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Homework answers / question archive / 1)Which of the following is the best example of operant conditioning?             A typically boisterous child is praised enthusiastically by his teacher for sitting quietly and attending to the days lesson

1)Which of the following is the best example of operant conditioning?             A typically boisterous child is praised enthusiastically by his teacher for sitting quietly and attending to the days lesson

Psychology

1)Which of the following is the best example of operant conditioning?

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A typically boisterous child is praised enthusiastically by his teacher for sitting quietly and attending to the days lesson. In response to his teachers praise, the child sits quietly the next day as well. The teacher is changing the child’s behavior by using

 

  1. Completing homework assignments in order to be given an undesirable required assignment

 

  1. Jerald, a budding young artist of four, decides to use his mother's new white shag carpet as a canvas for his peanut butter and jelly impressionist piece.  When his mother (who does not appreciate art) discovers his work, she grabs Jerald by the collar, pulls him toward her, and gives him a stern smack on the bottom.  Jerald ceases smearing the carpet with peanut butter and jelly.  This treatment of Jerald is a good example of

 

  1. A student on a class field trip misbehaves on the bus and is told to sit by herself for ten minutes

 

  1. A teacher decides not to pay attn to Robert’s wild hand-having and calls on another student. Robert always launches into long, involved stories that change the direction of the class discussion. This teaching technique is most related to

 

  1. A high school student taking a class in Japanese is faced with learning  a new symbol system in order to communicate in this language. He remarks to his teacher “I’ll  never be able to read it because these all look the same!” Obviously, this student’s ________ are not well developed

 

  1. *Penny, a kindergartner, wants to learn how to draw a letter Q the way it appears in her coloring book. Penny’s teacher watches her carefully and refinforces every attempt she makes to draw the letter Q until she draws it properly. This best demonstrates

 

  1. *A teacher decides to praise Imad's progress on the long-division workbook problems every twenty minutes.  This teacher is using a _________schedule of reinforcement.

 

 

  1. Generalizing from research on the impact of schedules of reinforcement, which of the following groups would you expect to be working most consistently?

 

  1. *You are working at a telemarketing firm and receive a bonus for every twenty-five people you contact by phone each evening.  This is a  ___________ schedule of reinforcement.

 

  1. *A good example of a variable ratio schedule is

 

  1. The computer program that Josh is working on presents him with a sentence in which a word has been underlined.  Josh has to indicate the part of speech represented by the underlined word.  After receiving feedback about the correctness of his response, Josh is given another sentence with an underlined word.  This description best illustrates what type of computer-based instruction (CBI) program?

 

  1. In general, can CBI software consistently be used in place of live, high-quality teachers?

 

  1. *Which would be the best brief motto to use as a guide when trying behavior modification techniques?

 

  1. Which of the following is the clearest illustration of the Premack principle?

 

  1. The value of a token economy is that

 

  1. **All but which of the following apply to the concept of contingency contracting?

 

  1. For which of the following situations is time-out likely to work best?

 

  1. Some researchers believe that corporal punishment produces strong negative effects on children's subsequent behavior while other researchers believe that the negative effects are more modest.  This difference of opinion is due to

 

Ch. 8

  1. Which of the following represents the proper sequence of cognitive processes that occur as we process information?

 

  1. *The sensory register

 

  1. As you read this question, you will choose an answer that you decide is correct by relating the question to information already stored in your long-term memory.  The mental process taking place as you do this can best be explained by which of the following concepts?

 

  1. A student who is taking a course in educational psychology for the first time scans through the information-processing theory chapter and notes the word metacognition, which is unfamiliar.  This student's selective focusing on the term metacognition is known as

 

  1. Information held in long-term memory has the effect of

 

  1. *After information is attended to, it moves into short-term memory, which has the capacity to hold______ bits of______information for about twenty seconds.

 

  1. Repeating the punch line of a joke over and over to yourself while trying to find pencil and paper to write it down is an example of

 

  1. **Jiang, who is learning about adverbs, enhances her understanding of them by noticing that adverbs describe verbs in the same way that adjectives describe nouns.  Which of the following concepts best describes her behavior?

