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1)since 1970, the U


1)since 1970, the U.S. government’s position on marijuana is that it has high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use.


  1. The potential for drug abuse presents a challenge for the elderly as well as adolescents  and individuals under the age of
  1. Drugs that are illegal are referred to as licit drugs.
  2. Ecstasy has been a licit drug since 200
  3. Alcohol has been an illicit drug since 1965
  4. Psychoactive drugs do not modify brain functioning once drug-taking behavior stops.
  5. A flavonoid called naringenin, found in grapefruit, has a specific inhibitory effect on the secretion of hepatitis C virus from infected liver cells.


  1. The active ingredient in turmeric, called curcumin has a specific inhibitory effect on the secretion of hepatitis C virus from infected liver cells.
  2. The legality of psychoactive drugs may depend on cultural and historical circumstances.


  1. Some substances that can be harmful to the user are legal.
  1. Only legal drugs have instrumental uses.
  2. For a drug to have a recreational use, the user must take the drug for the purposes of acquiring the effect of the drug itself.


  1. Drug misuse typically applies to the inappropriate use of prescription or nonprescription drugs


  1. The elderly are highly vulnerable to drug misuse.


  1. Drug abuse can involve either licit or illicit substances
  2. Instrumental use is the primary motivation for drug abuse.
  3. Willow bark is the source of present-day marijuana.
  4. The senna plant has been successfully used for the treatment of constipation


  1. Shaman is a name for a healer in a primitive society.


  1. The Egyptian scroll, referred to as the Ebers Papyrus, was eventually proved to be a hoax.


  1. Patient records indicate that the Ebers Papyrus had a surprisingly high success rate for healing patients


  1. Patent medicines refer to products that have been patented and distributed by pharmaceutical companies, following a lengthy process of FDA approval.
  2. Laudanum is a liquid form of nicotine, used in the 19th century.
  3. In the 19th century, it was common for infants and children in the United States and England to take opium.


  1. The degree of social acceptance of opium in the 19th century was dependent on the manner in which opium was ingested.


  1. Until 1903, the formula for Coca-Cola contained opium.
  2. Freud believed that an effective treatment for morphine addiction was the use of cocaine.


  1. The era of Prohibition in the United States began when the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution took effect in 1920.


  1. Chlorpromazine (brand name: Thorazine) is considered to be one of the original drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia


  1. Neuroscience, a new branch of biological science, came into being in the early 1940s during World War II.
  2. Crack, a form of smokable cocaine, appeared on the scene in the mid-1980s.


  1. The University of Michigan drug-use surveys make use of the responses of all high-school seniors in the United States.
  2. One of the best known surveys that examines drug taking patterns of young people annually since 1975, has been conducted by the University of Minnesota
  3. The University of Michigan surveys have revealed that current levels of drug use among high school seniors are substantially higher than drug use levels in the 1970s.
  4. The prevalence rate in 2005 among high-school seniors with respect to marijuana and LSD is considerably lower than the prevalence rate during the mid-1970s.


  1. Research has shown that during difficult times in life, an individual may be inclined to return to old patterns of drug-taking behavior.


  1. Until recently, surveys have shown that fewer college students smoke cigarettes than high school seniors.


  1. In the 1990s, the University of Michigan surveys showed that high school seniors showed a decreasing trend in viewing regular drug use as dangerous


  1. The National Survey on Drug Use and Health examines the prevalence rates of illicit drug use among Americans in several age groups across the life span


  1. "To have a good time with my friends" is a frequent answer of high-school seniors when asked why they take drugs


  1. A member of a socially deviant subculture is quite often an accomplished student in school.
  2. Understanding individuals’ risk factors and protective factors gives us some idea of which individuals are likely to use drugs and which will not


  1. Generally low educational aspirations represent a risk factor for drug use


  1. The presence of protective factors can provide the basis for resilience toward drug use among high-risk adolescents


  1. Protective factors are the negation (or the inverted image) of risk factors.p.20
  2. Though it is impossible to predict drug-taking behavior in the future, historical patterns can serve as guides


  1. Cocaine-snorting and heroin-smoking are two forms of drug-taking behavior that avoid the possibility of being infected with the AIDS virus.


  1. Cocaine, heroin, and creatine are examples of “club drugs.”


  1. Ketamine is not considered a “club drug.”
  2. Club drugs include both stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine and hallucinogenic drugs such as


  1. An example of an herb-based dietary supplement is gingko biloba.
  2. According to the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, dietary supplements do not have to meet the same review and evaluation criteria as prescription and over-the-counter drugs.


  1. Dextromethorphan (DXM) is the cough suppressant found in many over-the-counter cough-and-cold medications.



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