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Homework answers / question archive / 1)At a fundamental level, medical technology deals with               a

1)At a fundamental level, medical technology deals with               a

Health Science

1)At a fundamental level, medical technology deals with              

a.            production of new equipment to provide more advanced health care.         

b.            the application of knowledge produced by biomedical research.   

c.             using discoveries made in basic sciences to improve health care. 

d.            new drugs and devices.


2.            What is the main advantage of interoperability within an electronic health records (EHR) system?              

a.            Information can be transmitted over the Internet.          

b.            Information can be safeguarded.       

c.             Information can be coordinated with clinical practice guidelines. 

d.            Information can be shared between physicians, pharmacists, and hospitals.


3.            The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requires  

a.            large health care organizations to switch to electronic health records.        

b.            protection of personal medical information.    

c.             nondisclosure of personal health information. 

d.            nontransmittal of individual health information over the Internet.


4.            Telemedicine technology that allows a specialist located at a distance to directly interview and examine a patient is referred to as    

a.            telehealth             

b.            simultaneous        

c.             analogous             

d.            synchronous


5.            The asynchronous form of telemedicine uses_____ technology.    

a.            store-and-forward

b.            access-when-needed           

c.             delayed-access

d.            forward-and-retrieve


6.            The expectations that Americans have about what medical technology can do to cure illness is based on

a.            the technological imperative             

b.            cultural beliefs and values  

c.             a higher rate of technology diffusion in the US compared to other countries              

d.            medical specialization


7.            What is the main intent of the Stark laws?       

a.            Require that personal health information be kept confidential      

b.            Require demonstration of cost-efficiency of new technology         

c.             Prohibit self-referral by physicians to facilities in which they have an ownership interest          

d.            Disclosure of potential harm from a procedure or device


8.            Supply-side rationing.          

a.            Curtailment in governing funding for medical research  

b.            Managed care      

c.             Curtailment in payments for new technology

d.            Central planning


9.            Certain allergy medications containing pseudoephedrine are available without prescription, but must be kept behind the pharmacy counter and sold only in limited quantities upon verification of a person's identity. 

a.            Food and Drugs Act, 1906   

b.            Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938  

c.             Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962        

d.            Patriot Act 2006


10.          The FDA was given the authority to review the effectiveness and safety of a new drug before it could be marketed.             

a.            Food and Drugs Act, 1906   

b.            Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992

c.             Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962        

d.            Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938


11.          This law was criticized for slowing down the introduction of new drugs.      

a.            Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992

b.            Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962        

c.             Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, 1997 

d.            Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938


12.          This law provided incentives for pharmaceutical firms to develop new drugs for health problems that affected a relatively small number of people.          

a.            Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992

b.            Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962        

c.             Orphan Drug Act, 1983       

d.            Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, 1997


13.          This made additional resources available to the FDA, and resulted in a shortened approval process for new drugs.      

a.            Kefauver-Harris Drug Amendments, 1962        

b.            Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, 1997 

c.             Orphan Drug Act, 1983       

d.            Prescription Drug User Fee Act, 1992


14.          The most stringent requirements of premarket approval regarding safety and effectiveness apply to _____ devices  

a.            Class I    

b.            Class II   

c.             Class III  

d.            Class IV


15.          The Safe Medical Devices Act, 1990 requires   

a.            that injuries, illness, or death from any device be reported.          

b.            premarket approval of devices.         

c.             safety testing of devices before and after they have been marketed            

d.            that all problems and potential problems be reported to the FDA.


16.          What was the purpose of certificate of need (CON) laws.              

a.            Monitor the diffusion of new technology.         

b.            Control the flow of federal funds for private projects     

c.             Control new health service programs

d.            Control new construction and modernization projects


17.          Which department of the DHHS supports research on health care quality, cost, and access?    

a.            National Institutes of Health

b.            Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

c.             Institute of Medicine           

d.            American Health Quality Assocation


18.          What is the main function of the National Institutes of Health?     

a.            Conduct and support research on health care quality, cost, and access        

b.            Establish medical subspecialties in US medical schools   

c.             Provide specialized training for medical specialists         

d.            Conduct and support biomedical research


19.          Which area of personal health expenditures has seen the greatest rise in recent years?           

a.            Long-term care    

b.            Hospital services  

c.             Prescription drugs

d.            Durable medical equipment


20.          According to the Institute of Medicine, the rise in prescription drug costs is mainly attributed to           

a.            price inflation       

b.            increased use of existing drugs          

c.             research and development costs        

d.            replacement of older drugs by newer ones


21.          Evaluation of the appropriateness of medical technology.             

a.            Cost-effectiveness

b.            Health technology assessment           

c.             Clinical trial          

d.            Efficacy


22.          In technology assessment, what role do clinical trials play?           

a.            They are used for experimentation with potentially useful drugs   

b.            They are used for establishing the rights of participants 

c.             They are used for determining cost-effectiveness           

d.            They are used for evaluating efficacy and safety


23.          What is the role of an institutional review board (IRB)?  

a.            Establish guidelines for the method of conducting research           

b.            Verify the results of clinical trials      

c.             Approve and monitor research that involves human subjects         

d.            All of the above


24.          Usefulness of a new technology.        

a.            Quality

b.            Appropriateness   

c.             Assessment           

d.            Efficacy


25.          Cost-efficiency evaluates marginal benefits in relation to              

a.            marginal safety    

b.            marginal costs      

c.             flat of the curve    

d.            outcomes




26.          Generally, at the start of medical treatment    

a.            benefits exceed costs          

b.            cost-efficiency is minimum 

c.             costs exceed benefits          

d.            safety is not a major concern


27.          The point at which marginal benefits equal marginal costs.           

a.            Flat of the curve   

b.            Minimum cost-efficiency    

c.             Optimum point     

d.            Equal intensity


28.          At the flat of the curve,       

a.            marginal benefits are zero  

b.            marginal costs are the highest           

c.             additional medical treatment is harmful          

d.            maximum cost-efficiency is achieved


29.          Health technology assessment in the US is conducted primarily by

a.            various government agencies            

b.            the NIH  

c.             the FDA  

d.            the private sector


30.          What main purpose do Clinical Practice Guidelines serve?

a.            They ensure that services delivered are cost effective    

b.            They coordinate the delivery of health care between different practitioners              

c.             They assist practitioners in adopting a best practice approach      

d.            They provide incentives for using standard protocols



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