 

  1. Why does organizing the digits 1-9-7-6-1-5-8-8 into dates 1976 and 1588 make learning the series of digits easier?

 

  1. Meaningfulness, as described by information-processing theorists, is most similar to

 

  1. Long-term memory refers to information
  2. *Long-term memory is to schemata as

 

  1. *For which of the following learning tasks is distributed practice likely to be most effective?

 

  1. Selena overhears a classmate from her educational psychology class state that Piaget's theory of cognitive development implies a teacher-centered approach to instruction rather than a student-centered approach since cognitive development is more effectively stimulated and guided by those who are more knowledgeable and killed. Selena is fairly certain that this reflects Vygotsky's theory but decides to first check Chapter 2 of Psychology Applied to Teaching.  Selena's behavior best reflects the effect of

 

  1. Insight into one’s learning processes seems to

 

  1. *If you wanted to use a computer based approach to instruction that was consistent with info processing principles and likely to support meaningful learning, which of the following types of programs would you choose?

 

  1. Elaborative rehearsal: process that consciously relates new info to knowledge already stored in LTM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ch. 9

  1. Mari Jo is concerned about next week's social studies test and asks her best friend, Lindsay, to show her how to use concept mapping on a chapter of their textbook. Since Mari Jo thinks she and Lindsay are very much alike, she feels confident that she can learn to use this technique to improve her reading comprehension. Mari Jo's increased self-efficacy lowers her anxiety about next week's social studies test and motivates her to use concept mapping for her other subjects. This scenario demonstrates which of the following models of learning?

 

  1. To prepare for an exam in chemistry, Ramon decides that nothing less than a grade of B+ will be acceptable, decides how much material he will need to study each day, and chooses study skills that will help him meet the teacher's objectives for this test. Moreover, because this approach has been successful in the past, Ramon uses it for his other subjects. Ramon's behavior is an example of

 

  1. Aubry, a sixth-grade student, remarks, “Analyzing fictional literature is too hard. I just can't do it.” According to social cognitive theory, Aubry likely has low feelings of ______________ on tasks such as this.

 

 

  1. Because teachers expect students to become more independent as learners as they get older, students have to learn increasingly larger amounts of more complex material as they move through the grades, and students will have to be self-directed learners after they leave school in order to cope with the rapid pace of change, it is imperative that students acquire the skills

 

  1. Carmen feels very confident that she can put together a winning argument for the upcoming class debate on the pros and cons of preserving wilderness versus allowing it to be developed for commercial purposes. As a result, Carmen is likely to

 

  1. Which of the following factors has not been shown to influence one's feelings about whether one can successfully complete a given task?

 

  1. Self-efficacy has been shown to affect

 

  1. Roberto takes out his history book to read the assigned chapter for tomorrow's class. He ignores the music that is coming from his sister's room, thinks about how he will go about learning the material in the chapter, uses various note taking techniques, and records in his personal journal his level of satisfaction with the results. Roberto's behaviors reflect which part of Zimmerman's self-regulatory model?

 

  1. Casey received a score of 88 on yesterday's exam and was quite pleased with the result because it was higher than the 79 she received on the last exam. After thinking about it for a while, she concluded that her improved performance was due to a more systematic use of study skills. Casey's behavior reflects which part of Zimmerman's self-regulatory model

 

  1. Which of the following does not constitute a learning strategy for accomplishing a goal?

 

  1. Which of the following is not a reason why mnemonic devices are effective?

 

  1. Self-questioning is a highly recommended learning tactic because it leads to increased performance on tests of

 

  1. Research suggests that self-regulated learning skills can be learned through observational learning in which of the following sequences?

 

  1. Which of the following does not illustrate an emulation effect?

 

  1. One of your colleagues is thinking about changing how she teaches so that her lessons are based on social cognitive theory. To help her decide if this is a good idea, she asks for your opinion. Based on your understanding of the research literature, how do you respond?

 

  1. If you were interested in using social cognitive research as a guide to selecting a computer simulation program that would improve your students' problem-solving skills, which of the following features would be most important to you?

