution

C) normal distribution

D) Poisson distribution

E) exponential distribution

14) The expected value of a probability distribution is

A) the measure of the spread of the distribution.

B) the variance of the distribution.

C) the average value of the distribution.

D) the probability density function.

E) the range of continuous values from point A to point B, inclusive.

15) Which of the following is not true for discrete random variables?

A) The expected value is the weighted average of the values.

B) They can assume only a countable number of values.

C) The probability of each value of the random variable must be 0.

D) The probability values always sum up to 1.

E) A binomial random variable is considered discrete.

16) Which of the following is not true about continuous random variables?

A) They have an infinite set of values.

B) The area under each of the curves represents probabilities.

C) The entire area under each of the curves equals 1.

D) Some may be described by uniform distributions or exponential distributions.

E) They can only be integer values.

17) Properties of the normal distribution include

A) a continuous bell-shaped distribution.

B) a discrete probability distribution.

C) the number of trials is known and is either 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, etc.

D) the random variable can assume only a finite or limited set of values.

E) use in queuing.

18) Which of the following characteristics is true for a normal probability distribution?

A) The area under the curve is 1.

B) It is symmetrical.

C) The midpoint is also the mean.

D) Sixty-eight percent of the area under the curve lies within ± one standard deviation of the mean.

E) All of the above are true.

19) Queuing Theory makes use of the

A) normal probability distribution.

B) uniform probability distribution.

C) binomial probability distribution.

D) Poisson probability distribution.

E) None of the above

20) The number of cars passing through an intersection in the next five minutes can usually be described by the

A) normal distribution.

B) uniform distribution.

C) exponential distribution.

D) Poisson distribution.

E) None of the above

21) Which of the following statements concerning the F distribution is true?

A) The F distribution is discrete.

B) The F distribution is symmetrical.

C) The F distribution is useful in modeling customer arrivals.

D) The F distribution is useful in testing hypotheses about variance.

E) The F distribution is interchangeable with the normal distribution for large sample sizes.

22) Which of the following characteristics is not true for the exponential distribution?

A) It is discrete probability distribution.

B) It is also called the negative exponential distribution.

C) It is used in dealing with queuing problems.

D) It is used to describe the times between customer arrivals.

E) The variance is the square of the expected value.

23) The length of time that it takes the tollbooth attendant to service each driver can typically be described by the

A) normal distribution.

B) uniform distribution.

C) exponential distribution.

D) Poisson distribution.

E) None of the above

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