 

Ch. 10

  1. Margaret enjoys rock climbing but hates algebra because it is too confusing. In an effort to help her become a better math student, her instructor asks her to put in order the steps required to get to the top of a large rock. She then asks Margaret to list some similarities between algebra and rock climbing. Soon, Margaret begins to make the connection between the logical processes involved with each activity. The form of learning that Margaret's instructor has asked her to engage in is

 

  1. One claim of constructivism is that meaningful learning is the result of

 

  1. According to the constructivist viewpoint, which of the following actions is likely to be the strongest influence on the formation of new ideas?

 

  1. Eighth-grade students are participating in a nationwide science learning project. Students, business professionals, and scientists from across the country communicate via the Internet. They discuss various ways to solve particular problems that are set in realistic contexts. They also have opportunities to solve real problems, like protecting their local environments. Students are exposed to a variety of viewpoints, new information, and alternate solutions. This is an example of meaningful learning according to which of the following theories?

 

  1. Which of the following best reflects the focus of critical constructivism

 

  1. As part of her lesson plan for an environmental science unit, Ms. April decides to takes her class to nearby ponds and streams to collect water samples and have them analyzed for pollutants. What learning theory concept does this activity best reflect?

 

  1. The task of solving an algebra problem can best be described as a

 

  1. Trying to determine whether to allow a student to graduate a year early from high school is an

 

  1. Suppose you are watching a news program that is addressing the issue of whether women should be legally prosecuted for abusing drugs while pregnant if their newborns show signs of drug-related damage. This issue is a(n)

 

  1. Ms. Young becomes dissatisfied with her school's absentee policy after reading about factors likely to influence students' self-esteem, motivation, and attendance rates. Although she is nervous about challenging the established policy at her school, she makes her findings known to her principal and school board members. Mrs. Young's behavior illustrates the process of

 

  1. Effective problem framing

 

  1. All but which one of the following applies to the concept of inert knowledge

 

  1. Studying worked examples is considered to be a beneficial problem-solving technique (often called a heuristic) because

 

  1. As a problem-solving strategy (or heuristic), what might one suggest to an architect who is designing a building of a type never built before?
  2. Which of the following would be a good problem-solving heuristic for writing a comprehensive term paper?

 

  1. An apprentice dressmaker sees a new dress that is not like any she has made before. She would like to duplicate the dress, but she doesn’t have a pattern for it. What problem solving heuristic would be an effective way to solve this problem?

 

  1. A teacher shows her students a completely worked out solution to a multiple-step problem. She then shows them similar examples with fewer and fewer of the steps worked out and requires them to complete the missing steps. Finally, she gives them a similar multiple-step problem they have to solve on their own. Which of the following is the correct name for this procedure?

 

  1. Which of the following IS NOT true with respect to the use of analogies as a problem-solving heuristic?

 

  1. A student who is having a problem solving a mathematical word problem realizes that she might figure out a solution more quickly by depicting the elements of the problem in a drawing. This problem-solving heuristic is often referred to as

 

  1. According to the principle of specific transfer, if you were to teacher first uppercase, then lowercase, which of the following letters would tend to promote the most transfer?

 

  1. Both Jean and Sandra are A students at a university, and both major in general studies. Jean takes an introduction to physics course after having completed a chemistry course the previous semester. Sandra takes the same physics course without having previously taken any other college-level science course. Sandra has a much more difficult time learning the material than Jean does. Jean's learning was probably facilitated by

 

  1. A student is taught how to create concept maps for the chapters of his history textbook. A few days later and without prompting, he creates concept maps for the content of his social studies textbook. This type of behavior is an example of
  2. A child learns to ride a bike. Having learned to ride a bike, he finds he is able to ride a scooter with no trouble at all, whereas before he learned to ride a bike, he couldn't ride a scooter. This is an example of

 

  1. Which of the following is not required for high-road transfer?

 

  1. If a teacher would like their students to learn the skill of cognitive transfer, they should do all but which of the following?

 

  1. Technology applications that lend themselves to knowledge construction, exploration, and learning by doing are consistent with a _______ approach to learning

 

Ch.11

  1. Ian's parents have noted that he studies longer and gets better grades when they and the teacher praise his efforts and accomplishments than when they simply acknowledge his good performance.  This pattern suggests that Ian is motivated by

 

  1. Demetria says to her teacher, "You know what? I bet I have fifty mystery books at home, and I love reading them over and over again.  Each time I read them, I catch some clue that I missed before.  If I had more time, I bet I could read a new book every night! Wouldn't that be cool?" According to motivational theories, Demetria continues to read her books primarily because

 

  1. A teacher who wanted to use external rewards with students who were already highly interested in a topic would

 

  1. Research suggests that intrinsic motivation can be undermined when

 

  1. Lyle enjoys learning algebra a great deal even though he struggles to master some concepts. As a teacher, which approach should you take in providing rewards for this student?

 

  1. Though you are a novice instructor you are certain that you would prefer to use the social cognitive theory approach to motivation in your classroom. Which of the following activities would best fit with this approach?

 

  1. Tara has a high level of self-efficacy. Consequently, Tara will likely

 

  1. The need for equilibration and mastery, according to cognitive development theory

 

  1. Crystal decides to take an accounting class even though dealing with numbers has always been something of a challenge.  While she is looking forward to the experience, she is also a little nervous.  Kate, Crystal's friend, remarks, "Wow, you're crazy! I'd never take that class because I know I'd fail!" According to Atkinson, Crystal and Kate differ in their

 

  1. Francis, senior in HS, is a high-need achiever. Which of the following tasks would be most appropriate for him?

 

  1. Stan can be described as a low-need achiever. A fourth grader, he enjoys tormenting his younger sis and playing dodgeball. Which activity would be most appropriate for Stan?

 

  1. A student with a D average whose grades on the most recent psychology, history, English, and chemistry exams were B, D, D, and F, respectfully, is most likely to offer which of the following explanations for these grades?

 

  1. According to attribution theory, high-need achievers typically attribute success in school to ___________and failure in school to ___________.
  2. Lindel is told that his IQ score is 100, which indicates average current intellectual functioning.  He responds, "Hmmmmm....average.  I bet I can improve my score if I study harder."  According to Carol Dweck, Lindel

 

  1. Which of the following statements best characterizes the entity theory of intelligence

 

  1. The city in which Kimberly lives recently announced that it will host a marathon.  Although she has never been more than a recreational runner, Kimberly begins to read articles about training for marathons and talks to people who have participated in marathons about their experiences.  This behavior suggests that Kimberly's interest in marathons will likely

 

  1. The state of flow has been associated with which of the following classroom conditions?

 

  1. Lenora, in an attempt to fit into her prom dress, has been dieting for over two weeks.  In this time, she has experienced increasing difficulty concentrating and paying attention in class. As a consequence, her grades are dropping. According to Maslow, why is Lenora having so much trouble?

 

  1. Maslow believed that all but which one of the following statements are true of self-actualizing people?

 

  1. Research on the relationship between academic self-concept and achievement suggests that

 

  1. If you wanted your instructional activities to be consistent with current research findings on the relationship between academic self-concept and achievement, you would

 

  1. How can technology increase students’ intrinsic motivation?

 

Ch. 12

  1. Which of the following teacher statements would most likely allow students to better understand the need for classroom rules and encourage them to behave appropriately?

 

  1. Which of the following suggests that the student who makes it is under the influence of the ripple effect?

 

  1. If you’re impressed by Kounin’s concept of withitness, you should try to

 

  1. Mr. Germane is delivering a science lecture as the phone in the classroom rings.  He quickly asks the class a question and directs them to write their answer on a sheet of paper.  He answers the phone on the fourth ring, takes care of the needs of the caller, and then turns his attention back to the class.  Kounin would say that this is an example of

 

  1. Which of the following teachers seems most aware of the importance of momentum in class activities?

 

  1. If you take into account Kounin's observations on class management, you are most likely to keep a class alert and involved if you

 

  1. If you follow Kounin's recommendations for handling disruptive behavior, you would say to misbehaving students,

 

  1. Effective teachers usually

 

  1. If you are teaching high school, which of the following should you not consider in an effort to manage the behavior of your students?

 

  1. If you must criticize a student, you should

 

  1. Which of the following statements accurately describes the incidence of violence in American public schools?

 

  1. Which of the following best reflects the essence of a classroom management program called the Good Behavior Game?

 

  1. Programs like resolving conflict creatively and peer mentoring place much of the responsibility for reducing violent and disruptive behavior in schools on

 

 

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